Citation workshop orientation

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This slide show discusses APA style citation for academic papers, and how to avoid plagiarism.

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Citation workshop orientation

  1. 1. Citation Workshop Citing Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism inspire a world of good WHEELOCK COLLEGE - SINGAPORE
  2. 2. Citation basics • Why we cite sources – Avoid plagiarism – Give proper credit – intellectual property – Allow readers to verify quotations and follow up • What we must cite – Direct quotes, facts and figures that are not common knowledge; images; ideas and theories. All must be cited whether they are in published or unpublished works, or in print or electronic format inspire a world of good WHEELOCK COLLEGE - SINGAPORE
  3. 3. Citation standards • There are citations in text and in the reference section – they must match but format is different • Wheelock - and the field of ECE - use APA style • Many online ‘cheat-sheets’ and help tutorials: – http://www.apastyle.org/learn/tutorials/basics-tutorial.aspx – https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ – http://wiki.ubc.ca/images/6/6f/Apastyle.pdf – http://www.apastyle.org – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nzOoUF5H6uA inspire a world of good WHEELOCK COLLEGE - SINGAPORE
  4. 4. Common Citation Examples • Books – Bloom, D., Craig, P., & Malaney, P. (2000). The quality of life in rural Asia. London: Oxford University Press. – Author, A. A., & Author, B.B. (date). Book title. Place of Publication: Publisher. In text citations. You must cite authors in the body of your paper, not just in the reference section at the end. But do make sure that everything you quote in the text also appears in the reference section and vice versa. Depending on how you are using the work of another author(s) to enhance your argument, the form of citation varies a little, depending on whether it is a direct quote or not. Remember all direct quotes over two words must be in quotation marks and the page number cited. Examples: Bloom, Craig and Malaney (2000) argued that many factors affect the quality of life for families and individuals in rural Asian communities including income level, access to education and health care, presence of infrastructure, and social capital. OR Many authors have noted that income alone is not a good measure of well-being (Sen, 1976; Bloom, Craig & Malaney, 2000) if the first citation and (Sen, 1976; Bloom et al., 2000) for subsequent citations. Note that a semi-colon ; separates the different works. OR Globalization has had numerous unforseen consequences such as ‘making the rural-urban divide much less fixed and definable’ (Bloom et al., 2000, p. 212) suggesting the need to rethink policies designed to address rural development. inspire a world of good WHEELOCK COLLEGE - SINGAPORE
  5. 5. Common Citation Examples • Chapters in Edited Book Volumes – Bloom, D.E., Craig, P. & Mitchell, M. (2000). Public and private roles in providing and financing social services: Health and education. In Y. Wang (Ed.) Public private partnerships in the social sector: Issues and country experiences in Asia and the Pacific (17-29). Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute. – Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (date). Title of chapter or section. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of the chapter referred to). Place of publication: Publisher. • Journal Articles – Cooksey, E., & Craig, P. (1998). Parenting from a distance: The effects of paternal characteristics on contact between nonresidential fathers and their children. Demography, 35, 187–201. – Author, A., & Author, B. (date). Article title. Journal name. number. start page-end page. BUT now that more journals are produced online, sometimes exclusively so, more recent articles must also include the DOI (Digital Object Identifier), which is usually found at the bottom of the first page of the article. It would appear in your reference section as: – Lynch, J., & Redpath, T. (2014). ‘Smart’ technologies in early years literacy education: A meta-narrative of paradigmatic tensions in iPad use in an Australian preparatory classroom. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy. 14: 147-174. doi:10.1177/1468798412453150 – Author, A., & Author, B. (date). Article title. Journal name. number. start page-end page. doi: – Tip: When you have the doi, you can find the article simply by going to http://doi.org/doi# such as http://doi.org/10.1177/1468798412453150 inspire a world of good WHEELOCK COLLEGE - SINGAPORE
  6. 6. Common Citation Examples • Newspaper articles – Craig, T. (2012, December 4). Boost pre-school quality by focusing on teacher training. The Straits Times, p A29. – Author, A. (Year, Month date). Article title. Newspaper Name, p Section page • Blog posts – McAdoo, T. (2010, March 25). How to cite direct quotations [web log post]. Retrieved from http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/03/how-to-cite-direct-quotations.html – Author, A. (Year, Month date). Post title [web log post]. Retrieved from URL • Videos – USF Libraries. (2013, January 29). Quick guide to APA style 6th edition [video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nzOoUF5H6uA – Author, A. (Year, Month date). Video title [video file]. Retrieved from URL inspire a world of good WHEELOCK COLLEGE - SINGAPORE
  7. 7. Group Exercise: How would you cite the following? - The book: - An article on decoding in reading that opens with a discussion of it - A Boston Magazine blog from last October about the MWFD statue - The online photo: inspire a world of good WHEELOCK COLLEGE - SINGAPORE
  8. 8. Make Way for Ducklings citations The book: McCloskey, R. (1941). Make way for ducklings. New York: The Viking Press. inspire a world of good WHEELOCK COLLEGE - SINGAPORE
  9. 9. Make Way for Ducklings citations An article on decoding in reading that opens with a discussion of it: Two possible answers. Why? Beck, I.L., & Juel, C. (2002). The role of decoding in learning to read. Scholastic Red. Retrieved from http://www.scholastic.com/dodea/Module_2/resources/dodea_m2_pa_r oledecod.pdf Beck, I.L., & Juel, C. (1995). The role of decoding in learning to read. American Educator, 19, 21-25; 39-42. inspire a world of good WHEELOCK COLLEGE - SINGAPORE
  10. 10. Make Way for Ducklings citations A Boston Magazine blog from last October about the MWFD statue: Tripp, M. (2013, October 11). Make way for Gronklings [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.bostonmagazine.com/news/blog/2013/10/11/make- way-for-ducklings-rob-gronkowski-gear-gronklings/ Why is Gronklings capitalized? inspire a world of good WHEELOCK COLLEGE - SINGAPORE
  11. 11. Make Way for Ducklings citations The online photo: Owen, G. (n.d.). Make way for ducklings statue [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Make_Way_for_Ducklings#mediavi ewer/File:Make_way_for_ducklings_statue.jpg How do I know who the author is? inspire a world of good WHEELOCK COLLEGE - SINGAPORE
  12. 12. AVOIDING PLAGIARISM Part II inspire a world of good WHEELOCK COLLEGE - SINGAPORE
  13. 13. Avoiding plagiarism • Why do people plagiarize? – Fear: worry that their own ideas aren’t good enough – Time management: run out of time to do the work – Inadvertent: they don’t do it on purpose • Different kinds of writing more likely • Poor record keeping • Simply don’t know what must be cited or how to do it. inspire a world of good WHEELOCK COLLEGE - SINGAPORE
  14. 14. Examples of Plagiarism • Using another author’s ideas without citing the source • Handing in a paper written by a friend • Buying a paper on the Internet • Paying someone to write a paper and handing it in as your own • Copying-and-pasting information from the Internet or another source without properly citing the author • Inadequately paraphrasing a source so that the wording is too close to the original • Self-plagiarism: using work you have handed in for another course, either at Wheelock or elsewhere, without specific permission from professor Source for 1-6: http://grad.msu.edu/researchintegrity/docs/Plagiarism_Avoiding_Unintentional_Plagiarism.pdf inspire a world of good WHEELOCK COLLEGE - SINGAPORE
  15. 15. Different kinds of writing • Reflective writing – Often you are asked to reflect on a reading or an experience. There the source material is your own thoughts but even there, you may use citation as when you reflect that something reminds you of something you read and you put a citation in for the book or article. • Journal writing – Good practice to use quotations even when presenting something a child has said. • Analytic writing – Analytic writing is different from descriptive writing. It requires you to pull together ideas from numerous sources, evaluate them and present them in a way that gives us a new understanding about the way things work. It is not merely describing what authors say (that's descriptive) but rather is the product of your own critical thinking. inspire a world of good WHEELOCK COLLEGE - SINGAPORE
  16. 16. Poor note-taking and record keeping Famed historian Doris Kearns Goodwin was accused of plagiarising section of one of her books. She said: “Though my footnotes repeatedly cited Ms. McTaggart's work, I failed to provide quotation marks for phrases that I had taken verbatim.... The larger question for those of us who write history is to understand how citation mistakes can happen.”1 Harvard Law Professor Charles Ogletree was found to have plagiarized 6 paragraphs in his book, All Deliberate Speed. He said, “I made a serious mistake during the editorial process of completing this book, and delegated too much responsibility to others during the final editing process.”2 inspire a world of good WHEELOCK COLLEGE - SINGAPORE 1 From Time Magazine, cited in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doris_Kearns_Goodwin 2 From Marks, S. M. (2004, September 13). Ogletree faces discipline for copying text. The Crimson, retrieved from http://www.thecrimson.com/article/2004/9/13/ogletree-faces- discipline-for-copying-text/
  17. 17. It can destroy careers when it calls character into question Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg Annette Schavan inspire a world of good WHEELOCK COLLEGE - SINGAPORE
  18. 18. Inadvertent • Must cite direct quotes –anything over two words – from a source using quotation marks (“text”) and a page number in an in-text cite. – If you use direct words and only use a general citation, it is still plagiarism. Globalization has had numerous unforeseen consequences such as ‘making the rural-urban divide much less fixed and definable’ (Bloom et al., 2000, p. 212) suggesting the need to rethink policies designed to address rural development. Globalization has had numerous unforeseen consequences such as making the rural-urban divide much less fixed and definable suggesting the need to rethink policies designed to address rural development. (Bloom et al., 2000) This would be considered plagiarism. Why? inspire a world of good WHEELOCK COLLEGE - SINGAPORE
  19. 19. Much of the problem come from paraphrasing Paraphrasing is when you take someone else’s idea and express them in your own words. Original Text: “The most effective way to write a paraphrase is to read the original passage, the passage aside, and then compose your own restatement of the materials in the passage” (Rosen, 2006, p.16). APA style example of a paraphrased sentence: One recommended method for paraphrasing is to read the text of interest, step away from the materials, and later restate the materials in your own words (Rosen, 2006). Example of a PLAGIARIZED paraphrase: The best way to write a paraphrase is to read the source passage, put it aside, and then write your own statement of the ideas in the original (Rosen, 2006). This example is plagiarized because the wording of the paraphrase is too close to the wording of the original. It is important to completely change the wording and the sentence structure whenever possible of an original source in order to avoid plagiarism. This example comes from: http://grad.msu.edu/researchintegrity/docs/Plagiarism_Avoiding_Unintentional_Plagiarism.pdf p. 4 inspire a world of good WHEELOCK COLLEGE - SINGAPORE
  20. 20. More on paraphrasing (from MIT) Paraphrase: To paraphrase is to put the ideas in a passage into our own words, usually following the order in which the ideas were presented in the original. All major ideas are included. Usually a paraphrase is a bit shorter than the original, but when terms or concepts have to be defined, a paraphrase might actually be longer. Any paraphrase requires the same kind of citation as an exact quotation. (meaning author, date and page number and it must be clear what the boundaries between that and your own contribution are.) There are only three good reasons for paraphrasing: • Translating technical material into simpler language for a lay audience • Paraphrasing because a professor has explicitly requested that you do so • “Translating” a poem into simpler language so that we can understand where the ambiguities lie (and this type of paraphrase rarely makes it into our papers at Wheelock) The material on this slide is taken directly from : http://cmsw.mit.edu/writing-and-communication-center/avoiding-plagiarism/ Note this well: There is rarely a good reason for paraphrasing and you should avoid it. inspire a world of good WHEELOCK COLLEGE - SINGAPORE
  21. 21. What about things that are common knowledge – do I cite them? • Broadly speaking, common knowledge refers to information that the average, educated reader would accept as reliable without having to look it up. This includes: • Information that most people know, such as that water freezes at 0 degrees Centigrade or that Lee Kwan Yew was founding PM* • Information shared by a cultural or national group, such as the names of famous heroes or events in the nation’s history that are remembered and celebrated. • Knowledge shared by members of a certain field, such as the zone of proximal development is the Vygotskian idea of the distance between a child’s actual development and potential development when guided by adults or by collaboration with slightly more developed peers. • *However, what may be common knowledge in one culture, nation, academic discipline or peer group may not be common knowledge in another. • When in doubt, provide a citation. Adapted from: http://integrity.mit.edu/citing-your-sources/what-common-knowledge inspire a world of good WHEELOCK COLLEGE - SINGAPORE
  22. 22. How do I know if it’s plagiarism? Cornell University has a very useful tutorial online: • https://plagiarism.arts.cornell.edu/tutorial/ex ercises.cfm Take the tutorial and if you miss any of the examples, go back and review them until you are comfortable that you understand them. inspire a world of good WHEELOCK COLLEGE - SINGAPORE

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