Humanist therapies-in-postmodernity

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Humanist therapies-in-postmodernity

  1. 1. Postmodern Openings ISSN: 2068 – 0236 (print), ISSN: 2069 – 9387 (electronic) Coverd in: Index Copernicus, Ideas RePeC, EconPapers, Socionet, Ulrich Pro Quest, Cabbel, SSRN, Appreciative Inquiry Commons, Journalseek, Scipio, CEEOL, EBSCO Humanist Therapies in Postmodernity Magdalena Roxana NECULA Simona Irina DAMIAN Ovidiu BUNEA Postmodern Openings, 2012, Volume 3, Issue 3, September, pp: 89-106 The online version of this article can be found at: http://postmodernopenings.com Published by: Lumen Publishing House On behalf of: Lumen Research Center in Social and Humanistic Sciences   
  2. 2. Humanist Therapies in Postmodernity Magdalena Roxana NECULA 1 Simona Irina DAMIAN 2 Ovidiu BUNEA 3 Abstract: The analysis of the disease from a spiritual perspective means to take into account those theories that do not consider the patient as part of some statistics or the disease as an exclusive psycho-somatic reality, which is due to disturbances of the physiological system. To consider the person exclusively from the stand point of the disease leads to a situation in which the diagnosis creates the patient. To asses that any condition of this nature can be cured or improved solely through medication as there is pressure from the U.S. health insurance companies - has an effect of shrinking responsibility of the patient who is not involved in the healing process. Fortunately, in the twentieth century, a number of therapies that regard the patient as the central concern, have been developed- obviously, not regarding the chronically ill, which remain the patient of the psychiatric cure- as a person responsible for what happens to him/her, of affection, and the amelioration of his/her health. Of these, in our article we reviewed the principles of existential psychotherapy by Irvin 8QLYHUVLW RI 0HGLFLQH DQG 3KDUPDF Å*U 7 3RSDµ ,DVL 3RVW-GRFWRUDO 5HVHDUFKHU SURMHFW 326'586 WLWOHG 3RVWGRFWRUDO VWXGLHV LQ HWKLFV RI KHDOWK policy in the Department of postdoctoral studies and research at” University of 0HGLFLQH DQG 3KDUPDF Å*U 7 3RSDµ 3K' LQ 6RFLRORJ Å$O , X]Dµ 8QLYHUVLW ,DVL (-PDLO $GGUHVV QHFXODUR[#JPDLOFRP ,DûL RVWDFKH 1HJUL 6WU %O ' (QWUDQFH ' VW )ORRU 1R ,DûL 5RPkQLD 8QLYHUVLW RI 0HGLFLQH DQG 3KDUPDF Å*U 7 3RSDµ ,DVL 3RVW-GRFWRUDO 5HVHDUFKHU SURMHFW 326'586 WLWOHG 3RVWGRFWRUDO VWXGLHV LQ HWKLFV RI KHDOWK policy in the Department of postdoctoral studies and research at” University of 0HGLFLQH DQG 3KDUPDF Å*U 7 3RSDµ 3K' LQ 0HGLFLQH Å*U 7 3RSDµ 8QLYHUVLW RI 0HGLFLQH DQG 3KDUPDF ,DVL +HDG RI ZRUNV DW Å*U 7 3RSDµ 8QLYHUVLW RI 0HGLFLQH DQG 3KDUPDF ,DVL (-PDLO $GGUHVV VLBGDPLDQ#DKRRFRP ,DûL 1HFXODX 6WU %O (QWUDQFH *RUXQG )ORRU )ODW ,DûL 5RPkQLD 3 6RFLRORJLV *HQHUDO 'LYLVLRQ IRU 6RFLDO $VVLVWDQFH DQG KLOG·V 3URWHFWLRQ ,DVL H-mail: RYLGLXEXQHD#DKRRFRP ,DûL 6WU 9DVLOH /XSX 1U $ ,DûL 5RPkQLD 89 NECULA, M., R., DAMIAN, S., I., BUNEA, O., (2012) Humanist Therapies in Postmodernity, Postmodern Openings, Vol.3, Issue 3, September, pp:89-106.
  3. 3. Postmodern Openings D. Yalom, Viktor Frenkl's logotherapy and the humanistic psychotherapy (customer centric) by Carl R. Rogers. Keywords: mental illness, responsibility, existentialism, existential, logotherapy, clientcentered counseling. Existentialism and postmodernism, common roots The philosophical origins of postmodenism (KWWSSODWRVWDQ IRUGHGXHQWULHV SRVWPRGHUQLVP
  4. 4. can be found in traces that run thrRXJK WKH :HVWHUQ thought (and not only) regarding the divorce of the world which we access by our means of NQRZOHGJH VHQVHV reason) LQ DQ LQFRPSOHWH PDQQHU RQ WKH RQH KDQG and a world of ,GHDV the real ZRUOG on the other. The best known image of this division LV RI FRXUVH GHYHORSHG E 3ODWR who tried to demonstrate that what we commonly know is but D VKDGRZ D second-order UHDOLW a pale copy of another ZRUOG WKH ZRUOG of Ideas. If the Greek philosopher considered that the world of perfection may be DFFHVVHG WKURXJK UHDVRQ ,PPDQXHO .DQW VLPSO VDLG WKDW man is denied access to the thing-in-itself (das Ding-an-sich or QRXPHQ
  5. 5. being capable only to know the phenomenon. The human intellect interposes to the tendency of knowing the reality in itseOI EHFDXVH RQO the intellect has the capacity to know reality through categories WLPH VSDFH FDXVDOLW
  6. 6. ZKLFK ILOWHUV WKH REMHFW XQDFFHVVDEOH GLUHFWO WR XV ,Q ´7KH %LUWK RI 7UDJHGµ )ULHGULFK Nietzsche considers the Greek tragedy a synthesis of two gods: Apollo and Dionysus. Apollo LV D VRODU JRG D JRG RI OLJKW while Dionysus is the image of beatitude and frenzyness. 2XU PRGHUQ FLYLOL]DWLRQ XQGHU WKH VLJQ RI $SROOR EHFRPHV frozen and OLIHOHVV WKH FKDQFH of its revival and salvation resides in the return of Dionysian impulses. Postmodernism uses this distinction to establish the difference between art and representation and also a new PHDQLQJ RI WKH FRQFHSW ´FRPPXQLWµ These predecessors of postmodernism are close to those of H[LVWHQWLDOLVP :KDW WKH WZR SKLORVRSKLHV KDYH LQ FRPPRQ LV WKH KXPDQ DWWLWXGH WRZDUGV DQ H[LVWHQFH GHYRLG RI SULQFLSOHV D ZRUOG ZKHUH ´*RG is dead”. :H FDQ FOHDUO VHH WKLV DWWLWXGH LQ D VWDWHPHQW OLNH WKLV 7KHUH LVQ W RQO D VLQJOH VRFLR-WHPSRUDO IUDPHZRUN EXW DV PDny subjects and 90 NECULA, M., R., DAMIAN, S., I., BUNEA, O., (2012) Humanist Therapies in Postmodernity, Postmodern Openings, Vol.3, Issue 3, September, pp:89-106.
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  9. 9. %XW LI RX FDQ SXW RXU OLYH DW VWDNH DV RX WKURZ WKH GLFH WR SUHSDUH IRU QHZ GHVWLQLHV LW LV IDOVH WKDW RX FDQ GR DQWKLQJ that you can be whoHYHU RX ZDQW WKDW RX FDQ HPERG LQ WXUQ WKH UHVHDUFKHU WKH DUWLVW WKH DVWURQDXW DQG WKDW RQO WKH VN LV WKH OLPLW 7KH $PHULFDQ DWWLWXGH RI RX FDQ GR LW ZKLFK GRHVQ W VHW DQ OLPLW WR WKH LQGLYLGXDO FDSDFLW EHOLHYLQJ WKDW LW LV HQRXJK WR ´UROO XS VOHHYHVµ optimism of a nation of pioneers who believe in the brotherhood of HIIHFWLYHQHVV DQG ZLOO 7R WKH FRQVWUDLQWV RI VDOYDWLRQ LQ WKH 2OG 5HJLPH succeeded the drunkenness of possibilities in secular societies and this array gives dizziness. He who hopes to follow all the roads may risk not WR DGYDQFH RQ DQ RQH WKLQJ LV WR JHW RXW RI RXUVHOI RWKHU WR WKLQN RX 91 NECULA, M., R., DAMIAN, S., I., BUNEA, O., (2012) Humanist Therapies in Postmodernity, Postmodern Openings, Vol.3, Issue 3, September, pp:89-106.
  10. 10. Postmodern Openings DUH XQERXQG E WKH QHFHVVLW RI FKRLFH LH RI D IUDPHZRUN WKDW OLPLWV XV conditions our freedom (Bruckner
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  15. 15. Humanist Therapies in Postmodernit.. 0DJGDOHQD 5R[DQD 1(8/$ 6LPRQD ,ULQD '$0,$1 2YLGLX %81($ DQG GHVSDLU 0DQ VLWXDWHG LQ WKH H[LVWHQWial situation of finitude and OLPLWDWLRQ PD UHDFK WUXWK RQO WKURXJK DQ H[LVWHQWLDO DWWLWXGH 7LOOLFK S
  16. 16. $OWKRXJK H[LVWHQWLDOLVP LV D SKLORVRSK WKDW RSSRVHV HVVHQWLDOLVW RSWLPLVP LWV UHSUHVHQWDWLYHV GHQ WKDW LW LV D SHVVLPLVW RQH ,Q ([LVWHQWLDOLVP LV D KXPDQLVP -HDQ 3DXO 6DUWUH VWDQGV DJDLQVW WKLV labeling and claims that as long as man is only what he makes out of KLPVHOI DV ORQJ KH LV VLQFHUH WR KLPVHOI DQG WKH RQO GHVLJQHU WKHQ ZH GHDO ZLWK DQ RSWLPLVWLF KDUGQHVV 2I FRXUVH WKLV GRHV QRW PHDQ RQ WKH FRQWUDU WKH FRQVXEVWDQWLDO DQ[LHW RI H[LVWHQFH 5HWXUQLQJ WR 7LOOLFK KH GLVFRYHUV H[LVWHQWLDO DWWLWXGHV LQ WKH KLVWRU RI :HVWHUQ WKRXJKW IURP 3ODWR 6W $XJXVWLQH WR 'DQWH $OLJKLHUL LQ WKH 'LYLQH RPHG EXW DOVR DW DUWLVWV VXFK DV %RVFK *UQHZDOG %UHXJKHO 2Q WKH RWKHU KDQG DQ DQWL-H[LVWHQWLDOLVW WUHQG ZKRVH PDLQ UHSUHVHQWDWLYH LV 'HVFDUWHV ZDV UHFRUGHG 6DQGX
  17. 17. . % SXWWLQJ PDQ LQ SDUHQWKHVHV DV +XVVHUO ZRXOG VD ZKR derived his phenomenological method from CaUWHVLXV
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  19. 19. ZKR LQIOXHQFHG .LHUNHJDDUG 6FKRSHQKDXHU )HXHUEDFK 0DU[ 1LHW]VFKH 0D[ :HEHU ,Q DUWV p]DQQH 9DQ *RJK DQG 0XQFK DQG LQ OLWHUDWXUH %DXGHODLUH 5LPEDXG )ODXEHUW 'RVWRLHYVNL ,EVHQ DQG 6WULQGEHUJ LPSRVHG WKHLU QDPHV LQ WKH history of their disciplines.The core of thLV UHEHOOLRQ LQ 7LOOLFK V DQDOVLV represents the fact that the safety guaranteed by the proper functioning RI WKH PHFKDQLVPV IRU WHFKQLFDO FRQWURO RI QDWXUH UHILQHG SVFKRORJLFDO FRQWURO RI WKH SHUVRQ DQG LQFUHDVLQJ RUJDQL]DWLRQDO FRQWURO RI VRFLHW LV REWDLQHG ZLWK D KXJH SULFH PDQ IRU ZKRP DOO RI WKHVH ZHUH LQYHQWHG 93 NECULA, M., R., DAMIAN, S., I., BUNEA, O., (2012) Humanist Therapies in Postmodernity, Postmodern Openings, Vol.3, Issue 3, September, pp:89-106.
  20. 20. Postmodern Openings DV PHDQV EHFRPHV KLPVHOI PHDQV WR VHUYH RWKHU PHDQV 0DQ ORVW DQ PHDQLQJ HLWKHU RXWVLGH KLP RU KLPVHOI DV D PHDQLQJ +H LV KRZHYHU aware of these losses and the awarness of these sacrifices leads to anguish and despair. +H PDQ
  21. 21. UHDFWV ZLWK WKH FRXUDJH RI GHVSDLU WKH FRXUDJH RI taking desperation on himself and resisting the radical threat of nonEHLQJ E GDULQJ WR EH KLPVHOI (DFK UHVHDUFKHU RI SKLORVRSK DUW DQG H[LVWHQWLDO literature may be capable to underline their structural DPELJXLW ODFN RI PHDQLQJ OHDGV WR GHVSDLU WR D SDVVLRQDWH GHQXQFLDWLRQ RI WKLV VLWXDWLRQ DQG WR DQ XQVXFFHVVIXO DWWHPSW WR WDNH WKH DQ[LHW RI meaninglessness as the courage to be in himself (TillLFK S
  22. 22. 7LOOLFK FRQVLGHUV H[LVWHQWLDOLVP DV WKH DVVXPSWLRQ RI GHVSDLU WKH FRXUDJH WR DVVXPH WKH DQJXLVK WKH FRXUDJH WR GHVSDLU LQWR D GLUHFWLRQ WKDW ZLOO EH IXUWKHU H[SORLWHG LQ ,UYLQ ' DORP V H[LVWHQWLDO psychotherapy. The two most important representatives of contemporary H[LVWHQWLDOLVP DUH 0DUWLQ +HLGHJJHU DQG -HDQ 3DXO 6DUWUH 7KH *HUPDQ H[LVWHQWLDOLVW SKLORVRSKHU UDLVHV TXHVWLRQV FRQFHUQLQJ WKH DXWKHQWLFLW RI KXPDQ H[LVWHQFH DQG WKH UHODWLRQV EHWZHHQ PDQ DQG 'DVHLQ WKH VWDWH RI being in the world. $V D SUHFXUVRU RI SRVWPRGHUQ WKLQNLQJ +HLGHJJHU HPSKDVL]HV WKH DEVROXWH VXEMHFWLYLW RI WKH LQGLYLGXDO KLV ORQHOLQHVV being confronted only with his individual conscience because neither *RG QRU FRQYHQWLRQV RU ODZV RI UHDVRQ QR UXOHV Rr principles are grounds for action. 0DQ LQ KLV VWDWH RI RSHQQHVV (QWVFKORVVHQKHLW
  23. 23. LV the one who makes right what must be right. +HLGHJJHU V H[WUHPH SRVLWLRQ KDV D QXPEHU RI HIIHFWV RQ WKH RQH KDQG WKH *HUPDQ philosopher emphasizes the precarious cRQGLWLRQ RI PDQ LQ WKH ZRUOG WKDW RI EHLQJ WKURZQ LQWR WKH ZRUOG JHQHUDWLQJ DQ[LHW In terms of GLVHDVH RU PHQWDO LPEDODQFH WKLV VWDWXV LV HVSHFLDOO GDQJHURXV EHFDXVH LW LV QRW D SKLORVRSKLFDO FRQFHSW EXW UDWKHU DQ H[SHULHQFH JHQHUDWHG E D limit- VLWXDWLRQ ZKLFK FDQ OHDG WR D ORVV FRQILUPDWLRQ
  24. 24. LQ WKH PHDQLQJ RI H[LVWHQFH EXW DOVR SDUDGR[LFDOO WR WKH UHGLVFRYHU RI LW 2Q WKH RWKHU KDQG +HLGHJJHU HPSKDVL]HV WKH SHUVRQDO UHVSRQVLELOLW RI WKH LQGLYLGXDO to lead a genuine life. )LQDOO KLV SKLlosophy produced even historical HIIHFWV DVSHFW ZKLFK GRHVQ W LQWHUHVW XV KHUH In line with the idea of individual responsibility is Jean Paul 6DUWUH V H[LVWHQWLDOLVP 7KH )UHQFK SKLORVRSKHU FRQVLGHUV WKDW WKH SKUDVH 94 NECULA, M., R., DAMIAN, S., I., BUNEA, O., (2012) Humanist Therapies in Postmodernity, Postmodern Openings, Vol.3, Issue 3, September, pp:89-106.
  25. 25. Humanist Therapies in Postmodernit.. 0DJGDOHQD 5R[DQD 1(8/$ 6LPRQD ,ULQD '$0,$1 2YLGLX %81($ which describes his orientation is e[LVWHQFH SUHFHGHV HVVHQFH $WKHLVW H[LVWHQWLDOLVP DPRQJ ZKRVH UHSUHVHQWDWLYHV , FRQVLGHU PVHOI VDV YHU FOHDUO WKDW LI *RG GRHV QRW H[LVW DW OHDVW RQH EHLQJ H[LVWV ZKRVH H[LVWHQFH SUHFHGHV HVVHQFH D EHLQJ ZKLFK H[LVWV EHIRUH LW FDQ EH GHILQHG by any conception of it. 7KDW EHLQJ LV PDQ RU DV +HLGHJJHU VDV Dasein. :KDW GR ZH PHDQ ZKHQ ZH VD WKDW H[LVWHQFH SUHFHGHV HVVHQFH 0DQ ILUVW H[LVWV EHFRPHV DZDUH RI KLP RFFXUV LQ WKH ZRUOG - and only WKHQ KH GHILQHV KLPVHOI ,I PDQ DV WKH H[LVWHQWLDOLVW VHH KLP LV QRW GHILQDEOH WKDW LV EHFDXVH LQ WKH EHJLQQLQJ KH LV QRWKLQJ He will be VRPHWKLQJ ODWHU ZKHQ KH ZLOO EH ZKDW KH EHFRPHV 7KXV WKHUH LV QR human nature because there is no God to have a conception of it. 0DQ VLPSO LV QRW WKDW KH LV ZKDW KH FRQFHLYHV KLPVHOI WR EH EXW KH LV ZKDW KH ZDQWV DQG ZKDW KH FRQFHLYHV KLPVHOI DIWHU DOUHDG H[LVWLQJ - as he SURMHFWV KLPVHOI WR EH DIWHU WKDW OHDS WRZDUGV H[LVWHQFH 0DQ LV QRWKLQJ else than what he makes out of himself. This is the first principle of H[LVWHQWLDOLVP 6DUWUH SS -
  26. 26. $V , PHQWLRQHG HDUOLHU 6DUWUH FRQVLGHUV KLV SKLORVRSK WR EH optimistic as it leaves man open all ways of action (there is not any other doctrine more optimistic because human destiny is in himself (...)). He is not only free but condemned to freedom because he cannot be otherwise. $Q GHWHUPLQDWLRQ PD EH RYHUUXQ DQG WKHUHIRUH D personal failure cannot be blamed on it. 0DQ LV KLV RZQ FUHDWLRQ WKURXJK the choices he makes. A person - characters from sartrian novels or plays - LV QRW JLYHQ RQFH DQG IRU DOO EXW EHFRPHV DQG GHILQHV KLPVHOI permanently: a coward may take courageous choices and stop being a FRZDUG RU YLFH YHUVD ,Q KLV ERRN 3DXO 7LOOLFK HPSKDVL]HV WKH GDQJHU WKDW DQ H[LVWHQWLDO psychotherapists must take into account. ([LVWHQWLDO SKLORVRSK OHDGV KXPDQ IUHHGRP WR WKH ODVW FRQVHTXHQFHV EXW KHUH D SDUDGR[ DULVHV A PRGHUQ FQLF DV WKH *HUPDQ WKHRORJLDQ QDPHV WKH RQH ZKR GRHVQ W IROORZ DQRQH EHFDXVH KDV QR UHDVRQ WR GR VR
  27. 27. RXW RI WKH GHVLUH WR prHVHUYH KLV IUHHGRP EHFRPHV LPPRELOH LH QRQ-free. The cynic cannot escape his own ego forces that may lead him to the complete loss of IUHHGRP KH ZLVKHV WR SUHVHUYH 7LOOLFK S
  28. 28. ([WUHPH FRQFHSWV WKH DXWKRU VHHPV WR VD OHDG WR H[WUHPH DWWLtudes as happened in history with the contemporary forms of neo-collectivism - 0DU[LVP and national socialism. 95 NECULA, M., R., DAMIAN, S., I., BUNEA, O., (2012) Humanist Therapies in Postmodernity, Postmodern Openings, Vol.3, Issue 3, September, pp:89-106.
  29. 29. Postmodern Openings Spirituality and mental illness 7KH ;;, FHQWXU ZLOO EH UHOLJLRXV RU LW ZRQ W EH DW DOO VDLG $QGUH 0DOUDX[ 7KLV H[SUHVVLRQ GHSHQGLQJ RQ ZKR is quoting it and the PHDQLQJ LV FRQIIHUHG WDNHV YDULRXV IRUPV LQVWHDG RI WKH ZRUG UHOLJLRXV VRPHWLPHV ZRUGV OLNH VSLULWXDO RU HYHQ PVWLFDO appear. +RZHYHU ZH FRQVLGHU LW LW LV REYLRXV WKDW ZH OLYH LQ D ZRUOG WRWDOO GLIIHUHQW IURP WKDW H[LVWLQJ at the beginning of the last century. 6RPH DVVXPH WKH GLIIHUHQFH FRQVLGHULQJ WKDW IURP VRPH WLPH ZH OLYH LQ SRVWPRGHUQLVP GUDZLQJ D FOHDU OLQH IURP ZKDW ZDV SUHYLRXVO modernism. A feature of postmodernism would be considering language as an instrument of destruction-construction of the world. Postmodernity emphasizes the power of words to create the ZRUOG 6DQGX S
  30. 30. DQG IURP KHUH ZKDW UHDOO PDWWHUV DUH QRW IDFWV EXW KRZ HDFK SHUVRQ UHSUHVHQWV DQG GHILQH WKHP DV DQ LQGLYLGXDO or as a group)”4. +HQFH UHJDUGLQJ WKH PHQWDOO LOO WKH GLVFXVVLRQ FDQ EH FDUULHG out on two levels: that of defining mental illness and how the patient himself defines his status and the situation in which he is situated. ,Q WKH DWWHPSW WR GHILQH WKH GLVHDVH VRPH argue that the patients DUH WKH UHVXOW RI LQFOXGLQJ SHRSOH LQ VRPH GLDJQRVWLF FDWHJRULHV LQ RWKHU ZRUGV WKH GLDJQRVLV FUHDWHV WKH SDWLHQW ,Q ,VUDHO :HFKVOHU V SXEOLFDWLRQ 7KH 1HXURVHV LGHQWLILHG DERXW D GR]HQ RI PHQWDO illnesses. ,Q LQ WKH +DQGERRN RI 3VFKLDWULF DQG 0HQWDO +JLHQH DERXW SVFKRJHQLF GLVRUGHU FRXOG EH IRXQG
  31. 31. ,Q ZLWK WKH SXEOLFDWLRQ RI WKH ILUVW 6WDWLVWLFDO 0DQXDO RI 0HQWDO 'LVRUGHUV 'LDJQRVWLF HGLWHG E WKH $PHULFDQ 3VFKLDWULF $VVRFLDWLRQ DERXW - psychogenic disorders were identified. 8QWLO WKH PDQXDO ZDV UHYLVHG WKUHH WLPHV :LWK WKH SXEOLFDWLRQ RI WKH '60 ,,,5 WKH QXPEHU RI PHQWDO GLVRUGHUV QHDUO WULSOHG UDQJLQJ EHWZHHQ - GHSHQGLQJ RQ the choice of border definitions). '60 ,9 IXUWKHU H[Wends the list *HUJHQ
  32. 32. :LWK WKH H[WHQVLRQ RI WKH OLVW WHUPV IURP LW DUH EHLQJ WDNHQ E H[SHUWV WKURZQ RQ WKH PDUNHW ZKHUH WKH FRPPRQ ODQJXDJH VWDUWV XVLQJ them as labels through which people define themselves and others. This would be the procesV WKURXJK ZKLFK WKH GLDJQRVWLF OHDGV LI QRW WR WKH 4 The Stoics have said: :KDW WURXEOHV SHRSOH DUH QRW IDFWV EXW their opinions of them (Epictetus) 96 NECULA, M., R., DAMIAN, S., I., BUNEA, O., (2012) Humanist Therapies in Postmodernity, Postmodern Openings, Vol.3, Issue 3, September, pp:89-106.
  33. 33. Humanist Therapies in Postmodernit.. 0DJGDOHQD 5R[DQD 1(8/$ 6LPRQD ,ULQD '$0,$1 2YLGLX %81($ GLVHDVH DW OHDVW WR LWV SUROLIHUDWLRQ LQ WKH VRFLDO HQYLURQPHQW Consider the following: '60-, LQ OLVWHG mental GLVRUGHUV '60-,, in PHQWDO GLVRUGHUV '60-,,, LQ UHDFKHG WR 4 and the last edition of '60-,9 LQ ,Q WKH V SVFKLDWULVWV estimated that one in ten Americans was mentally ill. ,Q the proportion reached one of two. 6RRQ HYHURQH will fall under this category -H[FHSW SVFKLDWULVWV of course. They will discover mental illness everywhere - H[FHSW in the laboratoryand will prescribe so many drugs as insurance companies will be willing to pay. :KLOH indeed there are people for whom medication or confinement is necessary to stop hurting them or otKHUV their number is not by far one from two or ten or a hundred 0DULQRII p.
  34. 34. :KDWHYHU WKH LQWHUHVWV XQGHUOLQJ WKLV VWDWH RI DIIDLU WKLV LV D IDFW and we believe that the emphasis should be shifted from the discovery E VRPH DV ZH KDYH VHHQ LQYHQWLRQ
  35. 35. RI WKH GLVHDVH WRZDUGV WKH LQGLYLGXDO UHVSRQVLELOLW IRU ZKDW KDSSHQV WR KLP WKLV EHLQJ WKH VHFRQG aspect that modern conceptions of social science can do in the field located at the intersection of psychiatry with sociology and social psychology 3RQHD
  36. 36. . In the first part of this article I stressed the social causes that can XQEDODQFH WKH PLQG GHWHUPLQLQJ WKHVH IDFWRUV VKRXOG QRW OHDG WR UHVLJQDWLRQ DQG DSDWK EXW RQ WKH FRQWUDU WR UHVSRQVLELOLW DQG activism in order to maintain WKH PHQWDO KHDOWK ,W GRHVQ W PDWWHU ZKDW RWKHUV KDYH GRQH RXW RI RX EXW ZKDW RX GLG IURP ZKDW RWKHUV KDYH GRQH RXW RI RX VDLG 6DUWUH WKH H[LVWHQWLDOLVW $OWKRXJK RIWHQ considered a philosophy of resignation and surrender to the absurdity of OLIH H[LVWHQWLDOLVP KDV OHG WR VRPH WKHUDSLHV WKDW EULQJ LQWR TXHVWLRQ D QHZ NLQG RI VSLULWXDOLW RQH WKDW ZH FRXOG FDOO WKH IUHHGRP RI PDQ LQ front of his own destiny. The great questions of life - :KR DP , :K GR , OLYH :KDW LV WKH PHDQLQJ RI OLIH – have been constantly avoided by specialists in social-KXPDQLVWLF VFLHQFHV EHLQJ FRQVLGHUHG WRR philosophical. +RZHYHU WKHUH DUH GHYHORSPHQWV LQ FRQWHPSRUDU psychotherapy that start precisely with these philosophical problems DVNHG E WKH SDWLHQWV SURYLGLQJ DQVZHUV WR LQWHUQDO LPEDODQFHV WKDW V why we consider them directly related to spirituality. 97 NECULA, M., R., DAMIAN, S., I., BUNEA, O., (2012) Humanist Therapies in Postmodernity, Postmodern Openings, Vol.3, Issue 3, September, pp:89-106.
  37. 37. Postmodern Openings Existential Psychotherapy – Irvin D. Yalom H[LVWHQWLDO-phenomenological therapists are followers of a form of psychotherapy with philosophical roots in the works of +HLGHJJHU 6DUWUH +XVVHUO DQG .LHUNHJDDUG ZKRVH ILUVW REMHFWLYH LV WR LQFUHDVH WKH SDWLHQWV VHOI-knowledge by broadening his perspectives on KLV RZQ OLIH DQG WKH ZRUOG DURXQG KLP 6HFRQG WKH WKHUDS DLPV WR KHOS the client to clarify the ways to proceed in the future based on lessons IURP WKH SDVW DQG FUHDWLQJ VRPHWKLQJ RI YDOXH OLIH EHLQJ ZRUWK OLYHG IRU LQ RWKHU ZRUGV WKH SURFHVV LQYROYHV FRQIURQWLQJ H[DPLQLQJ DQG reevaluating the problems and inherent limitations imposed to his options by the fact to be-in-the-ZRUOG 6SLQHOOL FLWHG 0DULQRII S
  38. 38. ,W LV EHOLHYHG WKDW H[LVWHQWLDO SVFKRWKHUDS ZLWK /XGZLJ %LQVZDQJHU V DWWHPSWV LQ WR DSSO WKHUDSHXWLFDOO +HLGHJJHU V WKHRU IROORZHG LQ WKH 8QLWHG 6WDWHV E 5ROOR 0D 7RGD WKH PDLQ IROORZHUV DUH ,UYLQ DORP LQ WKH 8QLWHG 6WDWHV DQG (PP YDQ 'HXU]HQ DQG (UQHVWR 6SLQHOOL DQG LQ WKH 8. DORP EHOLHYHV WKDW PHQWDO LOOQHVV LV WKH UHVXOW RI UHIXVDO RU LQDELOLW RI LQGLYLGXDOV WR VDWLVIDFWRU FRQIURQW WKH H[LVWHQWLDO DQ[LHW rHVXOWLQJ IURP WKH WHQVLRQ ZLWK WKH PDLQ FRQFHUQV RI H[LVWHQFH ([LVWHQWLDO 3VFKRWKHUDS LV D GQDPLF DSSURDFK RI WKHUDS WKDW IRFXVHV RQ WKH FRQFHUQV URRWHG LQ LQGLYLGXDO H[LVWHQFH DORP S
  39. 39. 7KH ´IXQGDPHQWDO FRQFHUQV DUH IRXU GHDWK IUHHGRP LVRODWLRQ DQG PHDQLQJOHVVQHVV )RU WKH SHUVRQ IDFHG ZLWK WKHVH FRQFHUQV WKHUH PD DSSHDU DQ LQQHU FRQIOLFW RWKHU WKDQ WKH )UHXGLDQ GULYH
  40. 40. GHYDVWDWLQJ IRU WKH KLP DORP DQDO]HV WKH FRQIURQWDWLRQ ZLWK HDFK RI WKHVH FRQFHUQV WULQJ WR GHYHORS VSHFLILc defense mechanisms. The accent is SODFHG RQ KRZ LQGLYLGXDOV UHVSRQG WR WKHVH H[LVWHQWLDO LVVXHV FRQVLGHUHG LQVXUPRXQWDEOH LI DQDO]HG XQWLO WKH ODVW FRQVHTXHQFHV GHDWK H[LVWV DQG ZLOO LUUHYRFDEO HQG DQG ZLOO HQG RXU OLIH PDQ LV FRQGHPQHG WR freedom and therefore responsible for absolutely everything that KDSSHQV KH LV DOVR DORQH ERWK WR KLPVHOI DQG HVSHFLDOO WR RWKHUV ILQDOO OLIH KDV DEVROXWHO QR PHDQLQJ DQ PHDQLQJ EHLQJ RSHQ WR FKDOOHQJH GHVWUXFWLRQ DQG FULWLFLVP (YHQ XQGHU WKHVH FRQGLWLRQV DORP EHOLHYHV WKDW WKHUH DUH VROXWLRQV RIIHUHG E WKH H[LVWHQWLDO WKHUDS 98 NECULA, M., R., DAMIAN, S., I., BUNEA, O., (2012) Humanist Therapies in Postmodernity, Postmodern Openings, Vol.3, Issue 3, September, pp:89-106.
  41. 41. Humanist Therapies in Postmodernit.. 0DJGDOHQD 5R[DQD 1(8/$ 6LPRQD ,ULQD '$0,$1 2YLGLX %81($ DORP V DSSURDFK FRQVLVWV LQ XQUDYHOOLQJ IURP HYHU GLIILFXOW situation the main concern of the client and help him deal with it VXFFHVVIXOO 5HJDUGLQJ GHDWK WKH $PHULFDQ SVFKRWKHUDSLVW EHOLHYHV IROORZLQJ +HLGHJJHU WKDW LW PDNHV DXWKHQWLF OLIH SRVVLEOH 'HDWK H[SHULHQFHV DUH RQH RI WKH OLPLWV ZKLFK HQDEOHV WKH WUDQVLWLRQ IURP WKH forgetfulness of being to the assumption of being. There are also another UHYHDOLQJ H[SHULHQFes that determine the individual to leap from one level RI H[LVWHQFH VXSHUILFLDO
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  47. 47. $QJXLVK LV ILQLWHQHVV H[SHULHQFHG DV RZQ ILQLWHQHVV 7KLV LV WKH PDQ V QDWXUDO DQ[LHW DV PDQ and somehow of all living beings. This is the anguish of non- being: the awareQHVV RI ILQLWHQHVV DV ILQLWHQHVV 7LOOLFK S
  48. 48. ,W PD VHHP WKDW WKHUH LV D FORVHQHVV EHWZHHQ DQ[LHW DQG IHDU EXW WKH GLIIHUHQFH between them is fundamental: fear has a defined object that can be IDFHG DQDO]HG DWWDFNHG HQGXUHG 7KLV LV WKH abandonment of philosophy and the beginning of psychotherapy and counseling. The WKHUDSLVW GRHVQ W ZRUN ZLWK WKH IHDUV EXW ZLWK KLV FOLHQW V IHDUV ,I ZH FRXOG WXUQ WKH IHDU RI QRWKLQJ LQWR IHDU RI VRPHWKLQJ ZH ZRXOG EH DEOH to initiate protective actions - LQ RWKHU ZRUGV WR DYRLG WKLQJV WKDW ZH IHDU GHYHORS PDJLFDO ULWXDOV WR GLPLQLVK LW SODQ D VVWHPDWLF FDPSDLJQ RI 99 NECULA, M., R., DAMIAN, S., I., BUNEA, O., (2012) Humanist Therapies in Postmodernity, Postmodern Openings, Vol.3, Issue 3, September, pp:89-106.
  49. 49. Postmodern Openings GHWR[LILFDWLRQ DOORP S
  50. 50. HUWDLQO WKH SVFKRWKHUDSLVW V RSWLRQ LV WKH WKLUG ,I D SHUVRQ DV FXUUHQWO KDSSHQV DYRLGV Iears or VXFFXPEV WR PDJLFDO ULWXDOV DORP LQFOXGHV UHOLJLRXV SUDFWLFHV WKDW KDYH WKH SXUSRVH RI GLPLQLVKLQJ WKH IHDU RI WRWDO H[WLQFWLRQ
  51. 51. KH ZLOO UHPRYH only some effects and in no case the causes underlying those fears. Only mature confrontation with thH GHHSHVW IHDUV RI WKH FOLHQW PD EH KHOSIXO and the solution is to eliminate the cause - IHDU RI GHDWK ORQHOLQHVV WKUHDW RI PHDQLQJOHVVQHVV DVSHFWV FRQVXEVWDQWLDO WR OLIH - but living with it consciously. % WKHVH PHDQV H[LVWHQWLDO SVFKRWKHUDS WULHs to transform through assumption DQG FRQIURQWDWLRQ WKH H[LVWHQWLDO SUREOHPV LQWR DOOLHV RI H[LVWHQFH LQWR PHDQV WR GHWHUPLQH WKH FOLHQW WR EHFRPH VWURQJHU and more integrated. 'HVSLWH WKHVH JHQHURXV LQWHQWLRQV WKLV WKHRU LV QRW H[HPSW IURP FULWLFLVP (PRSD
  52. 52. . One of the major criticism to this type of counseling reffers to the overestimation of the human ability WR FKRRVH WKHLU HPRWLRQDO UHVSRQVHV EXW REMHFWLRQV RI WKLV NLQG DUH RQO SDUWO MXVWLILHG DV WKH H[LVWHQWLDO-phenomenological therapy emphasizes that reflection on the way we are-in-the-world creates the possibility to change it. Choosing this option will affect our future emotional UHVSRQVHV DQG DFFRUGLQJO LW ZLOO LQFUHDVH WKH FRQWULEXWLRQ LQ WKH SURFHV of building our lives. Another criticism to therapies inspired by H[LVWHQWLDOLVP LV UHODWHG WR GRXEWV DERXW WKH SUHVHQFH RI VLJQLILFDQW meaning at the level of emotions. Although it is unlikely that all HPRWLRQV DUH ORDGHG ZLWK PHDQLQJ DQG SXUSRVH WKH FXVWRPHUV H[SORULQJ - facilitated E H[LVWHQWLDO FRXQVHORUV – RI WKHLU RZQ HPRWLRQDO UHVSRQVHV together with the warning that some emotions may represent QRQUHIOH[LYH UHDFWLRQV FDQ PDNH WKH ORVVHV LQVLJQLILFDQW +RZHYHU even if it grants emotions a place so important and provides an elaborate SODWIRUP WR H[SORUH WKH FXVWRPHU V VVWHP YDOXHV H[LVWHQWLDOSKHQRPHQRORJLFDO WKHUDS WKURXJK LWV LPDJH RI KXPDQ FRQGLWLRQ FDQQRW JXDUDQWHH WKH HUDGLFDWLRQ RI HPRWLRQDO GLVWUHVV DQ DVSHFW VDQFWLRQHG E PDQ RSSRQHQWV DQG FULWLFV 0DURQRII S
  53. 53. Logotherapy - Viktor Emil Frankl /RJRWKHUDS RU WKHUDS WKURXJK PHDQLQJ DV LWV QDPH VXJJHVWV focuses on searching and finding the meaning of life at the individual OHYHO´ +H ZKR KDV D UHDVRQ WR OLYH FDQ EHDU DOPRVW DQWKLQJµ DUH WKH 100 NECULA, M., R., DAMIAN, S., I., BUNEA, O., (2012) Humanist Therapies in Postmodernity, Postmodern Openings, Vol.3, Issue 3, September, pp:89-106.
  54. 54. Humanist Therapies in Postmodernit.. 0DJGDOHQD 5R[DQD 1(8/$ 6LPRQD ,ULQD '$0,$1 2YLGLX %81($ words RI 1LHW]VFKH WKH VWDUWLQJ SRLQW RI WKH *HUPDQ SVFKLDWULVW LQ GHYHORSLQJ KLV WKHRU ´/LIH GRHV QRW RZH XV KDSSLQHVV EXW JLYHV XV D PHDQLQJ VDV )UDQNO ZKR EHOLHYHV WKDW D OLIH WKDW PDNHV VHQVH HYHQ XQKDSS LV ZRUWK OLYLQJ DQG FRXOG OHDG WR IXOILOOment. The meaning of life can be found in three ways: % UHDOL]LQJ VRPHWKLQJ DQ DFW
  55. 55. PDNLQJ D ZRUN D PLVVLRQ etc. – creative values. ([SHULHQFLQJ VRPHWKLQJ JRRG EHDXW WUXWK LQ QDWXUH RU FXOWXUH
  56. 56. RU NQRZLQJ VRPHRQH LQ WKH SULYDF RI KLV EHLQJ lovLQJ KLPKHU - H[SHULHQWLDO YDOXHV % WKH DWWLWXGH ZH WDNH LQ VSLWH RI DGYHUVLW RU DQG XQFKDQJHDEOH VXIIHULQJ UHOLQJ RQ WKH GHILDQW SRZHU RI KXPDQ VSLULW ZKLFK LV FDSDEOH WR WXUQ D PLVIRUWXQH VXIIHULQJ into a personal achievement - attitudinal values. )UDQNO V SVFKRWKHUDS VHHPV WR EH EXLOW DURXQG VXIIHULQJ DQG the struggle with it. This is only partly true - suffering is not necessary to ILQG D PHDQLQJ LQ OLIH EXW ZKHQ LW LV LQHYLWDEOH PDQ FDQ ILQG D PHDQLQJ LQ VSLWH RI VXIIHULQJ LI SRVVLEOH Whe cause of suffering should be UHPRYHG WR VXIIHU ZLWKRXW KDYLQJ WR LV QRW DQ DFW RI KHURLVP EXW D masochist gesture. $V WKH H[LVWHQWLDOLVW SKLORVRSKHUV 9LNWRU )UDQNO EHOLHYHV LQ WKH DEVROXWH IUHHGRP RI WKH SHUVRQ SODFLQJ LW DW WKH EDVLV RI VDOYDWLRQ Dnd recovery. ´:H FDQQRW FRQFHLYH DQWKLQJ WR FRQGLWLRQ PDQ VR PXFK WR leave him without the slightest trace of freedom. 7KHUHIRUH HYHQ LQ FDVHV RI QHXURVLV DQG SVFKRVLV D UHPQDQW RI IUHHGRP VWLOO UHPDLQV however limited it may be. ,QGHHG WKH LQQHUPRVW FRUH RI WKH SDWLHQW V personality is not even touched by psychosis. An incurable psychotic PD ORVH XVHIXOQHVV EXW VWLOO SUHVHUYH WKH GLJQLW DV PDQ )UDQNO
  57. 57. This quote contains some of the most important beliefs that VXSSRUW )UDQNO V FRQFHSWLRQ These are the following: 7KH KXPDQ EHLQJ LV DQ HQWLW FRQVLVWLQJ RI ERG VRPD
  58. 58. mind (psyche) and spirit (nous). :H KDYH ERG DQG PLQG EXW we are spirit. /LIH KDV PHDQLQJ XQGHU DOO FRQGLWLRQV HYHQ LQ WKH WRXJKHVW People are endowed with the will to ILQG PHDQLQJ WR JLYH D meaning. 101 NECULA, M., R., DAMIAN, S., I., BUNEA, O., (2012) Humanist Therapies in Postmodernity, Postmodern Openings, Vol.3, Issue 3, September, pp:89-106.
  59. 59. Postmodern Openings 3HRSOH KDYH LQ HYHU VLWXDWLRQ WKH IUHHGRP WR H[SUHVV WKH ZLOO of meaning. /LIH TXHVWLRQV XV WKH GHPDQGLQJ TXDOLW
  60. 60. LW KROGV XV accountable and we must respond responsibly for our own OLYHV VR WKDW RXU GHFLVLRQV EHFRme meaningful. :H DQVZHU WR OLIH E EHFRPLQJ UHVSRQVLEOH IRU RXU RZQ lives. 7KH LQGLYLGXDO LV XQLTXH KHQFH LWV XQLTXH UROH LQ OLIH /LIH GRHV QRW RZH XV KDSSLQHVV EXW JLYHV XV PHDQLQJ +XPDQ H[LVWHQFH LV FKDUDFWHUL]HG E VXIIHULQJ DQG WKH SUREOHP of meaning is essential. )UDQNO EHOLHYHV WKDW VXIIHULQJ ZLWKRXW D SXUSRVH OLNH ZRUN RU FUHDWLRQ ORYH RU DQ RSWLRQ LQ D JLYHQ VLWXDWLRQ LPPXWDEOH that cannot be changed) leads to despair. )RU DQ SHUVRQ ZKHWKHU WKH DYHUDJH SHUVRQ GLVDEOHG RU WHUPLQDOO LOO
  61. 61. WKH FRQFOXVLRQ ZRXOG EH YDOLG HPSLULFDOO YDOLGDWHG WKDW OLIH KDV PHDQLQJ XQWLO WKH ODVW EUHDWK LQ DQ FLUFXPVWDQFH QR PDWWHU KRZ PLVHUDEOH LW ZRXOG EH Once man founds a JDS LQ KLV OLIH KH EDODQFHV KLV LQQHU OLIH DQG LV FDSDEOH WR GR HYHUWKLQJ )UDQNO KDV WUDJLFDOO YDOLGDWHG KLV WKHRU ZKHQ LQ ZDV VHQW WR WKH FRQFHQWUDWLRQ FDPS WRJHWKHU ZLWK KLV IDWKHU PRWKHU DQG WZR VLVWHUV He KDG ZLWK KLP WKH PDQXVFULSW LQ ZKLFK KH GHVFULEHG KLV WKHRU EXW LW ZDV confiscated and destroyed. After his UHOHDVH KH UHZURWH WKH PDQXVFULSW SXEOLVKHG DV 7KH 'RFWRU DQG WKH VRXO
  62. 62. VWDWLQJ WKDW KH RZHV KLV VXUYLYDO WR WKH HIIRUW RI UHVWRULQJ WKH FRQILVFDWHG PDQXVFULSW /DWHU KH ZDV DFFXVHG E KLV FULWLFV WKDW KH H[FHVVLYHO WKHRUL]HG KLV H[SHULHQFH $OVR )UDQNO ZDV DFFXVHG RI DXWKRULWDULDQLVP 5ROOR 0D IRU H[DPSOH VXJJHVWHG WKDW )UDQNO·V WKHUDS SUHVHQWV D SODLQ VROXWLRQ WR DOO RI OLIH·V SUREOHPV DQ DVVHUWLRQ WKDW ZRXOG VHHP WR XQGHUPLQH WKH FRPSOH[LW RI KXPDQ OLIH LWVHOI 0D FRQWHQGHG WKDW LI D SDWLHQW FRXOG QRW ILQG KLV RZQ PHDQLQJ )UDQNO SURYLGHG D JRDO IRU KLV SDWLHQW ,Q HIIHFW WKLV ZRXOG QHJDWH WKH SDWLHQW·V SHUVRQDO UHVSRQVLELOLW WKXV ´GLPLQLVKLQJ@ WKH patient as a person” (KWWSHQZLNLSHGLDRUJZLNL/RJRWKHUDS). Humanistic psychotherapy - Carl R. Rogers $V WKH QDPH VXJJHVWV WKLV WKHRU LV EDVHG RQ WKH EHOLHI WKDW WKH positive nucleus of the human person can be reached by thH SDWLHQW ZLWK or without the help of the therapist. Part of this task is to understand all WKH OLPLWDWLRQV DQG VRFLDO GHWHUPLQDWLRQV WKDW KDYH DIIHFWHG WKH VXEMHFW V 102 NECULA, M., R., DAMIAN, S., I., BUNEA, O., (2012) Humanist Therapies in Postmodernity, Postmodern Openings, Vol.3, Issue 3, September, pp:89-106.
  63. 63. Humanist Therapies in Postmodernit.. 0DJGDOHQD 5R[DQD 1(8/$ 6LPRQD ,ULQD '$0,$1 2YLGLX %81($ personality and inner freedom. 7KXV ZH UHDFK ZKDW WKH H[LVWHQWLDOLVWV have called the DXWKHQWLF , XQERXQG E VRFLDO FRQVWUDLQWV In my H[SHULHQFH SHRSOH KDYH D IXQGDPHQWDOO SRVLWLYH GLUHFWLRQ I see that this LV WUXH LQ P FRQWDFWV ZLWK LQGLYLGXDOV ZKR DUH LQ WKHUDS HYHQ ZLWK WKRVH ZKRVH SUREOHPV DUH H[WUHPHO GLVWXUELQJ ZKRVH EHKDYior was H[WUHPHO DQWLVRFLDO ZKRVH IHHOLQJV VHHP H[WUHPHO DEQRUPDO If I can XQGHUVWDQG WKH ZD WKH H[SUHVV WKHLU IHHOLQJV LI , DP DEOH WR DFFHSW WKHP DV GLVWLQFW SHUVRQV WKH WHQG WR PRYH LQ FHUWDLQ GLUHFWLRQV And what are the directions towards whiFK WKH WHQG WR PRYH 7KH ZRUGV WKDW SURSHUO GHVFULEH WKLV DVSHFW DUH ZRUGV OLNH SRVLWLYH FRQVWUXFWLYH PRYHPHQW WRZDUGV VHOI LPSURYHPHQW LQFUHDVH LQ PDWXULW JURZWK LQ socialization. I came to believe that the more the individual is fully understood aQG DFFHSWHG WKH PRUH OLNHO KH WHQGV WR UHQRXQFH WKH IDOVH PDVNV KH XVHG LQ KLV OLIH LQ RUGHU WR FDUU RQ LQ WKH ´IRUZDUGµ direction.
  64. 64. , DP DZDUH WKDW GHVSLWH WKHLU GHIHQVLYH VWDQFH DQG SHUVRQDO IHDUV LQGLYLGXDOV FDQ EHKDYH DQG WKH HYHQ GR LW VRPHWLPHV LQ LQFUHGLEO FUXHO KRUULEO GHVWUXFWLYH LPPDWXUH UHJUHVVLYH DQG DQWL-social ways. $QG HW RQH RI WKH PRVW UHIUHVKLQJ DQG FRPIRUWLQJ SDUW RI P H[SHULHQFH LV ZRUNLQJ ZLWK VXFK LQGLYLGXDOV DQG WR GLVFRYHU LQ WKHP strongly positive directional treQGV DV LQ DOO RI XV DW WKH GHHSHVW OHYHOV 5RJHUV S
  65. 65. %DVHG RQ WKLV FRQYLFWLRQ 5RJHUV GHYHORSHG D PHWKRG WR OHDG WKH SDWLHQW WR FRQIURQW ZLWK ZKDW KHVKH LV DW WKH GHHSHVW SRVVLEOH OHYHO WR XQGHUVWDQG DQG XOWLPDWHO WR DFFHSW KLPKHUVHOI. If at the beginning this URDG LV FRYHUHG WRJHWKHU ZLWK WKH SVFKRWKHUDSLVW WKHQ WKH FOLHQW OHDUQV WR EH FRXUDJHRXV WR EH KLPVHOI DQG WR EHFRPH DXWRQRPRXV 6DQGX
  66. 66. . 7KLV LV D GLIIHUHQW SRVLWLRQ IURP WKDW RI H[LVWHQWLDO SVFKRWKHUDS DW OHDVW LQ WKH IRUP H[SUHVVHG E ,UYLQ DORP 5RJHUV takes into account a positive nucleus of man (a concept often found in other New Age theories rooted in different religions) towards which the LQGLYLGXDO PRYHV QDWXUDOO WKLV EHLQJ D MRXUQH RI VHOI GLVFRYHU ZKLFK KRZHYHU FDQ VRPHWLPHV EH FURVVHG WKZDUWHG E VRFLDO QRUPV GLVWRUWHG UHSUHVHQWDWLRQV RI VHOI LQDELOLW WR VHOI-H[SUHVVLRQ HWF This approach is not always easy and the client needs help and support from the therapist. $OWKRXJK DUO 5RJHUV LV D SVFKRWKHUDSLVW DQG FRXQVHORU VWURQJO DQFKRUHG LQ UHDOLW KH IHHOV WKH QHHG WR EDVH KLV UHVHDUFK RQ 103 NECULA, M., R., DAMIAN, S., I., BUNEA, O., (2012) Humanist Therapies in Postmodernity, Postmodern Openings, Vol.3, Issue 3, September, pp:89-106.
  67. 67. Postmodern Openings SKLORVRSKLFDO VXSSRUW IRXQGLQJ LW DW WKH IRUHUXQQHU RI H[LVWHQWLDOLVW SKLORVRSK 6RUHQ .LHUNHJDDUG 2QH RI 5RJHUV DUWLFOHV LV FDOOHG To be that self which you truly are The theory of a psychotherapist on personal goals ZKHUH KH SUHVHQWHG KLV FRQFOXVLRQV DERXW WKH FXVWRPHUV GLUHFWLRQV LQ the free climate of the therapeutic relationship. ,Q IDFW WKH SUREOHP LV WKH JRDO RX KDYH LQ OLIH RXU SXUSRVH DQG LQ JHQHUDO WKH PHDQLQJ RI life. (DFK SHUVRQ DW OHDVW LQ VRPH PRPHQWV RI KLV OLIH DVNV KLPVHOI WKHVH questions and not founding a satisfactory response can lead to internal imbalances. 5RJHUV EHOLHYHV WKDW WKH JRDO RI OLIH DV LW ZDV UHYHDOHG LQ KLV relatLRQ ZLWK WKH FOLHQWV LV H[SUHVVHG E .LHUNHJDDUG V ZRUGV 7R EH that self which you really are )XUWKHU KH GHVFULEHV LQ KLV DUWLFOH WKH manners in which the clients – in client-centered counseling or nonGLUHFWLYH H[HUFLVH WKH LQLWLDWRU V JRDO LV QRW to influence or direct him – PDQDJH WR UHDFK WKHPVHOYHV 7KH SURFHVV EHJLQV ZLWK DQ ´DSSHDUDQFH UHPRYDOµ RI WKH DOLHQDWLQJ VHOI DFFHSWLQJ LQ SDUDOOHO ZKR KH UHDOO LV D IULJKWHQHG SHUVRQ KLGLQJ EHKLQG D IDFDGH D PDVN VKRZQ WR WKH public). 5HPRYLQJ WKH QHHG LV WKH QH[W VWHS UHVSHFWLYHO RI VRPH VRFLDO PRGHOV RU RI D JRRG ULJKW SHUVRQ HWF 7KH FOLHQW V FRQFOXVLRQ from this analysis is: I do not care what you say! I will not be ashamed of myself. ,Q FRQWLQXDWLRQ RI WKH SUHYLRXV WHQGHQFLHV WKH Flient will UHPRYH WKH IXOILOOPHQW RI RWKHUV H[SHFWDWLRQV LH VRFLDO FRQIRUPLW WKH requirement to be as it is required - H[SOLFLWO RU LPSOLFLWO - to be. The consequence of going through these stages is to stop pleasing others. 6R IDU 5RJHUV GHVFULbed how customers define themselves QHJDWLYHO KRZ WKH H[SUHVV ZKDW WKH GRQ W ZDQW WR EH ZKDW WKH GRQ W want to do anymore. %XW ZKHUH DUH WKH KHDGHG )LUVW WKH FOLHQW PRYHV WRZDUG DXWRQRP E WKLV , PHDQ WKDW JUDGXDOO WR FKRRVH WKRVH JRDOV he wants to achieve. He decides which activities and ways of being are PHDQLQJIXO IRU KLP DQG ZKLFK QRW 5RJHUV S
  68. 68. $OVR WKH client in the free environment of the therapeutic relationship begins to IHHO WKH H[LVWHQFH DV SURFHVV IOXLGLW FKDQJH He no longer analyzes KLPVHOI LQ WKH ULJLG IUDPHV RI D VWDWLF GHVLJQ ZLWK IL[HG JRDOV EXW DFFHSWV KLPVHOI DV GQDPLFDOO FKDQJLQJ XQSUHGLFWDEOH VXUSULVLQJ A component of To be that self which you truly are is the emergence of open and friendly relatLRQVKLSV ZLWK RXU RZQ H[SHULHQFHV ,W LV DERXW WKH Nietzsche also said it: „Become what you really are!” 104 NECULA, M., R., DAMIAN, S., I., BUNEA, O., (2012) Humanist Therapies in Postmodernity, Postmodern Openings, Vol.3, Issue 3, September, pp:89-106.
  69. 69. Humanist Therapies in Postmodernit.. 0DJGDOHQD 5R[DQD 1(8/$ 6LPRQD ,ULQD '$0,$1 2YLGLX %81($ DFFHSWDQFH DQG XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI RZQ IHHOLQJV DQG H[SHULHQFHV VR WKDW they would become allies and not enemies. He (the client) is not anymore afraid of what he might find. He comes to understand that his UHDFWLRQV DQG LQQHU H[SHULHQFHV WKH PHVVDJHV IURP WKH VHQVHV DQG WKH YLVFHUD DUH KLV DOOLHV WKXV KH VWDUWV WR XQGHUVWDQG KLV LQWHUQDO VRXUFHV RI LQIRUPDWLRQ UDWKHU WKDQ EORFN LW 5RJHUV S
  70. 70. Self acceptance leads to acceptance of other individuals as they are and an increase in self-confidence. To be what you really are is the way in life that he appreciates mostly when he is free to move in any direction. It is not a VLPSOH FKRLFH RI DQ LQWHOOHFWXDO YDOXH EXW DSSHDUV WR EH WKH EHVW descrLSWLRQ RI VWXWWHULQJ DQG YDFLOODWLQJ EHKDYLRUV WKURXJK ZKLFK KH DSSURDFKHV H[SORULQJ ZKDW KH ZDQWV WR EH 5RJHUV S
  71. 71. The therapist emphasizes the difficulty of this approach and that this finding oneself is more a search for self because iW GRHVQ W DFWXDOO UHDFK DQ end. 0RUH WKDQ D JRDO LW LV D ZD RI OLIH $OWKRXJK WKH DSSURDFK GHVFULEHG DERYH PD VHHP H[FHVVLYHO WKHRUHWLFDO RU SODLQ VLPSOH LWV VWDNH LV LPSRUWDQW 5RJHUV XVHV WKH WHUP congruence defined as consistent correlation betweHQ H[SHULHQFH DQG DZDUHQHVV 5RJHUV S
  72. 72. 2U LI WKH LQGLYLGXDO LV LQFRQVLVWHQW LQ KLV UHODWLRQV SUHVHQWLQJ WR WKH ZRUOG ZKDW KH LV QRW WKH IDOVH PDVNV YLD two mechanisms - distortion and denial) are reflected in a defensive behavior and a riJLG LQWHUQDO VWUXFWXUH 7KXV LQFRQVLVWHQF OHDGV WR D type of behavior that can be described as neurotic and which can degenerate into pathological behavior. These three orientations in modern and contemporary psychotherapy we consider to be spiritual theories because they appeal WR PDQ V SRZHU - which can be considered having a divine nature – to get ULG RI ZKDW LW LV QRW SURSHU ZKDW is binding and obliges him to be what KHVKH LV QRW D PHQWDOO LOO SHUVRQ :LWK KHOS IURP RWKHUV RU WKURXJK own efforW WKHVH WKUHH WKHRULHV WU WR FRQYLQFH XV WKDW PDQ DV DQ individual and not as patient) has the strength of liberation and becoming. 7KHVH SVFKRWKHUDSLHV EXW QRW RQO WKHVH IRFXV on the LQGLYLGXDO ZLWK KLV SHUVRQDO UHVRXUFHV ZKR ZLWK WKH KHOS RI Whe FRXQVHO WHQGV WR overcome the crises in which he is involved. 105 NECULA, M., R., DAMIAN, S., I., BUNEA, O., (2012) Humanist Therapies in Postmodernity, Postmodern Openings, Vol.3, Issue 3, September, pp:89-106.
  73. 73. Postmodern Openings References %UXFNQHU 3
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  79. 79. Înghite Platon, nu Prozac (GLWXUD 7UHL %XFXUHûWL 3RQHD 6
  80. 80. O lume diferit, o lume la fel. Integrarea sociala a persoanelor cu disabilitati locomotorii, (GLWXUD /XPHQ ,DVL 3RSD )
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  85. 85. ([LVWHQŗLDOLVPXO HVWH XQ XPDQLVP (GLWXUD *HRUJH RûEXF %LVWULŗD 1ĈVĈXG SandX $.
  86. 86. 7HKQLFL DILUPDWLY DSUHFLDWLYH vQ GH]YROWDUHD RUJDQL]DŗLRQDOĈ (GLWXUD /XPHQ ,DûL 7LOOLFK 3.
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  89. 89. PrivLQG VRDUHOH vQ IDŗĈ (GLWXUD 9HOODQW %XFXUHûWL Surse internet KWWSSODWRVWDQIRUGHGXHQWULHVSRVWPRGHUQLVP DFFHVDW SH PDUWLH KWWSHQZLNLSHGLDRUJZLNL/RJRWKHUDS DFFHVDWĈ SH PDUWLH Acknowledgements This paper/study was realised within the Project “Postdoctoral Studies in the Field of Health Policy Ethics” POSDRU/89/1.5/S/61879, co-financed by European Social Fund by Sectorial Operational Program for the Development of Human Resources 2007-2013. 106 NECULA, M., R., DAMIAN, S., I., BUNEA, O., (2012) Humanist Therapies in Postmodernity, Postmodern Openings, Vol.3, Issue 3, September, pp:89-106.

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