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Public Mass Transit (PMT) Services and Commuters’ Satisfaction

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ABSTRACT

This paper considers commuters’ satisfaction with public mass transit (PMT) services in Kogi State, Nigeria. The work is propelled by the practical absence of previous research efforts in the area, particularly as it affects the commuters in the grassroots. Taking in a multi-stage sampling technique, the study used a sample of 601 commuters and 70 of both employees and management staff drawn from six different public mass transit outfits operating in Kogi State, Nigeria, by both the state government and the local government areas of the province. Data was collected from commuters, contact personnel and management staff. The survey disclosed that there is a substantial deviation between the case of mass transit outfit commuter patronize and their level of gratification with the avails of the PMT. The survey concludes that commuters, generally, are not satisfied with the avails of the public mass transit in Nigeria. Established on the findings, the study recommended among others improved funding of these PMTs and the desegregation of other modalities of transportation for effective service delivery.

Keywords: Consumer-Satisfaction, Service-Quality, Dimensionality of Service Quality.

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Public Mass Transit (PMT) Services and Commuters’ Satisfaction

  1. 1. Triple A Research Journal of Social Science and Humanity (JSSH) | Vol.2 No.2 | July 2018 Triple A Research Journal of Social Science and Humanity (ISSN: 2636-5472) Vol.2(2): 048 - 059, July 2018 Available online: http://www.triplearesjournal.org/jssh Copyright ©2018 Triple A Research Journal Full Length Research Paper Public Mass Transit (PMT) Services and Commuters’ Satisfaction Dr. Anthony Abiodun Eniola* and Dr. Duro Dada Department of Business Administration, Achievers University Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria *Corresponding Author: Dr. Anthony Abiodun Eniola Department of Business Administration, Achievers University Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria Email address: eniola.anthony@achievers.edu.ng ABSTRACT This paper considers commuters’ satisfaction with public mass transit (PMT) services in Kogi State, Nigeria. The work is propelled by the practical absence of previous research efforts in the area, particularly as it affects the commuters in the grassroots. Taking in a multi-stage sampling technique, the study used a sample of 601 commuters and 70 of both employees and management staff drawn from six different public mass transit outfits operating in Kogi State, Nigeria, by both the state government and the local government areas of the province. Data was collected from commuters, contact personnel and management staff. The survey disclosed that there is a substantial deviation between the case of mass transit outfit commuter patronize and their level of gratification with the avails of the PMT. The survey concludes that commuters, generally, are not satisfied with the avails of the public mass transit in Nigeria. Established on the findings, the study recommended among others improved funding of these PMTs and the desegregation of other modalities of transportation for effective service delivery. Keywords: Consumer-Satisfaction, Service-Quality, Dimensionality of Service Quality. INTRODUCTION On that point is no gainsaying that transportation plays a critical part in the evolution of any society and the economic system. Even in the Stone Age when economic activities were less advanced, man still felt the need to go from space to localize. Though, the manner of transport then was purely on foot, as a culture and economic activities increased the demand for a more advanced style of transportation became apparent. Hence man graduated from the use of foot to animals such as horse, donkey and camel, while in the riverine areas, canoes and boats were common. As innovation and technology improved, the transport sector evolved. There is advancement from the utilisation of animals as a modal value of transportation using bicycles to the present jet age. These various advancement and progress in the mode of transportation have had their multiplier effects on the society and the economic impact. This is witnessed in the improved living standard through high transformation of economic and social life. Both the economic and social life has continued to be linked up to some extent, to the apron of transportation. Transportation facilitates contact and interaction among peoples of various cultures, thereby helping in the spread of ideas and the betterment of international sympathy and cooperation. Effective transportation system would create the trend of both masses and materials easy. This would improve the entire mass of goods available from the principal sector of the economic system to the other sectors and vice-versa. The significance of this is that goods hitherto unavailable would be set up at the door steps of users, improved productivity (GDP), and availability of all necessities of life and
  2. 2. Triple A Research Journal of Social Science and Humanity (JSSH) | Vol.2 No.2 | July 2018 049 Triple A Res. J. Soc. Sci. Human. therefore, improved well-being of the citizenry. Transportation facilities, contact among peoples of diverse culture, thereby assisting in the spread of idea and international savvy and cooperation. It is in acknowledgement of these diverse benefits of transportation that governments, irrespective of their political ideologies attach high importance to their transportation sector. These indisputable benefits derivable from an efficient shipping system and the inspiration drawn from the developed societies led to the organization of the Federal Urban Mass Transit Programme by the Nigerian government in January 1988. This plan was subsequently taken by both the State and Local Governments throughout the nation. This is targeted at relieving the distress of the citizenry through meeting their transport demands. The transport sector, which supposed to be one of the vehicles of economic development, has, paradoxically, turned out to be one of the cogs in the wheel of economic progress of Nigeria. The poor circulation of people and goods, no doubt, has negative effects on productivity, worsens inflationary trends, thereby fixing the cost of necessities prohibitive to the coarse adult male. In Nigeria, the economic down-turn, inflationary pressures, depreciating value of the currency (Naira) coupled with the wretched state of the mesh of roads in the utmost few years have trimmed the number of private and commercial vehicles, while the existing ones cannot be adequately defended. This unsatisfactory state of personal business in the transport sector has contributed all the three levels of government to step up efforts in the Mass Transit Programme. Nevertheless, the sector is beset with myriad of troubles among which are: -Accessibility Problem which is apparent in the long queue usually experienced in cities by commuters, especially during festive periods such as the Christmas due to limited supply of these vehicles. Another visible problem is the frequent breakdown of vehicles causing delay in commuters reaching their goals, while cases of inconveniences/discomfort suffered by commuters because of overcrowding/overloading of vehicles and poor condition of vehicles have been described. Management problem because of excessive government interference and corruption is also a usual happening. However, another problem is a safety problem evident in most roads mishaps usually caused by ill- maintenance of vehicles and partly by poor driving habits of drivers. Again, poor Social/Economic infrastructure such as the hapless state of Nigerian roads and poor or absence of motor parks for these vehicles is rampant. In malice of these problems, it is the opinion of some researchers that the mass transit plan could even help alleviate commuters’ problems through the supplying of the efficient transport services and thus solve the shipping demands of the people. The question that agitates the researcher’s mind is “what are the attributes of transportation service that contribute to commuters’ satisfaction and which would in turn contribute to the development of the public mass transit plan in Nigeria? The primary aim of this survey is to carry an in-depth survey of the commuters’ satisfaction in the public-sector transport organisation in Nigeria. Specifically, the work tries to accomplish the following objectives: To investigate and identify the transport service attributes that contributes to the satisfaction of commuters. To identify the strategic and operational features of the Mass Transit Agencies that contribute to the determination of the quality of service offered. To consider the problems militating against the provision of quality service to commuters. To highlight any other relevant findings from the survey. Hypothesis 1. Ho: There is no significant difference between the gender characteristics of commuters and their degree of satisfaction with safety/security of public mass transit. 2. Ho: There is no significant difference between the type of public mass transit commuters patronize and their degree of satisfaction with the services of PMT: A wide range of transport services are provided commercially by the private and the public sectors in Nigeria. Road, air and water all have the presence of government and private individuals/corporate bodies. This study shall be limited to bus transportation service for intercity purposes and originating from Kogi state and Local Government Headquarters across the various chosen destinations within Nigeria. Specifically, Kogi State, Nigeria and its Local Government mass transit programmes will be the subject of study. Although works on consumer satisfaction abound in the literature, especially in medical and information services, such works are virtually non-existent in the transportation services. Even where such works are carried out, none has been found to consider the plight of the grassroots’ commuters’ majority of who are located at the Local Government Areas. This study sets to fill these gaps. The following are expected to benefit from the study: Transport Operatives/Management: Both the private and public commercial transporters will find the study useful. It will provide information on service attributes that contribute to the satisfaction of their customers. This will form the basis for their competitive strategy formulation. Commuters: The study will serve as a catalyst in the alleviation of suffering they encounter with the transport operators as they (commuters) will now assume their position as Kings in the market through the expected improved transport service which this study will enhance. Prospective Researchers: Prospective Researchers both in this field and other related fields will find the study useful. The National Institute of Transport Technology and other individual researchers can build upon this study. Government: The study will be useful to all tiers of government in the formulation of transport policies and for planning purposes. Finally, the desire to contribute to frontiers of knowledge and understanding of
  3. 3. Triple A Research Journal of Social Science and Humanity (JSSH) | Vol.2 No.2 | July 2018 Eniola and Dada 050 the concepts of Consumer Satisfaction and Service Quality is a motivating factor for this study. LITERATURE REVIEW The concept of consumer satisfaction and models proposed to explain the development of consumer satisfaction are relevant to this study. Also, the concept of service quality and dimensionality of service quality form the major conceptual/theoretical framework of this study. The examination of mass transit in the United States and Public transport in Malaysia completes the section. Consumer or customer satisfaction, or lack of it has been defined as “the difference between how a customer expects to be treated and how he or she perceives being treated” (Mejabi, 2006) quoting Davidow and Uttal; or as a person’s feelings of pleasure or disappointment resulting from comparing a product’s perceived performance or outcome in relation to her expectation (Kotler, 2002). Mowen (1995) defines consumer satisfaction as “the overall attitude regarding a good or service after its acquisition and use”. The concept of consumer or customer satisfaction is often discussed in relation to quality. Customer satisfaction is said to be a key objective or a product of quality and it could be argued that customer satisfaction, in essence, defines quality (Rice, 1997) because customers, where ever they are, want satisfaction (Cole, 1997, 2006) and organizations should aim to ‘delight’ the customers by delivering more than was expected (Kotler, 2002). In any service organization such as the transportation service, the need to improve or enhance service quality is a serious business. This is because it is through service quality that customer satisfaction can be enhanced while satisfied customers are the prime determinant of sustainable competitive advantage for such organization. Models of Consumer Satisfaction Several models have been proposed to explain the development of consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction (CS/D). These approaches are: Expectancy Disconfirmation Theory, Equity Theory, Attribution Theory, Actual Product or Service Performance, and Experientially- based Affect Theory. • The expectancy disconfirmation theory developed in the 1970s, defines CS/D as the evaluation rendered that the experience was at least as good as it was supposed to be (Mowen, 1995). The expectancy disconfirmation model is the basis of the expectation – performance model of satisfaction and service quality. These expectations are compared to actual performance, and if performance falls below expectations, emotional dissatisfaction results; if performance is above expectation, emotional satisfaction results; if performance is not perceived as different from expectancies, expectancy confirmation results. • Equity theory holds that people analyse the ratio of their inputs and outcomes to the ratio of the inputs and outcomes of others in an exchange. Dissatisfaction is proposed to result when the person perceives that his or her ratio is unfavourable in relation to the other member of the exchange. The theme of equity theory is that each party to an exchange should be treated equitably or fairly (Adeleke, 2001). • Attribution theory is concerned with how people identify the causes for action. The attributions that people make have been known to moderate feelings of CS/D. For example, in a study of the wait experience with airlines experiencing problems of delayed flights, evidence was found that consumer evaluations were influenced by the attributions made (Taylor, 1994). When the attribution was made to uncontrollable situational factors such as the weather or mechanical problems, anger tended not to result. However, when the cause of delay was associated with stable factors such as the actions of airline personnel over whom the airline had control, anger and dissatisfaction tended to occur (Mowen, 1999). • Actual performance of product or service has been found by researchers to be a strong influence on consumer satisfaction. It was also found that the satisfaction is independent of the expectations consumers hold, matters of equity and attributions they make; because even if the person fully expected poor performance, dissatisfaction would still occur if the product or service in fact performed poorly. • Experientially-based affect theory in relation to CS/D is the concept whereby the level of consumer satisfaction may be influenced by the positive or negative feelings that consumers associate with the product or service after experiencing it. It has been found that there could be a set of positive feelings and a set of negative feelings, which were found to be independent of each other, arising from a purchase. Thus, one can experience joy, interest, and excitement while also feeling anger, disgust and contempt. For example, after a hospital experience, an inpatient may feel grateful towards his or her doctor and happy at being well again, while at the same time feel irritated with the surroundings and unhappy with the speed of test results (Mowen, 1995). Relationship between Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality It is generally agreed that the relationship between satisfaction and service quality is a complex issue characterized by confusion about the distinction between the two constructs as well as the casual direction of their relationship. According to researchers such as Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (PZB) (1985), Carman
  4. 4. Triple A Research Journal of Social Science and Humanity (JSSH) | Vol.2 No.2 | July 2018 051 Triple A Res. J. Soc. Sci. Human. (1990), both service quality and consumer satisfaction are concerned with the difference between expectations and perceptions, while Dabholker (1993) poses the question of whether they are two constructs or one. Traditionally, the argument has been in favour of the ‘customer satisfaction leads to service quality’ hypothesis. Researchers like PZB (1994), Teas (1993) have contributed to this debate. Teas, for example, suggest that both service quality and customer satisfaction can be examined meaningfully from both the transaction – specific as well as global perspectives. It was this argument put forward by Teas that PZB (1994) built on when they proposed (1) a transaction- specific conceptualization of the constructs’ interrelationships and (2) a global framework reflecting an aggregation of customers’ evaluation of multiple transactions. The transaction-specific conceptual model posits a customer’s overall satisfaction with a transaction to be dictated by his/her assessment of service quality, product or good quality, and price could be argued to be a predictor of perceived long-term relationship quality. PZB argue that “this conceptualization is consistent with the ‘quality leads to satisfaction’ hypothesis which satisfaction researchers often espouse” (PZB, 1994). The global framework as proposed by PZB shows customers’ global impressions about a firm stemming from an aggregation of transaction experiences. They posit “global impressions to be multifaceted, consisting of customers’ overall satisfaction with the firm as well as their overall perceptions of the firm’s service quality, product quality and price” (PZB, 1994). They argue that this framework, apart from capturing the notion of examining the service quality and consumer satisfaction constructs, is consistent with the ‘satisfaction with specific transaction leads to overall quality’ perceptions school of thought embraced by researchers such as Bitnor, (1992) and Carman, (1990). The term “transaction” in this framework was explained to mean an entire service episode (e.g. a visit to a barber shop) or discrete components of a lengthy interaction between a customer and a firm (e.g. the multiple encounters that a hotel guest could have with hotel staff, facilities and services (PZB, 1994). According to Cronin and Taylor (1994), a useful starting point would be to restrict the domain of service quality to long–term attitudes and that of consumer satisfaction to transaction-specific judgments. Rowley, (2005) is of the view that perceived service quality is a global judgment whereas satisfaction is related to a specific transaction. Thus, the two constructs are related, in that incidents of satisfaction over time, lead to perceptions of good service quality. Relevance of Service Quality Model to Consumer Satisfaction Having discussed the relationship between service quality and consumer satisfaction, it is important to discuss the relevance or application of service quality model to consumer satisfaction. According to Rice, (1997) customer’s satisfaction defines quality. One is then tempted to argue that model on service quality would also be useful in explaining the concept of consumer satisfaction. Again, looking at the expectancy disconfirmation theory of consumer satisfactions or dissatisfaction which is the basis of the expectation-performance model of satisfaction and service quality as espoused by (Mowen, 1995), one is more than comfortable to consider service quality model as very applicable to the concept of consumer satisfaction. Notable among these models is one proposed by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry, (PZB) (1990). The model identifies five gaps that cause unsuccessful service delivery which may result in dissatisfied customers. Gap between consumer expectation and management e.g. Transport Managers may think that commuters want fast service, but commuters may be more concerned with safety. Second Gap look between management perception and service-quality specifications: e.g. Transport Managers may tell the drivers to give fast service without specifying it qualitatively. Third Gap talk is between service-quality specifications and service delivery: The personnel might be poorly trained or incapable of or unwilling to meet the standard. Fourth Gap is between service delivery and external communications: e.g. if a mass transit brochure shows a fleet of luxury vehicles but the commuter arrives and finds the vehicles to be rickety and junk looking, then the external communication has distorted the customer’s expectation. Lastly, the Gap between perceived service and expected service; e.g. the driver may keep on checking the vehicle for safety purposes, but the commuter may interpret this as an indication that something really is wrong. Where there is a gap between the customers’ expectation and perception (i.e. gap 5) the fault may be traced ultimately to one of the four gaps, or a combination of them. This model, because of its unique characteristics in being applicable to both constructs (service quality and consumer satisfaction) is adopted in this study. Dimensionality of Service Quality Dimensions of service quality as cited in Dada, Eniola and Alo (2018), refer to the general criteria by which consumers judge the quality of a service from which their satisfaction or dissatisfaction derives. The authors identifies ten dimensions or attributes of service quality as mentioned by PZB. They are; 1. Tangibles: appearance of physical facilities, equipment and personnel. 2. Reliability: ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately. 3. Responsiveness: Willingness to help customers and provide prompt service. 4. Competence: Possession of the required skills and
  5. 5. Triple A Research Journal of Social Science and Humanity (JSSH) | Vol.2 No.2 | July 2018 Eniola and Dada 052 knowledge to perform the service. 5. Courtesy: Politeness, respect, consideration and friendliness of contact personnel. 6. Credibility: Trustworthiness, believability and honesty of the service provider. 7. Security: freedom from danger, risk and doubt. 8. Access: approachability and ease of contact. 9. Communication: Keeping customers informed in language they can understand and listening to them. 10. Understanding the customer: Making the effort to know customers and their needs. These ten dimensions were later reduced to the following five with the following final definitions: - 1 Tangibles: Appearance of physical facilities, equipment, personnel and communication materials. 2 Reliability: Ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately. 3 Responsiveness: Willingness to help customers and provide prompt service. 4 Assurance: Knowledge and courtesy of employee and their ability to convey trust and confidence. 5 Empathy: Caring individualized attention which the firm provides to its customers. Sasser et al, (1998) identified seven service attributes which may be useful to consider. They are: • Security–confidence as well as physical safety. • Consistency–receiving the same each time. • Attitude–politeness and social manners. • Completeness–ancillary services available • Conditions of facilities–clean, comfortable. • Training–propitious execution, and • Availability –Access, location and frequency. Consumer Satisfaction in The Public Transportation Industry The success of public transportation depends on customer satisfaction attracting and retaining customers to use or support its services. If there are no customers, there is no need for public transportation services. Like to many private sector services, public transit has two types of clients: Consumers – the people who use the service and Stakeholders–the general public who are tax-paying investors in the service Andrle (2004). By understanding and meeting customer expectations for service and product quality, an organization improves its performance. The effects of successfully satisfying customers are realized in at least three areas for transit systems according to Andrle (2004), Ridership Stability – By satisfying and delighting customers, customer loyalty and ridership will increase; New Riders will also be attracted, resulting in increased market share; and Cost reduction – By directing processes and people toward meeting customer expectations, operational costs can be lowered and waste eliminated because certain extraneous activities such as bureaucratic policies and paper work, that are not essential to customers can be stopped. Seven principles for ensuring customer satisfaction in the public transportation system have been suggested by Stephen (2004) and are listed as follows: - Put customer first – know your customers and respond to their expectations. Manage and improve processes – by improving operations, quality of services can be raised. Manage by fact – This requires the use of facts and data, such as market research to achieve customer satisfaction. Cultivate organizational Learning – Without learning, organizations and their members repeat old behaviour and practices which may not meet the changing need of customers. Train, empower and recognize employees – Employees’ value must be protected and enhanced i.e. training employees to identify and solve problems that cause customer dissatisfaction. Improve Labour- Management Teamwork – Customers satisfaction will be difficult to achieve where rancour and grievances between labour and management is the order of the day. Lead the change in Organizational Culture – This means the leadership must be committed to customers’ satisfaction. Existing studies on Commuters Satisfaction with Services Although many work has been carried out on satisfaction in many service environments, particularly with healthcare services, very little research efforts on satisfaction with transportation services were found in the literature. It is the belief of this researcher however; that the problems associated with investigation into satisfaction with services in these areas may be extended to include those service areas where little or no work has been done. Hence, the consideration of the transport service sector in this study. Andrle (1994) in his study of American Private and Public Transportation industry believed that customer satisfaction would be created by process management. He suggested the application of Total Quality Management (TQM) in the transport industry. Of the 172 respondents (out of 590 public transport systems in the United States) 30 Public transport agencies were already using TQM for quality improvement and hence, customers’ satisfaction. Olujide (2000) in his study of commuters’ satisfaction with the urban mass transit services in Nigeria, using Kwara State as case study identified the following as causing dissatisfaction among commuters: poor social infrastructure, particularly the conditions of Nigerian roads, overloading of buses and long delay in arriving destinations among others. Majority of the 250 respondents used for the study were however satisfied with the overall services of Kwara State Transport Corporation. Kasum (2004) in his study of pricing of transport services in Nigeria observed that price is a satisfier. He noted that the pricing policy of government-owned transit systems were not masses-oriented. He observed that the marginal difference in the price charged by government owned transit companies and their private counterparts was because of the union levy charged by the private
  6. 6. Triple A Research Journal of Social Science and Humanity (JSSH) | Vol.2 No.2 | July 2018 053 Triple A Res. J. Soc. Sci. Human. sector. It is this marginal difference in price that do attract commuters to the governments-owned transit systems. Ware and Synder (1995) proposed an operationalization for the patient satisfaction concept. This operationalization measure had eight Likert items which was designed to assess twenty-two dimensions of the satisfaction concept. However, Ware and Sydner found support for four basic factors, namely physician conduct, availability of service, continuity/convenience of care and access to care. Penchansky and Thomas (1997) provided an operation scale to measure the “access” component of patient satisfaction evaluations. They posited that the access component itself is multi-dimensional. A sixteen-item scale was proposed to measure five distinct dimensions, namely, availability, accessibility, accommodation, affordability and acceptability. Using responses from a non-random sample of 287 respondents, Penchansky and Thomas found empirical evidence for the construct validity of the proposed five dimensions of access. Olujide and Badmus (1998) in a study of primary health centres in Ilorin, observed that length of waiting time for services and the frustration of patient for having to see a different Doctor at each appointment contributed to their dissatisfaction with health care services. Adeoti (2007) in his study of selected hospitals in Kwara State identified eight service quality factors which trigger patient satisfaction with the hospital services among which include facilities and employee qualities. Ihimoyan (2009) in his study of Customers Service Management in the Nigerian Banking Industry, identified eight service quality dimensions which are capable of influencing customer satisfaction, namely; service accessibility, service care environment of service production, Technology facility, loans facility, security, attitude of staff and waiting time for service. Adebisi (2009) in his study of selected GSM service providers in Nigerian observed that inconsistency in services as reflected n the number of call-drops and service failures; accessibility problem among others contributed to their dissatisfaction with the telecommunication services in Nigeria. These few studies reviewed above show that work on commuter’s satisfaction are very limited. Also, none has been discovered to consider the effect of geographical spread which this study considers. Again, this study considers more dimensions of service quality from which consumers derive their satisfaction. This study also uses a more sophisticated sampling procedure than the ordinary wisdom sample of respondents used by previous researchers. These are the gaps that this study fills. METHOD A survey of the public-sector transport system was undertaken. Precisely, the Kogi State Transport Company Limited, also known as Kogi Travellers and the mass transit schemes operated by the various local government areas of the State are the units of study. The choice of Kogi State Transport Company (popularly known by its trade mark, ‘Kogi Travellers’ and those of local government areas was predicated on the following reasons: - The state, regarded as the 15th largest in Nigeria with a population of 3,278,487 by 2006 census is strategically located between the North and Southern part of the country. The State does not only share boundaries with some of the major ethnic groups in the country, but also shares social-cultural affinities with them. The Western Senatorial District of the state is dominated by the Yorubas, and shares boundary with the South-West geo- political zone of Nigeria. In the Eastern Senatorial District, it is shares boundary with the Igbo ethnic group while the Central Senatorial District occupied by the Ebiras, and shares boundary with towns in the South-South geo- political zone of the country. Towards the North, the state shares boundaries with the Federal Capital Territory where the Nupes, and the Hausas among, others are located. The strategic location of the State makes it a gateway between the North and Southern part of the country. As such it enjoys the patronage of a large population of commuters from all over the country. The state mass transit scheme (Kogi Travellers) also operates routes which cut across five of the six geo-political zones of the country. The mode of operation in both the State’s Transport Company and the Local Government Mass transit are identical to what is obtainable in other public mass transit outfits in the country. All these factors, the researcher felt, would enhance the representativeness of whatever results come out of the study, and hence, their application to all public mass transit programmes in Nigeria. The study populations from which samples were drawn from All commuters of both state and local government- owned mass transit. The employees of these mass transit outfits as well as the management of the mass transit outfits. A multi-stage sampling method was adopted covering the entire Kogi state with 21 local government areas was stratified into the three senatorial districts which make up the state viz: Central, East and Western Senatorial Districts. In each senatorial district, two public mass transit (PMT) outfits were judgmentally selected. In each of the selected Local Government Mass Transit outfits, one hundred commuters were selected, using convenience/accidental method of sampling as shown in table I. However, two hundred commuters of the Kogi State Transport Company (Kogi Travellers) in Lokoja Local Government Area were sampled because it has a larger number of vehicles in its fleet compared with the local government-owned mass transit counterpart. In essence, six different public mass transit outfits were used for the study, while sampling of commuters was restricted to those who have made at least one trip with the mass transit buses in last one year. This is to ensure that they qualify as consumers of transportation service and that the
  7. 7. Triple A Research Journal of Social Science and Humanity (JSSH) | Vol.2 No.2 | July 2018 Eniola and Dada 054 information given relate to current experience (Olujide, 2000). A total of 601 out of 700 sampled commuters (86%) responded and were used for the study. The second sample comprised all the 64 drivers and bus conductors (contact employees) of the sampled mass transit outfits. The third category of sample comprised six management staff – one representing each of the six selected mass transit outfits. Primary source was used in gathering the required data. The data were collected by means of a 25– item commuter satisfaction questionnaire which contained the demographic characteristics of respondents and questions relating to various aspects of transportation service offered by the transport agencies under study. Respondents were also requested to list and comment on aspects of transportation services that mostly caused satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The commuter satisfaction questionnaire was designed as a scale of measurement. It assessed all aspects of commuting relevant to the study. The ideas of Mangelsdorff (1979) PZB (1990), Sasser et al (1998), Olujide (2000), Mejabi (2006), Adeoti (2007) and informal discussion with users of the mass transit vehicles were synthesized to arrive at the following dimensions or variables that are deemed relevant in transportation service. These variables, Safety/Security, Timeliness of service (waiting time), Condition of facilities (comfortable, clean), Accessibility (availability of service), Economy (transport fare and other charges) i.e. price, Courteousness of contact personnel and auxiliary services and Reliability of service. Frequency distribution analysis (FDA) was used to determine the proportion of satisfied to dissatisfied respondents with the various attributes of transport service. The two hypotheses were tested with the aid of cross tabulation analysis and of Chi-square test of significance using the following equation: X2 = ∑(O – E)2 E Where: X2 = calculated chi-square O = the observed frequency of any value E = the expected frequency of any value RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Frequency distribution analysis on the demographic characteristics of the respondents showed that 58% of them were male while 42% were female; 2.8% were below 18 years of age, 4.6% were 50 years and above while 92.6% were between 18 – 49 years of age. FDA further showed that 38% were married, 44.6% single, 3.4% separated or divorced while 14% were already entering marital contractual obligation. The higher percentage of male could reflect the ratio of male to female commuters. The social belief and religious factors could be responsible for the low percentage of female commuters. This is particularly true with the Muslim dominated areas where female mobility is relatively restricted. The higher proportion of youths (18 – 49 years) supports the fact that this age bracket is the active age of human being when social and economic activities are highly pronounced. It appears therefore that there is a correlation between mobility and level of socio-economic activities. It was also revealed that 62% of the respondents were not living with either a wife or husband. This group of people travels more than their married counterparts. Regarding the frequency of travels by public mass transit vehicles, 30.3% of respondents have travelled less than 5 times, 49.2%, 5-20 times, while 20.5% have travelled over 20 times. The high number of respondents who have travelled frequently with the mass transit vehicle (69.7%) lends credence to the reliability of the information supplied by them. The results in table 4 reveal that majority of the respondents are satisfied with the level of commitment of the various public transport corporations to the safety and security of commuters. About 78% of the respondents expressed this view. However, some respondents though few (about 14%) believed there is room for improvement. Prompt replacement of tyres and improved vehicle maintenance are some of the areas that call for improvement. With regard to timeliness of service delivery, a high percentage, (70%) are dissatisfied with the late arrival of the buses to their destinations. When the responses in table 2a were subjected to further analysis, cross tabulation and significant test, the results indicated that the observed variations in all responses with respect to sex of respondents were not statistically significant at 95% confidence level. The calculated chi-square (X2) is 0.0037 while the tabular value at 5% is 5.99. The X2 cal (0.0037) is less than X2 tab (5.99), hence we reject the alternative (H1) hypothesis and accept the null (H0) hypothesis. The researcher concludes that sex has no relationship with the degree of satisfaction with the level of security/safety in the public mass transit (table 2b). Data in table 5 indicate that majority of the respondents are dissatisfied with the arrangements for comfort and convenience of commuters namely: overloading, adequate leg space and condition of buses when commuters are seated in the mass transit buses. 64% of our respondents are dissatisfied with overloading while 69% of our respondents are dissatisfied with condition of buses. It was however discovered through informal chat with respondents that drivers and conductors do connive to defraud the transport agencies by carrying excess passengers. 46% of our respondents confirmed this. 68% of respondents are satisfied with the frequency of breakdown of Public Mass Transit buses, 8% had no opinion while 24% prefer improvement. However, lack of any arrangement to refund commuters their fare when no
  8. 8. Triple A Research Journal of Social Science and Humanity (JSSH) | Vol.2 No.2 | July 2018 055 Triple A Res. J. Soc. Sci. Human. replacement is not possible, is not satisfactory to them. 69% of the respondents expressed this view. Table 6 reveals that 64% of the respondents are satisfied with the transport fare charged while 21% are dissatisfied. Perhaps this latter group of respondents expects the PMTA to be highly subsidized – being government-owned companies or outfits. However, while the Agencies as a matter of policy do not charge commuters additional fare on luggage, respondents expressed their dissatisfaction with the practice whereby bus operators charge commuters separately for luggage. On what managements of these Transport Agencies regard as challenges confronting them in their efforts to ensure quality service, and their present and future plans to meet these challenges; analysis of results reveals that majority of them identified funding problems to procure modern equipment and better infrastructural facilities such as quality automobiles and garages as the major challenges confronting their operations. This result further supports the dissatisfaction expressed by commuters with problem of accessibility. Over 90% of the respondents complained about their inability to access PMT buses because they are few in number, a situation which always leads to scramble at the motor parks. They also want to see these Agencies procure modern buses with comfortable seats, well inclined and with air-conditioners like the private mass transit buses. As regards courteousness of contact personnel, majority are satisfied with the behaviour of these staff, particularly ticket officers and drivers but feel bad about the attitude of bus conductors who try as much as possible to create inconveniences for commuters in their attempt to make extra income. On whether the managements of PMT practice Total Quality Management (TQM), results reveal that no single one has adopted or used this new management tool. The frequency distribution analysis of responses to the overall appraisal of transportation service shows that 37% of the respondents are satisfied with the quality of service rendered by the PMT, 48% are dissatisfied while 15% expressed no opinion. When the result was subjected to ‘chi-square’ test of significance, it was revealed that the observed variations in the degree of satisfaction were due to differences in the type of mass transit respondents patronize. It was statistically significant at 95% confidence level (tables 3a and b). CONCLUSION The bulk of commuters who use public mass transportation in Nigeria are not satisfied with the calibre of service provided. That the main areas causing dissatisfaction include: the ill-maintained and inadequate economic and societal infrastructure, particularly, Nigerian roads which usually have a delay in arriving at destinations as scheduled. Other areas of complaint are: Accessibility problem: These agencies do not have enough vehicles in their fleet to match the growing demand of commuters. Often cause inconveniences and discomfort for commuters is improper arrangement of luggage. Overloading of buses with extra passenger. Discourteousness of bus conductors and wretched condition of buses. The findings also revealed that managements of these transport agencies are so far to build the quality management (QTM) departments which are imagined ensuring or bring about customer-focused strategy in their operations. That majority would like to proceed to support the services of the public management even if they received more money. Conclusively, commuters would prefer public mass transportation passenger vehicles to the private commercial ones, at least for security/safety purposes. The major problem facing the public mass transportation agencies is funded to procure more buses. Subjective factors (such as reliability of service, comfort, safety, accessibility) rather than economic considerations play more dominant role in the choice situations of the commuters. Social infrastructure such as good network of roads plays major role in service delivery in the transport sector. Likewise, training of personnel of mass transit, contact staff especially, Attendance at Seminar Workshops by staff would enhance their efficiency. Educational and Professional Development for those operating in the transport and logistics sectors should be promoted. Professional bodies such as the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport (CICT (N), Chartered Institute of Highways and Transportation (CIHT), Transport Planning Societies (TPS) etc. should all be improved and made more functional to provide the relevant professional skills to employees of mass Transit Systems. Educational Institutes such as the National Institute for Transport Technology NITT, Zaria, should be well funded for efficient service delivery to employees in the Transport and logistics sectors. Moreover, consolidation of all patterns of transport modes would help in improving transport facilities. Inter- modal linkages would ensure effective connectivity between ports, rail, road, inland waterways and aviation, thereby making use of the advantages of different modalities to ensure seamless movements of both commodities and people. Metro rail systems as purchased in the U.S. could be assumed. This study is, however, circumscribed by the paucity of literature due to very few previous research works carried out in this field and likewise, the work needs to be carried to some other area of the country. REFERENCES Adebisi SA (2009). Strategic Management Process and Organizational Performance (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. Adeleke A (2001). Management Concepts and Application. Lagos, Nigeria: Concept Publication.
  9. 9. Triple A Research Journal of Social Science and Humanity (JSSH) | Vol.2 No.2 | July 2018 Eniola and Dada 056 Adeoti JO (2007). Total Quality Management Application in selected Hospitals in Kwara State (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. Andrle SJ (1994). Total quality management in public transportation. Research Result Digest. 3: 1-33. Bitner MJ (1992). Services capes: The Impact of Physical Surroundings on Customers and Employees. J. Market. 56(2): 57-71. Carman JM (1990). Consumer perceptions of service quality: An assessment of the SERVQUAL dimensions. J. Retailing. 66(1): 33-55. Carraher S, Buckley M, Scott S, Parnell J, Carraher C (2002). Customer service selection in a global entrepreneurial information services organization. J. App. Manag. Entrepren. 7(2): 45-55. Carraher SM, Carraher SC, Mintu-Wimsatt A (2005). Customer service management in Western and Central Europe: a concurrent validation strategy in entrepreneurial financial information services organizations. J. Bus. Strategies. 22(1): 41-54. Cole GA (1997). Strategic Management: Theory and Practice (2nd ed.). London: Letts Educational. Cole GA (2006). Strategic management: Theory and practice (2nd ed.). London: Thomson. Cronin JJ, Taylor SA (1992). Measuring Service Quality: A Re-examination and Extension. J. Market. 56(3): 55- 67. Dabholkar PA (1993). Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality: Two Constructs or One? In Cravens, D., & Dickson, P. R. (Eds.) Enhancing knowledge development in marketing (pp. 10-18). Chicago, IL: American Marketing Association. Dada DA, Eniola AA, Alo EA (2018). Total Quality Management Adoption in the Global Systems of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM) Industry: A case study OF MTN (NG) and AIRTEL (NG). Asian J. Multidisci. Stud. 6(7): 1-20. Dale B, Lascelles D (1997). Total quality management adoption: revisiting the levels. The TQM Magazine. 9(6): 418-428. Dopson S, Risk A, Stewart R (1992). The Changing Role of the Middle Manager in the United Kingdom. International Studies of Management and Organization. 22(1): 40-53. Ihemeje JC, Tende SB (2006). Management Research Methodology: Principles and Practice. Keffi, Nigeria: Onaivi Publishers. Ihimoyan T (2009). Consumer Service Management in the Nigerian Banking Industry (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. Kasum AS (2004). Pricing of Transport Services: A comparative analysis of private and public provided services in Ilorin. Advances in Management. 4(1): 117- 129. Kotler P (2002). Marketing management (11th ed.). Princeton, NJ: Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic. Mowen JC, Minor M (1999). Consumer behavior. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Olujide JO (2000). An Investigation into the Determinants of Consumer Satisfaction with the Urban Mass Transit Services in Nigeria. Advances in Management. 1(1): 1- 11. Oni EO (2002). Total Quality Management and Corporate Financial Performance in selected Nigerian Banks (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. Oyeniyi TA (2002). Statistical Technique in Economics and Business. Lagos, Nigeria: Cedar Publication. Parasuraman A, Zeithaml VA, Berry LL (1994). Reassessment of Expectations as a Comparison Standard in Measuring Service Quality: Implications for Further Research. J. Market. 58(1): 111-124. Penchansky R, Thomas JW (1981). The Concept of Access: Definition and relationship to consumer satisfaction. Medical Care. 19(2): 127-140. The Punch (2010, August 26). Rising Challenge of a city’s Mass Transit Scheme. The Punch [Lagos], p. 40. Rice C (2011). Understanding customers. London: Routledge. Sasser WE, Hart CW, Heskett JL (1991). The service management course: Cases and readings. New York, TN: Free Press. Taylor S (1994). Waiting for Service: The Relationship between Delays and Evaluations of Service. J. Market 58(2): 56-69. Teas RK (1993). Expectations, Performance Evaluation, and Consumers' Perceptions of Quality. J. Market. 57(4): 18-34.
  10. 10. Triple A Research Journal of Social Science and Humanity (JSSH) | Vol.2 No.2 | July 2018 057 Triple A Res. J. Soc. Sci. Human. APPENDIX Table 1: Administration and Returns of Questionnaires According to Sample Mass Transit S/No PMT outfit Senatorial District Samples Selected No of questionnaire returned 1. Ajaokuta Central 100 68 2. Okene Central 100 76 3. Ankpa East 100 92 4. Omala East 100 84 5. Kabba/bunu West 100 88 6. Lokoja West 200 193 7. Total 700 601 Source: Researcher’s Field Survey Table 2a: Cross Tabulation Analysis of Respondents’ Satisfaction with Safety/security of PMT according to sex RESPONSE MALE FEMALE TOTAL Satisfied 279 202 481 No opinion 21 15 36 Dissatisfied 49 35 84 TOTAL 349 252 601 Source: Field Survey Hypothesis Testing Hypothesis No1: Table 2b: Ho: There is no significant difference between the gender characteristics of commuters and their degree of satisfaction with safety/security of public mass transit. Contingency Table Source: Author’s Computation X2 = 0.11 df = (r – 1) (c – 1) = (3 – 1)(2 – 1) = 2 X2 0.05 = 5.99 Since X2 calculated (0.0037 < (5.99) X2 critical, the Null hypotheses is accepted. Hence, we conclude that: there is no significant difference between sex of commuters and their level of satisfaction with the safety/security of public mass transit services. O 279 202 21 15 49 35 TOTAL E 279.3 201.7 20.9 15.1 48.8 35.2 (O – E)2 0.09 0.09 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.04 (O – E)2 E 0.0003 0.0004 0.0005 0.0007 0.0008 0.001 0.0037
  11. 11. Triple A Research Journal of Social Science and Humanity (JSSH) | Vol.2 No.2 | July 2018 Eniola and Dada 058 Table 3a: Cross Tabulation Analysis of Respondents’ satisfaction with the overall services of the public mass transit (PMT) according to type of PMT. Ajaokuta Okene Ankpa Omala K/Bunu Kogi Travellers Total Satisfied 26 23 51 24 40 61 225 No opinion 12 08 10 16 12 30 88 Dissatisfied 30 45 31 44 36 102 288 Total 68 76 92 84 88 193 601 Source: Researcher’s Field Survey Hypotheses No 2 Table 3b: H0: There is no significant difference between the type of PMT commuters patronize and their degree of satisfaction with the services of PMT Contingency Table O 26 23 51 24 40 61 12 08 10 16 12 30 30 45 31 44 36 102 Total E 25.5 28.5 34.4 31.4 32.9 72.3 9.96 11.1 13.5 12.3 12.9 28.3 32.6 36.4 44.1 40.3 42.2 92.5 O-E 0.5 -5.5 19.6 -7.4 7.1 -11.3 2.0 -3.1 -3.5 3.7 -0.9 1.7 -2.6 8.6 -13.1 3.7 -6.2 9.5 (O-E)2 0.25 30.3 334.2 54.8 50.4 127.7 4.0 9.6 12.3 13.7 0.81 2.89 6.8 74.0 171.6 13.7 38.4 90.3 (O-E)2 E 0.009 1.06 11.17 1.74 1.53 1.77 0.4 0.86 0.9 1.1 0.06 0.01 0.21 2.03 3.89 0.38 0.91 0.97 28.95 Source: Researcher’s Computation (r – 1)(c – 1) (6 – 1)(3 – 1) 5(2) df = 10 X2 0.05 = 18.31 X2 cal = 28.95 Since 28.95 > 18.31 :. Ho is rejected while H1 is accepted i.e there is a significant difference between the type of Public Mass Transit (PMT) respondents patronize and the degree of satisfaction with the services of these PMTs. Table 4: Summary of Frequency Distribution Relating to Safety and Timeliness Item Content Completely satisfied Strongly satisfied No opinion Strongly dissatisfied Completely dissatisfied Total 11. Mass Transit Buses are safe, and well secured 22.5% 55% 9% 11.5% 2% 100% 12. Mass Transit Buses have recorded very few accidents in recent time 63% 18% 8% 7% 4% 100% 13. Drivers are always time conscious when they stop on the way for passengers to eat or relax 14% 10% 14% 44% 18% 100% 14. Drivers always arrive on time for departure 12% 17% 6% 37% 28% 100% 15. Mass Transit Buses always get to their destinations at appointed time 8% 12% 10% 48% 22% 100%
  12. 12. Triple A Research Journal of Social Science and Humanity (JSSH) | Vol.2 No.2 | July 2018 Source: Researcher’s Field Survey 059 Triple A Res. J. Soc. Sci. Human. Table 5: Summary of Frequency Distribution Relation to Comfort and Reliability Item Content Completely satisfied Strongly satisfied No opinion Strongly dissatisfied Completely dissatisfied Total 16. The seats of buses are always comfortable and properly inclined and clean 7% 12% 12% 42% 27% 100% 17. Urban Mass Transit Buses are usually not overloaded with excess passengers 8% 22% 6% 38% 26% 100% 18. There is always adequate leg space whenever one sits in the U.M.T. buses 14% 12% 4% 32% 38% 100% 19. U.M.T.A buses do not break down too frequently 26% 42% 8% 14% 10% 100% 20. If repair or replacement is not immediately possible passengers are usually refunded their transport fare 12% 15% 9% 35% 34% 100% Source: Researcher’s Field Survey Table 6: Summary of Frequency Distribution Relating to Transport Fare Charged by P.M.T.A Item Content Completely satisfied Strongly satisfied No opinion Strongly dissatisfied Completely dissatisfied Total 21. Transport fare charged by U.M.T.A in most routes are moderate 25% 39% 15% 15% 6% 100% 22. U.M.T.A. do not charge additional fare on luggage 41% 28% 8% 14% 9% 100% Source: Researcher’s Field Survey

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