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Nutrition and Adolescence

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Nutrition and Adolescence

  1. 1. ADOLESCENCE Presented by Katrina Akeilah Hope Nadia Augustine Barbados Community College
  2. 2. WHAT IS ADOLESCENCE? Adolescence (from Latin adolescere meaning "to grow up"). It is a transitional stage of physical and psychological human developmet that generally occurs during the period from puberty to legal adulthood (age of majority). The period of adolescence is most closely associated with the teenage years, though its physical, psychological and cultural expressions may begin earlier and end later. For example, although puberty has been historically associated with the onset of adolescent development, it now typically begins prior to the teenage years and there have been a normative shift of it occurring in preadolescence, particularly in females (see early and precocious puberty). Physical growth, as distinct from puberty (particularly in males), and cognitive development generally seen in adolescence, can also extend into the early twenties.
  3. 3. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENTS  During the preteen and teenage years, adolescents go through many physical and psychological changes on their way to adulthood. From emotional and cognitive growth to sexual and social awareness, the stages of development of adolescents present both children and parents with many challenges. While there are standard guidelines for adolescent development, it is important to understand that each child is an individual and will develop at her own pace.
  4. 4. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT There are four (4) stages of development : Biological Development - puberty in general - reproduction-related changes - changes in the brain - growth spurt
  5. 5. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT CONT’D Cognitive Development - theorectical perspectives - improvement in cognitive abilities - metacognition - wisdom - risk-taking - relativistic thinking Psychological Development Social Development Identity Development Relationships - self-concept - in general - sense of identity - family - peers - sexual orientation and identity - romance and sexual activity
  6. 6. NUTRITION DURING ADOLESCENCE Adolescence is a critical period of growth and development, so good nutrition is essential. During adolescence, the need for most nutrients including energy, protein, vitamins and minerals increases. As appetite is also likely to increase, it is important that food choices are made carefully. It can be tempting at this time to increase the intake of snack foods and fast foods that are high in fat, sugar and salt. Teenagers make many more choices for themselves than they did as children. Their interest in nutrition both valid information and misinformation derives from personal and immediate experiences.
  7. 7. WHAT FACTORS INFLUENCES ADOLESCENT FOOD CHOICES?  Lifestyle  Food Preferences  Early childhood experiences, exposure, genetics  Taste and appearance  Health and nutrition  Religion  Cost  Family
  8. 8. NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS Adolescents should aim to: Enjoy a wide variety of nutritious foods such as: o Vegetables of different types and colours, and legumes/beans o Fruit o Grain (cereal) foods, mostly whole grain and/or high cereal fiber varieties, such as breads, cereals, rice, pasta, noodles, polenta, couscous, oats, quinoa and barley o Lean meats and poultry, fish, eggs, tofu, nuts and seeds o Milk, yoghurt, cheese and/or their alternatives, mostly reduced fat Drink plenty of water Limit intake of foods containing saturated fat, added salt and added sugars.
  9. 9. NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS CONT’D Calcium  Calcium has many important functions in the body but most importantly in children and adolescents is the development of healthy bones, teeth.  Calcium requirements increase dramatically from about the age of 11 years in what is known as the pre-pubertal growth spurt.  A lack of calcium can lead to poor mineralization of bones and low bone mineral density (a measure of bone strength). This can lead to many problems including permanent bone deformities and diseases of the bone such as osteoporosis (where bones are weak and break easily) in later life.  We have a once in a lifetime opportunity to build strong bones. Approximately 30% of all mineral deposited in our bones throughout life, occurs during adolescence and 90% of our adult .
  10. 10. NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS CONT’D  Skeleton is formed by the age of 18 and even earlier in girls. Therefore it is essential that enough calcium is received to allow this to happen.  For 11 to 18 year olds, about 1 in 17 boys and 1 in 9 girls have an intake below the LRNI. These figures have fallen from the previous national survey. Future surveys will reveal if this is a real change, but the fact remains large numbers of teenagers, particularly girls, don't get enough calcium.  Dairy products are good providers of calcium and many other nutrients important to good bone health and of increased demand during childhood and adolescence e.g. phosphorus, magnesium and protein.  Consumption of a glass or 200ml milk, a matchbox sized (30g) piece of low-fat cheese and a pot (200g) yogurt will go a long way to helping this age group meet their daily calcium requirement.
  11. 11. NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS CONT’D Contribution of just 1 glass of milk a day to bone friendly nutrient requirements Nutrient Recommended nutrient intake (RNI) for a female 15-18 years of age Amount (%) provided by 1 glass of semi- skimmed milk (200ml) Recommended nutrient intake (RNI) for a male 15-18 years of age Amount (%) provided by 1 glassof semi- skimmed milk (250ml) Calcium 800 30.8 1000 30.8 Magnesium300 7.7 300 9..6 Phosphorus625 31.0 775 31.3 Protein 45 16.9 55.2 16.3 Recommended amounts are provided by the Department of Health DRV’s (Dietary Reference Values).
  12. 12. NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS CONT’D Iron  Iron is important for growth, brain development and the immune system, however it is commonly deficient or sub optimal in both children and adolescents.  The latest National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008/2009) found that many teenage girls had a low intake of iron; 46% of 11- 18 year-olds had intakes below the lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI), suggesting that they were extremely inadequate.  Teenage girls in particular are affected by poor iron status due to increased iron losses during menstruation that are not replaced through the diet.
  13. 13. NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS CONT’D  If iron levels become too low it can lead to a condition called iron deficiency anaemia. Anaemia is known to compromise all work performance, both physical and mental, but recent studies have suggested that even low iron stores without anaemia can negatively affect brain function.  It was therefore worrying that The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000) found that 1% of boys and 9% of girls aged 15 to 18 years were actually classified as anaemic. Other studies of teenagers have found anaemia to be three times more common in vegetarians compared to meat eaters, and in girls who had recently tried to lose weight.  Consumption of sufficient iron in the diet is therefore very important for ensuring stores are sufficiently high to allow correct development in children and adolescents. Good dietary providers of iron include meats such as beef, lamb, pork, chicken, green leafy vegetables, fortified cereals and pulses.  Consuming foods containing vitamin C along with iron providing foods will help iron to be absorbed by the body e.g. a glass of citrus fruit juice with a meal or a piece of citrus fruit such as orange or grapefruit after a meal.
  14. 14. OTHER VITAMINS AND MINERALS Zinc  Zinc is essential for adequate growth and sexual development.  Foods containing zinc include meats e.g. beef, lamb, pork etc. Vitamin A  Vitamin A is essential for good development of the eyes and for the immune system.  Foods containing vitamin A include dairy foods, dark green vegetables and orange/red fruits and vegetables.
  15. 15. OTHER VITAMINS AND MINERAL CONT’D B vitamins  The B vitamins including B6, B2 and thiamin and niacin are important for many functions including breakdown and use of carbohydrate and protein in the body. Vitamin B12 and folate are also important for the nervous system and for making new cells in the body.  Requirements for these nutrients are increased in children and adolescents but the latest National Diet and Nutrition Survey suggests that levels of these are mostly adequate except for vitamin B2 which is inadequate in girls aged 11-18 years old.  Foods containing B vitamins include meats, cereals and vegetables
  16. 16. OTHER VITAMINS AND MINERAL CONT’D  Several of the vitamin recommendations for adolescents are similar to those for adults, including the recommendation for Vitamin D. During puberty, both the activation of Vitamin D and the absorption of calcium are enhanced, thus supporting the intense skeletal growth of the adolescent years without additional vitamin D.
  17. 17. FOOD LIKES AND DISLIKES Likes Dislikes snacks vegetables chips fruits chicken ground provisions pasta sweet drinks eating out at restaurants
  18. 18. EATING DISORDERS COMMONLY FOUND IN ADOLESCENCE
  19. 19. BULIMIA What is Bulimia?  Bulimia Nervosa is a serious psychiatric illness characterised by recurrent binge-eating episodes (the consumption of abnormally large amounts of food in a relatively short period of time), followed by compensatory behaviour (purging or overexercising). Binge episodes are associated with a sense of loss of control and immediately followed by feelings of guilt and shame, which leads the person to compensatory behaviour (purging) such as self-induced vomiting, fasting, overexercising and/or the misuse of laxatives, enemas or diuretics.  A person with Bulimia Nervosa usually maintains an average weight, or may be slightly above or below average weight for height, which often makes it less recognisable than serious cases of Anorexia Nervosa. Many people, including some health professionals, incorrectly assume that a person must be underweight and thin if they have an eating disorder. Because of this, Bulimia Nervosa is often missed and can go undetected for a long period of time.
  20. 20. BULIMIA CONT’D  Binge Eating Disorder Binge-eating disorder is a serious eating disorder in which you frequently consume unusually large amounts of food.
  21. 21. ANOREXIA NERVOSA What is Anorexia Nervosa?  Anorexia Nervosa is a psychological illness with devastating physical consequences. It is characterised by low body weight and body image distortion with an obsessive fear of gaining weight which manifests itself through depriving the body of food. It often coincides with increased levels of exercise.  Anorexia Nervosa is usually developed during adolescence and generally has an earlier age of onset than Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder (the latter are often developed during late adolescence or early adulthood). However like all eating disorders, Anorexia Nervosa can be developed at any age or stage of life for both males and females. Two main sub-types of anorexia are recognised:  Restricting type: this is the most commonly known type of Anorexia Nervosa whereby a person severely restricts their food intake. Restriction may take many forms (e.g. maintaining very low calorie count; restricting types of food eaten; eating only one meal a day) and may follow obsessive and rigid rules (e.g. only eating food of one colour).  Binge-eating or purging type: less recognised; a person restricts their intake as above, but also during some bouts of restriction the person has regularly engaged in binge-eating OR purging behaviour (e.g. self induced vomiting, over-exercise, misuse of laxatives, diuretics or enemas).
  22. 22. ANOREXIA NERVOSA CONT’D Anorexia Nervosa  Self Starvation, Weight Loss, Intense fear of weight gain, body image distortion.
  23. 23. OBESITY What is obesity? Obesity is defined as having an excessive amount of body fat. It is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems. Immediate health effects:  Obese youth are more likely to have risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as high cholesterol or high blood pressure. In a population-based sample of 5- to 17-year-olds, 70% of obese youth had at least one risk factor for cardiovascular disease.  Obese adolescents are more likely to have prediabetes, a condition in which blood glucose levels indicate a high risk for development of diabetes.  Children and adolescents who are obese are at greater risk for bone and joint problems, sleep apnea, and social and psychological problems such as stigmatization and poor self-esteem.
  24. 24. OBESITY CONT’D Long-term health effects:  Children and adolescents who are obese are likely to be obese as adults and are therefore more at risk for adult health problems such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, several types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.One study showed that children who became obese as early as age 2 were more likely to be obese as adults.  Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk for many types of cancer, including cancer of the breast, colon, endometrium, esophagus, kidney, pancreas, gall bladder, thyroid, ovary, cervix, and prostate, as well as multiple myeloma and Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
  25. 25. OBESITY CONT’D
  26. 26. TO REVIEW ADOLESCENCE NUTRITIONAL ISSUES  Weight gain leading to obesity and type 2 diabetes  Calcium intake and soft drink consumption leading to inadequate bone mineralization  Eating habits that result in disordered eating practices  Low consumption of fruit and vegetables and high consumption of fat and sodium are related to adult-onset disease risk
  27. 27. RECOMMENDATIONS  Eat three meals a day, with healthy snacks.  Increase fiber in the diet and decrease the use of salt.  Drink water. Try to avoid drinks that are high in sugar. Fruit juice can have a lot of calories, so limit your adolescent's intake. Whole fruit is always a better choice.  Eat balanced meals.  When cooking for your adolescent, try to bake or broil instead of fry.  Make sure your adolescent watches (and decreases, if necessary) his or her sugar intake.  Eat fruit or vegetables for a snack.  Decrease the use of butter and heavy gravies.  Eat more chicken and fish. Limit red meat intake, and choose lean cuts when possible

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