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Benefits of collaborative EU digitization projects


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Invited lecture on the Dutch experience in EU collaborative digitization projects, using the data from ENUMERATE

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Benefits of collaborative EU digitization projects

  1. 1. Seminaire Europeen de l’ecole doctorale: Digital Cooperation in the European SpaceAmphi C – Université de Lille 38 March 2013Benefits of collaborativedigitization projects in EuropeTrilce Navarrete
  2. 2. Today Dutch libraries and EU projects  Introduction  Why is there so little digitized  EU projects overview  Dutch libraries experience  ENUMERATE data  Benefits of the network  Trends in future research Benefits of collaborative digitization 2 projects in Europe: a Dutch perspective
  3. 3. IntroductionEU collaborative projects have been funded since the mid 1990s. The goal hasremained: to connect and exchange heritage and scientific information for thebenefit of the EU citizens. However, there is still much to digitize (digitalreproduction).Estimate % of collections that has been/needs to be digitally reproduced Has been digitized Needs to be Number of (%) digitized (%) institutions Average EU 20 57 1951 Average BIB 12 54 599 Average NDL 15 55 13The digital work form has not fully been adopted by heritage institutions. Why?• Limited resources• Limited view on benefits gained Benefits of collaborative digitization 3 projects in Europe: a Dutch perspective
  4. 4. EU projects overviewEU projects are organized inside the Framework Programs lasting 4 years.Initially (ca. 1990-1995), programs focused on establishing an interoperableconnection (broadband network). Projects experimented with networks.Then (ca. 1995-2000), programs positioned heritage information in theInformation Society. Projects produced information content to supporteconomic growth.Later (ca. 2000-2005), the many projects required coordination andharmonization. Projects added value to heritage information throughdigitization and the repositioning of content.Lastly (ca. 2005-2010), content was placed in an information market for reuse.Projects interconnected data in private-public collaborations. Benefits of collaborative digitization 4 projects in Europe: a Dutch perspective
  5. 5. EU projects overviewIn 1990, the libraries program was launched (1990-1994 and 1994-1998).Three action lines were set:• Network-oriented internal library systems• Telematic systems for library cooperation and networking• Library services for access to networked information resourcesIn 2000, a few issues became obvious:• Partners had uneven technical know-how• Content was used only once• Future access was not ensured• Projects worked in isolation• Content holders were not aware and/or convinced of benefits brought bysharing collectionsIn 2001, the European Library was launched, the portal was published in 2005. Benefits of collaborative digitization 5 projects in Europe: a Dutch perspective
  6. 6. EU projects overviewIn 2004, during the Dutch Presidency, a clear goal was stated:Citizens were to have unrestricted, sustainable and reliable digital access toEurope’s cultural and scientific knowledge, sharing of these knowledge wouldcontribute to establishing the knowledge economy.In 2005, the i2010 policy framework launched a European information society forgrowth and employment (2005-2010), aiming to:• Joining initiatives into one strategy to form one European Information Space• Reinforce innovation and investment in ICT research to boost economy• Promote inclusion, public services and quality of lifeDigitization was instrumental to exploit cultural and scientific resources. EUcoordination was desired to reduce costs, share know-how, increase the use ofstandards and build on each other’s work. Libraries and digitization were key.Key was making content accessible and usable in the network. Benefits of collaborative digitization 6 projects in Europe: a Dutch perspective
  7. 7. EU projects overviewBut after such investment (1990s-2000s), what had been achieved? How muchmore is needed?In 2007, the first statistical exercise was conducted to measure production andcost, called NUMERIC (2007-2009) and followed by ENUMERATE (2011-2014).Still, data available was limited:• There is no harmonized view on what is heritage (and digital heritage)• There is no unified methodology to count (digitized) heritage materials• There is no certainty on the size of EU collections• There is no documentation of the total digitization costs• There are different responsibilities in EU member states regarding digitalrelated statisticsENUMERATE was launched to support evidence base policy making. Benefits of collaborative digitization 7 projects in Europe: a Dutch perspective
  8. 8. Dutch experienceEvidence from Dutch libraries, based on ENUMERATE data: NDL EU Total institutions 141 1,951 Total libraries 13 599 - National Library 0 30 - Higher education libraries 7 160 - Special libraries 6 409Dutch libraries allocated an average of 3.2 % of their total budget to digitalactivities in 2012 (compared to 4.1 EU average)Dutch libraries reported giving access to 66 % of their collections online, yetreported having only 15 % of collections digitized (digitally reproduced) – incomparison, art museums reported a digitization of 42 %Why this difference? Benefits of collaborative digitization projects in Europe: a Dutch perspective 8
  9. 9. Dutch experienceFrom the data available it becomes clear that when institutions have anearmarked budget, the larger the budget allocated to digitization, the higherallocation of digitization staff:The larger the digitization staff, the higher the chance of keeping track ofactual online use (i.e. webstats) (correlation 0.73, in EU 0.51), potentiallyresponding to the user needs.The larger the digitization staff, the higher the digitization coverage (higher %digitization of collection) (correlation 0.79 in EU 0.18). Earmarked Budget for Institutions Allocated staff for Digitization (%) digitization (%) < 1% 5 3 2-5% 3 3 >5% 3 4 Not Known 2 2 Benefits of collaborative digitization 9 projects in Europe: a Dutch perspective
  10. 10. Benefits of being part of the networkClearly, there are 4 main benefits brought by being part of a EU network ofheritage institutions working on digitization:1. Resources are pooled together:• Know-how can be shared (use of technology, digitization process)• Finances can be fully used (products can be reused, repositioned)• Collections are linked (value added increases)• Joint leveraging in negotiations (e.g. production, copyright)• Richer result from individual effort2. Access to a greater network:• Multilingual content• Greater geo region• Richer collections – for the user !• Individual institution (or country) would not be able to do work alone• A greater network has a greater value (network externalities: more users) Benefits of collaborative digitization 10 projects in Europe: a Dutch perspective
  11. 11. Benefits of being part of the networkClearly, there are 4 main benefits brought by being part of a EU network ofheritage institutions working on digitization:3. Wide application of results:• Development of standard methods for data gathering• Improved regulations for digitization (production, distribution, use)• Increased experience in resource allocation• Data available supports further policy making (earmarked budget)4. Delivering a better service:• Access and use of collections are improved Benefits of collaborative digitization 11 projects in Europe: a Dutch perspective
  12. 12. Cultural Information Science Benefits of collaborative digitization 12 projects in Europe: a Dutch perspective
  13. 13. Future / challengesNew frameworks are being developed to capture and measure data (ex.ENUMERATE). Lack of evidence on the benefits of digitization limit theresearch possibilities to increase efficiency and coverage of the process.Performance indicators require to develop an elaborate measure of access(not only clicks and time spent but measure re-use!).My research ‘The History of Digitization in Dutch Museums 1960-2011’ hopesto be an invitation for further research / discussion:• Identify changes in time (policy, organization, finances, the user).• Map the elements that influence access to culture (via IT).• Establish the collection of information as key asset.• Framework to develop future documentation of work. Benefits of collaborative digitization 13 projects in Europe: a Dutch perspective
  14. 14. Future / challengesLibraries miss a digitization strategy, though the Netherlands ranks quite high: EU N=559 / NDL N=13 Yes (%) Policy on the use of digital collections 26 / 46 Digitization strategy 38.8 / 76 Measurement of the digital access 46 / 77 Digital preservation strategy 34 / 77 Benefits of collaborative digitization 14 projects in Europe: a Dutch perspective
  15. 15. Thank you ! Questions ? Benefits of collaborative digitization 15 projects in Europe: a Dutch perspective