Matterb

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Matterb

  1. 2. <ul><li>Mixtures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A combination of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retain its own composition and properties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous mixtures-The composition of the mixture changes from place to place in it….its not uniform (chocolate chip cookie) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homogeneous Mixtures- The composition of the mixture does not change from place to place in it…it is uniform (Kool-Aid) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solutions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pure Substances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A homogeneous sample of matter that has the same composition and properties throughout. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These cannot be broken down into other substances without changing its identity and properites. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Element </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are pure substances that cannot be broken down into other substances by ordinary means. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entries on the periodic table are all elements. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical Compounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A pure substance that can be decomposed into two or more simpler substances by an ordinary chemical change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By heating, reacting or dissolving. Not however, by nuclear reaction. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Law of Definite proportions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A chemical compound contains the same elements in the same proportion regardless of the size of the sample or the source of the compound. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water is always H 2 O </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Table salt is always NaCl </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>All matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties; Atoms of different elements have different size, mass and other properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms cannot be subdivided, created or destroyed. </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>4. Atoms of different elements can combine in simple, whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>5. In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged. </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Parts </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of two particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive Proton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has the same charge as an electron just opposite charged </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Never leaves the nucleus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An Atom of an element cannot gain or lose these, or it will become another element </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has a mass of 1.673x10 -24 grams </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neutron </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has no charge </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has a mass of 1.675x10 -24 grams </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These do not leave the nucleus, but do not dictate what element the atom is. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Outside the Nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negative charge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be lost or gain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This does not change the element, but does change the charge of the atom, making it an ion. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has much less mass than neutrons or protons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9.110x10 -28 grams. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Atomic Number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the number of protons in a nucleus of an atom of a particular element. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mass Number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom of a particular element. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorine -37 or 37 Cl 17 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Isotopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are atoms that have a different atomic mass number than other atoms of the same element. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They have a different number of neutrons than others. </li></ul></ul></ul>

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