LD-2 & Slab Caster
• concerned with producing different grades of
• Exs: automobile body application (including
exposed) ,sheets for white goods ,LPG
cylinders ,Tube Making, High tensile plates
• Has 3 units
• Primary Steel Making
• Secondary Steel Making
• Casts slabs with the material received
Primary Steel Making
molten steel primary refined steel
Hot metal from Blast furnaces brought in using
unloaded in hot metal ladles (170 T) at the torpedo
Unit – 3 Nos.
Capacity – 30 heats/DS/day
Co-injection process –
CaC2 & Mag97 injection
Unit – 3 Nos.
Slag raked off initially
and after the DS Operation
Unit – 3 Nos. (2/3 Vessel in Operation)
Capacity – 38 Heats/day/Converter
Total Charge (Hot Metal +
The impurities (C, Si, P,
Mn) are removed by
blowing Oxygen through
a Six hole lance at
Steel is tapped in a steel ladle capacity 160T, necessary
additions are made with argon rinsing from top lance.
Unit – 3 Nos. Capacity –80 heats;
with 94 to 98% metal in mould
casting of molten iron into slabs
of definite dimensions as required
by different customers.
Process of casting :
Turrets - To accept full ladle & to hold the ladle above tundish during
Driven by means of D.C. Motor
The ladle is equipped with a hydraulically controlled slide gate system.
Refractory tube shrouds - high Alumina graphite.
Mould - open-ended box structure, containing a water-cooled inner
lining casted and machined from a high purity copper alloy
Tapered to compensate for the shrinkage of the shell
Oscillator provides necessary movement of the mould to prevent
sticking of the strand shell to copper plates .
OVERVIEW OF SLAB CASTER
Mould – 900 mm (Copper coated mould, open ended, Indirect Cooling),
oscillated by motor driven cams to reduce mould strand adhesion and the risk of
RAM – Width change online 10 mm/min/side. The adjustment could be made
either by electromechanically or hydraulically. The mould taper adjusted by gear
Sec. Cooling – Spray type (Air Mist)
Section size – 950-1550 mm Wide;
210 mm Thick
Slab Length – 8-11 m
Slab Cutting – TCM (uses propane gas)
PINCH ROLL – Inserting dummy
bar and withdrawal during casting.
DUMMY BAR – Provides base in the
Mould Before casting & withdraw slab.
automatic tracking of
inspection of slab is
done and surface
defects if any,
removed by scarfing
Hot Strip Mill
a part of FP division
converts slabs supplied by LD2 & Slab Caster into Hot
Rolled Coils, Sheets and Plates
Reduces the thickness of coils from 210 mm to about 1.2-16
Walking Beam Furnace
Re-heating the slabs
Mixed gas – coke oven+ BF gas+ LD gas
Calorific value 2700
Slab support and
movement inside the
furnace through skids.
Four different zones of
Designed to heat till 1250oC.
High Pressure Descalers
• High pressure water jets applied
to remove scale formed on the
metal surface during heating
and rolling process.
Main mill equipment
A set of vertical rolls installed ahead of roughing mill to
control the strip width.
4 Hi Reversing Roughing Mill
Reduces thickness from 210mm to 20-40mm
an equipment which converts the flat transfer bar into
coil and uncoil for feeding into Finishing mills
Temperature – homogenisation.
Reduces loss of heat of transfer bar between roughing
and finishing mill.
Roll the strip
to a thickness
Run Out Table
To carry the strip to Down Coiler.
Cool the strip to
at pre-defined cooling
rate with Laminar flow
of water from top
serves to centre the strip before it enters the coiler.
Cold Rolling Mill
a part of the FP division
converts hot rolled coils (HR) into cold rolled
(CRCA) and Galvanized coils
Reduces the thickness of coils from 2-6mm to
Process Flow :
After this the material is
either coated in continuous
galvanizing line (CGL) or to
CRCA (cold rolled close
Coupled Pickling and
tandem cold mill where HCl
pickling is done followed by
5-6HI rolls to reduce the
Hot rolled coil from HSM is
brought into CRM for cold
CGL - 1 CGL - 2 CRCA
Skin Pass Mill is for giving shape and
surface finish to the product.
In BAF the material is heated and
then converted to the desired shape.
Those which come from ECL are
treated with alkali to remove iron
fines from the surface.
From CRCA the material is sent
directly to BAF or via ECL. CRCA
business objective :
‘Improve product quality performance as per needs of the
reduce non compliance on products and improve process
capability to meet customer’s expectations
LD#3 & TSCR
is an integrated department in TATA STEEL
has a capacity of 2.4 mtpa.
relatively new plant which was established in Feb 2012.
• Sulphur decreases
ductility and notch
especially in the
reasons ‘S’ removal
Primary Steel Making
• Scrap Charging
• Hot Metal
• Oxygen Blowing
and Flux addition
• Slag Off
• Slag Wash
• Sample and
Twin Ladle furnace
one unit two ladle stands
are placed side by side
common arcing facility
bottom purging process
Thin Slab Casting
Less cost as
Less number of segments
No slab yard and cross transfer
roller table car
No Deburrer and marking
machine at caster
No roughing mill
Less equipment so lesser
receive thin slab from respective casters
heat up the thin slab for uniform rolling temperature
and conveys it from each caster line exit to the rolling
Entry roller table
convey slab from furnace exit to mill entry.
Chopping of the thin slab in case of failures in the
to remove scales from strip before it is rolled
For the descaling process the strip is transported at a
constant speed through this box.
six four high finishing
two work rolls and two
back up rolls.
reduced to final thickness
Use Safety Appliances – Safety
boots, helmet, fire- proof jacket
Beware of overhead cranes
moving with load.
Maintain safe distance from
mobile equipments trucks,
cranes, dumpers etc.
Be careful of spilled oil ,
grease on shop floor.
Do not go in furnace area
without an escort.
Use crossovers for crossing