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Navarrete From Networked Museums to Isolated Consumers


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The Art Museum in the Digital Age 2020 at Belvedere Research Centre

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Navarrete From Networked Museums to Isolated Consumers

  1. 1. From networked museums to isolated consumers Trilce Navarrete | Erasmus University Rotterdam The Art Museum in the Digital Age | Belvedere | 9-10 January 2020
  2. 2. In short•  How do we imagine the true museum without walls? •  Pictures tell stories •  Stories can be told with pictures •  Digital technology was first adopted for object administration (1960s) •  Remote access and federated searchers remain a current challenge •  New hard/software may facilitate broader access (XR) •  Museums can become key repositories in the information economy
  3. 3. Vienna from the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493) self-scanned by contributor
  4. 4. How did we get here? •  In The Netherlands, digitisation was fuelled by the Ministry of Internal Affairs (1990s). The goal was to improve administration (inventory, accountability) •  One of the main results (2008) was the estimation of the size of the national collection (± 45.2 million objects) and its value (of which 15% were ‘category A’ and 24% category B) •  (This did not include the Naturalis Biodiversity Centre with 37 million objects)
  5. 5. Object registration •  The focus is on administration (identification, location, value, state).
  6. 6. Information systems •  Information organisation follows systems of knowledge. •  Mostly static systems, a few exploring with dynamic representation
  7. 7. Dutch museums adoption of technology (and us 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Museums using compute museums connected to th Collections registered dig Collections published onl Information plans
  8. 8. Ideal: remote access and federated searches •  Museum collections are not all accessible online (>10%) (Enumerate, 20 •  Hindering interconnectivity 100 58 31 19 9 Collections Metadata Image Metadata online Image online Enumerat Percentage of digitised collections in museums (not weighte
  9. 9. Major labour / expense / task Europeana Strategy 2020 •  Digitisation includes images / media •  Registration •  Documentation •  Contextualisation •  Story telling •  Connections…
  10. 10. •  Digitisation and preservation of EU cultural memory is key area of Digital Agenda 2020. •  Member states are encouraged to digitise objects in public domain in a way that these remain in the public domain. 100 43 33 13 12 Collections Copyright owner Public domain Third party Unknown Enumerat Copyright status museum collections EU Recommendations on digitisation
  11. 11. EU Directive on the re-use public sector informati •  (5) Access to information is a fundamental right. •  (19) Digitisation is an important means of ensuring greater access to an re-use of cultural material for education, work or leisure (L 175/2) •  (19) It also offers considerable economic opportunities, allowing for an easier integration of cultural material into digital services and products, thus supporting job creation and growth (L 175/2) •  (23) Libraries, museums and archives should also be able to charge above marginal costs in order not to hinder their normal running… the prices charged by the private sector for the re-use of identical or similar documents could be considered when calculating a reasonable return o investment (L 175/2)
  12. 12. Museum’s perception of technology •  Open data = open format that can be freely used, re-used and shared by anyone for any purpose. •  Open data is desirable but museums want to restrict use: generally not for commercial uses and with no modifications (Estermann, 2013) •  Crowdsourcing = outsourcing labour to the crowd •  Crowdsourcing is more a risk than an opportunity (Estermann, 2013) •  But in 1.5 years a crowd did the job of 18 years (1FTE)
  13. 13. Crowdsourcing intangible heritage
  14. 14. Nichesourcing bird specialists
  15. 15. Audience participation •  Crowdsourcing projects related to the digital collections are not very popular – considering the benefits (high speed, low cost, engagement). •  Information systems will remain limited as long as objects remain at the centre, rather than the multiple stories that can be told with the objects. Objects are polysemic. •  Crowdsourcing may provide new socially constructed digital commons. •  Private parties (e.g. Google) have already tapped into the resource, particularly for AI.
  16. 16. (39.47-40.59)
  17. 17. e 1 of Alias Grace on Netflix, featuring two highlights from SMK’s public domain collection; Pilo’s Frederik V in his Anointing Robes (1750) and Juel’s The Dancing Glade at Sorgenfri (c. 1800).
  18. 18. The value of museums as information •  Museums are millenary information repositories, with vast collections of organised, classified, authentic, and diverse information. •  Digital technology can contribute to reposition museums as key agents to enrich the service information economy. but… •  Being everywhere requires a new value framework: online clicks on the museum website will not represent the museum information presence.
  19. 19. How do we imagine the true (digital) museum without wa Thank y