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Multimodal education for inequality:
exploring privilege in visual arts students’ e-portfolio personas
by Noakes and Walto...
Research
Contributions
12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 2
1 Action research intervention <appropriation of visual ar...
12/12/16 3
Presentation by @travisnoakes
Illustration by Anja Venter
See Phone to Photoshop: Mobile workarounds in young p...
12/12/16 4
Presentation by @travisnoakes
Illustration by Anja Venter
Figure 2. ‘Inequalities in access to formal participa...
12/12/16 5
Presentation by @travisnoakes
Illustration by Anja Venter
Figure 3. ‘Silos in school subjects’. Illustration by...
There are many online portfolio services to choose from (i.e. see Diigo social bookmarks ‘eportfolio’ tag)
12/12/16 Presen...
12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 7
Digital portfolios serve as cultural and symbolic capitals that may help justify
...
‘visual arts showcase e-portfolios’
meta-genre
• New syllabi primarily supported matric-exhibition preparation.
Presentati...
12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 9
Fields in the articulation of digital personas
via showcase e-portfolios
Figure 7...
Profile
description
Profile
image
Portfolio
title
Contact
details
Areas of
expertise
SkillsFooter
Artist. Date.
Folder
Nam...
12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 11
Whereas in earlier times, apposite words to describe activities
around publicati...
Action research fieldwork 2010 - 2013
Fieldwork (e-portfolio production) took place at an elite independent secondary scho...
12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 13
Types of (in)equality Properties divided
1 Technological Technological
opportuni...
Arts and Culture government focus school
•Incompatible ecologies with ten year old PCs.
•Few extra-mural and co-curricular...
16/12/12 Prepared by @travisnoakes 15
Lots of data
from four years of fieldwork…
1. E-portfolio lessons (30 independent sc...
Research questions and theoretical lenses
to research choices and contexts
12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 16
A
COM...
12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 17
Content Analysis
Representational patterns in
government school students’ self-p...
Government school students’
informal self-representations
12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 18
Mobile phone
Camera ph...
12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 19
Content Analysis
Representational patterns in
Independent school’s self-presenta...
Independent school students’
self-representations
Presentation by @travisnoakes 2012/12/16
Drawn or painted
Mobile phone
C...
12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 21
Checklist for the evidence of privilege
in visual arts e-portfolio personas
Legi...
Importance of online access
in curating digital personas
12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 22
Is there infrastructure...
The young person’s digital hexis
for e-portfolio curation
12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 23
The process of digital...
12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 24
Relationship of an individual’s habituses
to affinity spaces in articulating e-p...
George’s disciplinary
touchstone e-portfolio-
Five thumbnail page examples
12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 25
Figur...
12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 26
Reproducing of a disciplined identity
case #1 George (independent school student...
12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 27
Nathan’s e-portfolio
Four thumbnail page
examples
Figure 14. Anonymised table of...
12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 28
- No connection
to the internet
- No ownership of ICT
• Brief mentions of other ...
12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 29
Masibulele’s e-portfolio
Four thumbnail page examples
Figure 14. Anonymised tabl...
12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 30
Under-connected:
-Mobile internet
-Computer use in computer
lab and on home PC.
...
12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 31
Figure 15. Anonymised table of thumbnail webpages images from “Melissa’s” 2013 e...
12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 32
- Well connected
to the internet
- Own PC, professional
photo-, animation- and
3...
33
Figure 16. Anonymised table of thumbnail webpages images from “Kyle’s” 2012 e-portfolio, edited by Travis Noakes, 2016....
12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 34
- Well connected
to the internet
- Own laptop,
smartphone,
professional camera
e...
Evidence of inequality
and the symbolic reproduction of privilege
12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 35
1. Prosumer pe...
Reproduction of a Capetonian “creative class”
mostly from middle- and upper class origins
12/12/16 Presentation by @travis...
12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 37
In highly-constrained material and technological contexts, the concept of a
sign...
12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 38
Some recommendations for research
related to visual arts e-portfolios
1. How can...
THANKS to supporters of e-portfolio research
National Research Foundation.
University of Cape Town,
Department of Film and...
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Multimodal education for inequality 2016

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By contrast to often celebratory accounts of teaching contemporary digital media literacies, my thesis describes how the technological and material inequalities between students at a government and an independent school became mirrored in digital portfolios. Presented at the 8th International Conference on Multimodality http://www.8icom.co.za

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Multimodal education for inequality 2016

  1. 1. Multimodal education for inequality: exploring privilege in visual arts students’ e-portfolio personas by Noakes and Walton, 2016 “George” “Kyle”“Masibulele” “Melissa” “Nathan” 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 1 Prepared for ICOM8 http://8icom.co.za Inequality in digital personas: how access to material and technological resources are mirrored in visual arts students’ e-portfolios by Noakes, Walton, and Cronje, 2009-16
  2. 2. Research Contributions 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 2 1 Action research intervention <appropriation of visual arts e-portfolios, digital curation> 2 Longitudinal research fieldwork <2 -3 years> 3 VERY different levels of resourcing <covers media ecologies in school, at home> Default software values = disidentifiers Absence of social information = misidentifiers A digital hexis for developing a templated self Limitations young people face in expressing interests in e-portfolio styles Differing opportunities for identities negotiating disciplined personas Legitimated practices Differentiated practices Affinity spaces - Class - Race - Gender REMEDIATION LIFESTYLES
  3. 3. 12/12/16 3 Presentation by @travisnoakes Illustration by Anja Venter See Phone to Photoshop: Mobile workarounds in young people’s visual self-presentation strategies (Noakes, Walton, Venter & Cronje, 2014) Participation in art, design or ICT as “formal privilege” Figure 1. ‘Inequalities in access to formal participation in ICT, visual arts or visual design education’. Illustration by Anja Venter, 2014.
  4. 4. 12/12/16 4 Presentation by @travisnoakes Illustration by Anja Venter Figure 2. ‘Inequalities in access to formal participation in ICT, visual arts or visual design education’. Illustration by Anja Venter, 2014. School computer centres and art/design subjects as Capetonian “luxuries”
  5. 5. 12/12/16 5 Presentation by @travisnoakes Illustration by Anja Venter Figure 3. ‘Silos in school subjects’. Illustration by Anja Venter, 2014. Online content creation in syllabi bridging art, design and ICT is a “rare privilege”
  6. 6. There are many online portfolio services to choose from (i.e. see Diigo social bookmarks ‘eportfolio’ tag) 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 6 Behance (an Adobe service) https://www.behance.net/about DeviantArt http://deviantartads.com/ Online portfolio genre affords an opportunity for visual creative producers to experiment with digital curation
  7. 7. 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 7 Digital portfolios serve as cultural and symbolic capitals that may help justify Tertiary academic opportunities Full-time jobs Part-time, freelance gigs Volunteer projects Online portfolios can support growth in social capital via Understanding the breadth of visual creativity and who is involved in what Platform to first ‘seem’ and then ‘be’ an expert in your area(s) of speciality Develop one’s persona as an expert by sharing ‘know-how’ in affinity groups and showcase examples of one’s work Online portfolios may generate ongoing economic capital Link to online shops and auctions selling one’s visual (re-)productions Enter select works into online competitions Digital portfolios = cultural, symbolic, social and economic capital$
  8. 8. ‘visual arts showcase e-portfolios’ meta-genre • New syllabi primarily supported matric-exhibition preparation. Presentation by @travisnoakes12/12/16 8 Figure 4. E-portfolio curriculum on travisnoakes.co.za, 2015. Figure 5. Screenshot of “Hui”’s Carbonmade ‘homepage’, November, 2010. Figure 6. Screenshot of Hui’s Carbonmade ‘homepage’, May, 2012
  9. 9. 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 9 Fields in the articulation of digital personas via showcase e-portfolios Figure 7. Four key fields linked in visual arts education. Graphic by Travis Noakes, 2014.
  10. 10. Profile description Profile image Portfolio title Contact details Areas of expertise SkillsFooter Artist. Date. Folder Name, Description Artwork Title with description Tags i.e. Client 1 ‘Home’ page template 3 ‘Artwork project folder’ page template 2 ‘About’ page template (artist’s profile) Availability for freelance graphic Creative’s name Portfolio title Presentation by @travisnoakes12/12/16 10 4 ‘Search page results’ template Folders of digitised artworks Self-presentation and portfolio organization using Carbonmade
  11. 11. 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 11 Whereas in earlier times, apposite words to describe activities around publication may have been ‘written’, ‘edited’ and ‘produced’, it is quite clear that they are inadequate to capture all the self-representational activities or practices in networked, digital, culture. The word ‘curated’ does so by subsuming all of those practices and adding others that are possible in social media… Curating is about knowing how the different forms you are working with work together to make meaning intertextually and for which purposes and audiences they are successful.’ (Potter, 2015) Support students with digital curation, a new media literacy A. Collating artworks and inspirations B. Production -Remediating -Editing -Assembling C. Sharing -Moving media artefacts across different stages -Interacting with online audiences Visual creatives’ online portfolio curation process
  12. 12. Action research fieldwork 2010 - 2013 Fieldwork (e-portfolio production) took place at an elite independent secondary school and at a less well-resourced ‘Arts and Culture focus’ government one. 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 12 12 government school volunteers 17 independent school students Figure 8. ‘View of independent school from pool ’. Illustration by Travis Noakes, 2015. Figure 9. ‘View of government school from parking lot’. Illustration by Travis Noakes, 2015.
  13. 13. 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 13 Types of (in)equality Properties divided 1 Technological Technological opportunities 2 Immaterial Life chances Freedom 3 Material Capital (economic, social, cultural) Resources 4 Social Positions Power 5 Educational Capabilities Skills Source: Digital Sociology. ‘Inequalities in the Network Society’ by Jan van Dijk, page X, 2013. Focus on material and technological inequalities Table 1. Types of (in)equality and (un)equally divided properties
  14. 14. Arts and Culture government focus school •Incompatible ecologies with ten year old PCs. •Few extra-mural and co-curricular activities offered at school (pupils’ safety on public travel ) 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 14 Independent school •“One laptop per learner” policy and conspicuous consumption of digital and consumer electronics (i.e. iPads, professional- and Go Pro cameras) •Many co-curricular fine arts and other leisure activities supported by their school Key technological and material inequalities that government and independent school students experience Volunteer students who are well-disposed to careers creating visual culture Mandatory for all students, but few keen on ‘low-prestige’ careers involving visual culture Differences in vocational interests and motivations
  15. 15. 16/12/12 Prepared by @travisnoakes 15 Lots of data from four years of fieldwork… 1. E-portfolio lessons (30 independent school- and 12 government school lessons); 2. Screenshots of e-portfolios at the independent school (in 2010, 2011, 2012); 3. Screenshots of e-portfolios at the government school (in 2013); 4. Screenshots of Carbonmade’s graphic user interface; 5. E-portfolio and out-of-class questionnaire feedback (from all 29 learners); 6. Individual interviews with 16 students and both educators; 7. Research journal notes.
  16. 16. Research questions and theoretical lenses to research choices and contexts 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 16 A COMBINATION OF THEORETICAL LENSES RQ1. What digital self-presentation and organisation choices do visual arts students make in their e-portfolios? RQ2. How do visual arts e-portfolios and visual culture repertoires relate to individual habitus and spaces of production? Inequality approach Infrastructure studies Analysis 1.Innovative multimodal content analysis of screenshots. 2.Case studies referencing sources 1 to 7. SOCIAL INTERACTIONISM SOCIAL SEMIOTICS DIGITAL MATERIALISM CULTURAL THEORY
  17. 17. 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 17 Content Analysis Representational patterns in government school students’ self-presentation Representation of disciplinary personas 1)Foregrounded observational drawer, painter and sculptor roles. 2)Short self-descriptions, most add a few images. 3)Averaged less than 14 images, few pushed the storage limit. 4)Seldom thoroughly organised. 5)No appropriation of inspiration. 6)Private email addresses. 7)Few added copyright statements. Representation of extra mural visual creative personas 1)Most added extra curricular visual creative productions. 2)The surfaces and medias used were mostly similar to those used in class. Representation of other personas 1)A few feature personas as music fans and a tourist at the Waterfront. 2)Two added being football players.
  18. 18. Government school students’ informal self-representations 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 18 Mobile phone Camera photographs Figure 10. Self imagery uploaded by government school students, 2013.
  19. 19. 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 19 Content Analysis Representational patterns in Independent school’s self-presentation Representation of disciplinary personas: 1)Formal genres were used for self imagery. These were also common in lengthy self-descriptions. 2)Classroom roles were foregrounded, which included graphic design. 3)Artworks were well-organized, often-labelled. 4)Most pupils attributed appropriations. 5)Expensive surfaces and medias used (oil painting, charcoal drawing). 6)A few school email addresses. 7)Most used incorrect copyright statements, but some used more thorough copyright statements than those prescribed. Representation of extra mural visual creative personas: 8)Some add extra curricular visual creative productions involving more costly medias than those in class. 9)A few added links to other digital portfolios. 10)Some pushed imagery storage to the limit. Other personas: 10)Most featured other leisure personas. 11)Most foreground exclusive sporting personas (rugby, golf, watersports, shooting). 12)Some also added distinctive leisure profiles as musicians or tourists.
  20. 20. Independent school students’ self-representations Presentation by @travisnoakes 2012/12/16 Drawn or painted Mobile phone Camera photographs Video screengrab Figure 11. Self imagery uploaded by independent school students, 2013.
  21. 21. 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 21 Checklist for the evidence of privilege in visual arts e-portfolio personas Legitimated personas of a ’disciplined identity’ (visual art student) Detailed self-presentation as a visual arts student Well-organised, curricular showcase Appropriation and attribution of legitimated academic cultural capital Extra-mural, co-curricular (“official”) productions Exclusive medias (oil versus standard acrylic) and surfaces “Unofficial” personas’ differentiated practices (lifestyles) High production values (use of photographic editing software) “Unofficial” visual creative productions in exclusive medias Maximum storage Links to other portfolios Feature other valued personas (academic, sport, music and tourism as cultural capital) Desire to connect for work; ‘Available for freelance’ and contact details provided Desire for a vocational trajectory in cultural industry
  22. 22. Importance of online access in curating digital personas 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 22 Is there infrastructure for me to curate my work? -In class -On my phone -At home Will I use this infrastructure to develop a disciplinary showcase? -In class -On my phone -At home Can I curate extra-mural visual productions? -Only at school -On my phone -At home What other personas and cultural capital can I publish? -In class -On my phone -At home Visual creative personas Other leisure personas Can I view online portfolios as an educational resource? -In class -On my phone -At home Can I use allied services, like social bookmarking? -In class -On my phone -At home Do I link to other portfolios from my e-portfolio? -In class -On my phone -At home Where can I participate in other online affinity spaces? -In class -On my phone -At home Which should I hide or publish elsewhere? -In class -On my phone -At home Which should I hide or publish elsewhere? -In class -On my phone -At home At either site, well-connected students with “free” internet access did not face the constraints that their under-and non-connected peers did in developing a digital hexis (and habitus) for e-portfolio production.
  23. 23. The young person’s digital hexis for e-portfolio curation 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 23 The process of digital self-presentation through preparing a user- identity is different from one’s embodied self-presentation. In the real world one’s body is an absolute clue of existence. However, in the ‘digital’ one, it is not because you are consulting a website that you do exist (Hogan, 2010). Here each user must first take existence to communicate or is hidden without a representation (web profile). Such profiles require the use of a digital hexis (Georges, 2008) in which each user designates his or her scheme of self representation. These significations are transformed like a body, which is shaped by habit or by repetitive practice. Thus the notion of hexis bears analogy with the shaping of meaning and body. Students developed this digital hexis while producing e-portfolio self-presentations and curating their digital portfolios. Both were necessary for establish an e-portfolio presence that is traceable, but also required ongoing online activities to make it seem ‘alive’.
  24. 24. 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 24 Relationship of an individual’s habituses to affinity spaces in articulating e-portfolio personas Figure 12. Habitus and affinity spaces. Graphic by Travis Noakes, 2016. The habitus is, ‘a system of durable, transposable dispositions which functions as the generative basis of structured, objectively unified practices’ (Bourdieu, 1977). Habitus is socialised subjectivity; the way society becomes deposited in persons in the form of lasting dispositions, or trained capacities and structured propensities to think, feel and act in determinant ways, which then guide them (Wacquant 2005). Affinity spaces are common for customers in high- technology, capitalist environments (Gee, 2000, 2001, Riffkind, 2000). Typically, the customers of businesses in these spaces share a common endeavor and support each other in developing and dispersing knowledge about their shared passion.
  25. 25. George’s disciplinary touchstone e-portfolio- Five thumbnail page examples 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 25 Figure 13. Anonymised table of thumbnail webpages images from “George’s” 2012 e-portfolio, edited by Travis Noakes, 2016.
  26. 26. 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 26 Reproducing of a disciplined identity case #1 George (independent school student) Secondary habitus Related roles - Well connected to the internet - Owned a laptop, smartphone, entry-level camera • Minimal description of other leisure personas • Hid links to “unofficial” deviantArt, Flickr and Instagram portfolios • Did not link from Carbonmade to his Twitter and Facebook accounts, but did share his imagery to these • Local and international tourist • Gallery visitor • Music fan • Sports participant • Socializing • An exemplary academic achiever • Fine Arts fan of abstract, modern and conceptual art • Observational drawer in charcoal, pencil, oil pastels, oil painter, printmaker, designer, photographer (nature), photo editor • Extensive fine arts, design and photographic research online, i.e. FB fan pages, Twitter and artists’ blogs E-portfolio curation • Full showcase of syllabus-related images • Organized according to gallery metaphor • William Kentridge and van Gogh as inspiration in his e-portfolio • Used other online portfolio services • Entered online arts competitions White male with middle-class parents who work in advertising Digital information habitus Visual creative personas Other leisure personas Primary habitus Vocational habitus • Architect • Medicine Exemplary academic cultural capital.
  27. 27. 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 27 Nathan’s e-portfolio Four thumbnail page examples Figure 14. Anonymised table of thumbnail webpages images from “Nathan’s” 2013 e-portfolio, edited by Travis Noakes, 2016.
  28. 28. 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 28 - No connection to the internet - No ownership of ICT • Brief mentions of other leisure personas • Music fan • Football player • Socializing • Fan of visual art • Observational drawer in pencil • Painting in plakka paints • Sculptor in mixed media • Researched other Carbonmade portfolios during lessons • Four syllabus-related images • Privacy concerns contributed to a brief self-description and no self image being added Black male with working class parents •At home, he had no equipment to produce art, not enough space and seldom the time. Secondary habitus Related rolesPrimary habitus Vocational habitus Remediation of academic cultural capital via heavily constrained habituses • Graphic or interior design • Seeking internships Digital information habitus Visual creative personas Other leisure personas E-portfolio curation Reproducing a disciplined identity case #4 Nathan (government school student)
  29. 29. 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 29 Masibulele’s e-portfolio Four thumbnail page examples Figure 14. Anonymised table of thumbnail webpages images from “Nathan’s” 2013 e-portfolio, edited by Travis Noakes, 2016.
  30. 30. 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 30 Under-connected: -Mobile internet -Computer use in computer lab and on home PC. • Disciplinary: Traditional mixed-media • Fan of the ‘art industry’ • Sought publicity: contact details • Facebook and Black Berry Messenger (BBM) groups for his fashion label Black Male with working-class parents • Observational drawing in pencil, Illustrator, portrait drawer, oil and normal pastel work, painter, mixed- media sculptor, relief tiler and collages. • Initially only disciplinary, but did add fashion label • Did not share traditional mixed-media Background • Fashion entrepreneur • Music and movies fan • Socialiser • ‘Explorer’ • Fashion entrepreneur • Socialiser • Music fan • Explorer Foregrounding other personas case #8 Masibulele (government school student) Digital information habitus Other leisure personas E-portfolio curation Secondary habitus Related rolesPrimary habitus Vocational habitus A fashion entrepreneur, who used a mobile digital information habitus in presenting his classroom and aspirant designer personas. Visual creative personas • Fashion entrepreneur • Surface designer • Architect
  31. 31. 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 31 Figure 15. Anonymised table of thumbnail webpages images from “Melissa’s” 2013 e-portfolio, edited by Travis Noakes, 2016. Melissa’s e-portfolio Four thumbnail page examples and linked portfolio
  32. 32. 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 32 - Well connected to the internet - Own PC, professional photo-, animation- and 3D software • Disciplinary: sketcher (pencil, ink, pen), observational drawer, pointillism • Mixed-media (different mediums) • Japanese calligraphy, typography art • Animator’s workshop Black female with middle-class parents • Pseudonymous identity connected to her ‘Japanese freak’ interests • Linked e-portfolio to her deviantArt profile • Created two other portfolios (MyFolio.com, Behance.net) • Japanese; Anime and Manga fan • Sci-Fi/Fantasy fan • Goth fan • Emo music fan • Animation • Sci-Fi/Fantasy • Emo music fan • (Goth) Background Secondary habitus Related rolesPrimary habitus Vocational habitus A fan of Japanese Animé and Manga visual culture and an aspirant animator. Foregrounding other personas case #10 Melissa (government school student) • Animator • Fine Art Digital information habitus Other leisure personas E-portfolio curation Visual creative personas
  33. 33. 33 Figure 16. Anonymised table of thumbnail webpages images from “Kyle’s” 2012 e-portfolio, edited by Travis Noakes, 2016. Kyle’s e-portfolio Four thumbnail page examples and linked portfolios
  34. 34. 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 34 - Well connected to the internet - Own laptop, smartphone, professional camera equipment, Go Pro, professional photo- and video editing software • Foregrounded watersports and included tourist personas • Added links to Flickr and Vimeo portfolios, but not YouTube • Watersports fan • Fan of technicity • Local and international tourist • Fan of several music genres • Socialiser • Computer gamer • An fan of photography and “filmography” • Observational drawer in charcoal and graphite, oil painter, designer, photographer (watersports, local and international travel), photo editor, videographer and video-editor • Foregrounded photographic images • Well-designed using colour principles • Changes from Banksy to film inspiration* • Extensive extra-mural research online, i.e. YouTube ‘giant wave break’ help • Entered online video competitions • Used other online portfolio services White male from a privileged home * Similar to ”Dylan” in Online content creation: looking at students’ social media practices through a Connected Learning lens (Brown, Czerniewicz and Noakes, 2015) Post-school •Google Plus, Tumblr and Instagram accounts •Linked to society6.com for online sales Digital information habitus Other leisure personas E-portfolio curation Visual creative personas Foregrounding other personas case #11 Kyle (government school student) Background Secondary habitus Related rolesPrimary habitus Vocational habitus A watersports man, videographer and photographer. • Finance
  35. 35. Evidence of inequality and the symbolic reproduction of privilege 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 35 1. Prosumer personas of well-resourced students seemed to be amplified during my intervention. 2. Independent school students benefitted from leisure practices whose capitals correspond to their institutional schooling. By contrast, working class students perceived there to be obstacles to sharing repertoires from home. 3. Creation of easily searchable, nonymous identities a male student’s privilege? 4. E-portfolio production is now mandatory at the independent school for grade 10 and up students, but is not offered at the government school.
  36. 36. Reproduction of a Capetonian “creative class” mostly from middle- and upper class origins 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 36 Figure 17. Social reproduction in trajectories linked to the visual arts or visual design. Graphic by Travis Noakes, 2016.
  37. 37. 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 37 In highly-constrained material and technological contexts, the concept of a signmaker expressing his or her interest is worthy of critique: 1.Non-internet connected students described being unable to publish the social information or artwork showcases they wanted to. 2.In the absence of information on digital infrastructure, it can be difficult for viewers to appreciate how differing contexts shaped the quantum and styles of visual and social information that users provided. For example, it is hard to spot that an under-resourced student has put a lot of effort in making workarounds to overcome slow and unreliable ICT infrastructures versus an affluent student achieving more with much less effort! 3.Students may not deliberately choose multimodal ensembles: Default software values can create mis-identifiers that inexpert teenagers missed editing or forget to change. Their display may result in ongoing misrepresentation on webpages. Major multimodal contribution from my visual arts e-portfolio research?
  38. 38. 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 38 Some recommendations for research related to visual arts e-portfolios 1. How can e-portfolio pedagogy better accommodate diverse material and technological resourcing? 2. What do young visual creatives do with online portfolios after matric? 3. What visual arts e-portfolio styles might emerge in an isiXhosa-speaking government school? 4. How are digital portfolios being assessed, particularly in justifying access to tertiary education)? 5. Is a new form of distinction (“Distinction 2.0”?) emerging whereby the digital sharing of differentiated practices and personas marks a distinctive social status?
  39. 39. THANKS to supporters of e-portfolio research National Research Foundation. University of Cape Town, Department of Film and Media Studies. SAME research group. Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Department of Informatics and Design. Technology in Education and Research, MA & PhD students. 12/12/16 Presentation by @travisnoakes 39 Illustration | Design | New Media Research w: www.nannaventer.co.za c: anjaventer@gmail.com IllustratIONS by

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