Session 69 Jana Sochor


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Session 69 Jana Sochor

  1. 1. ITS och integritet - ITS & Privacy - Ph.D. project S-City – Secure City for All through ITS – at the ITS Research School Jana Sochor, M.Sc., Ph.D. Candidate Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm Transportation & Logistics janasoch@infra.kth.seJana Sochor, 2009-01-09, Transportforum 1
  2. 2. Outline of Presentation • Background: S-City Project • Potential of IT to Enhance Mobility • Privacy • Privacy Concerns • Enhancing Privacy • ConclusionJana Sochor, 2009-01-09, Transportforum 2
  3. 3. Background: S-City Project Goals: • Understand the impact of (perceived) safety on mobility – individual’s needs and behavior • Explore the potential of ITS to impact safety (perceptions) • Address the potential ethical issues and trade-offs of using technology to increase (perceived) safety Current phase: • preparing to gather data on mobility issues and patterns as well as on privacy attitudes • presented preliminary results at the 2008 ITS World Congress, and preparing for 2009 in StockholmJana Sochor, 2009-01-09, Transportforum 3
  4. 4. Potential of IT to Enhance Mobility • Information – journey planning, maps, services • Monitoring – sensors, surveillance systems • Localization – navigation & (personal) alarms • Identification – geotagging, virtual maps (RFID) • Authorization – smart cards, RFID tags • Communication – immediate and pervasiveJana Sochor, 2009-01-09, Transportforum 4
  5. 5. IT Applications to Enhance Mobility • Co-modal, directional services & (3D) maps • Real-time parking management • Advanced, dynamic congestion pricing • Integrating PEVs into public transportation systems • Panic alarm for mobile phones • Mobile phone location information • Specialized navigation systems, e.g. for elderly & disabled personsJana Sochor, 2009-01-09, Transportforum 5
  6. 6. Privacy Photo: Ian Britton, (copyright free) Working definition: controlling the amount of contact with others (over time) Balanced against the need for: • access to goods and services, • accountability, • law enforcement, • public health risks, etc.Jana Sochor, 2009-01-09, Transportforum 6
  7. 7. Importance of Privacy For individuals: • Stable interpersonal relationships • Development of individuality • Personal autonomy • Healthy functioning (psychologically & physically) (Margulis, 2003) For society: • A collective value • Support democratic political systems • Build trust, which enables communication and cooperation, economic & social relationshipsJana Sochor, 2009-01-09, Transportforum 7
  8. 8. Privacy Concerns & IT Privacy concerns may be framed as matters of: • Injustice – inaccuracy, unjust inferences, repurposing, presumption of guilt • Lack of control of information – e.g. non-consensual data collection or use or disclosure • Loss of dignity & autonomy – e.g. lack of transparency or anonymity, unjustified disclosure • Inconvenience – e.g. difficult to find out what data has been collected, how it has been used, or how to correct it • Risk to life chances (social exclusion) – focusing on certain geographic areas or social groupsJana Sochor, 2009-01-09, Transportforum 8
  9. 9. Privacy Concerns & IT The U.S. National Research Council (2007) found that: • Individuals’ power is limited • IT has compromised privacy • The loss of privacy often results in harm How concerned should we be?Jana Sochor, 2009-01-09, Transportforum 9
  10. 10. Concerns about Data • Police make 3,000 requests for data from Oyster cards (UK, Evening Standard, 2008-02-21) “concerns about the apparent failure of Transport for London to make clear to passengers that their travel data will be stored for eight weeks at a time … in breach of the Data Protection Act.” • SJ-lagring av kunddata får kritik (Sweden, Svenska Dagbladet, 2008-12-23) “Datainspektionen (DI) kräver att SJ inte lagrar information om kunder och deras resor längre än 90 dagar. Därefter måste uppgifterna avidentifieras.”Jana Sochor, 2009-01-09, Transportforum 10
  11. 11. Concerns about Tracking • UK Company Reveals Precise Mobile Tracking Method (UK, Red Orbit, 2008-08-04) “…information about the habits of shoppers by tracking their movements using an anonymous identifier that mobile phones transmit. The approach will be useful for research, security and improving services in environments ranging from train stations to refugee camps.” • Study secretly tracks cell phone users: Study tracking 100,000 raises privacy, ethical questions (USA, MSNBC, 2008-06-06) “Researchers secretly tracked the locations of 100,000 people outside the United States through their cell phone use…the study was based on cell phone records from a private company”Jana Sochor, 2009-01-09, Transportforum 11
  12. 12. Concerns about Technology • Lätt förfalska e-pass (Ny Teknik, 2008-08-28); ‘Fakeproof’ e-passport is cloned in minutes (The Times 2008-08-06 ) - “De digitala passen tycks vara lätta att förfalska. En it-forskare i Holland lyckades klona mikrochipp i ett pass och lägga in en bild … Chippen accepterades sedan som äkta i passläsare.” - “The ability to clone chips leaves travelers vulnerable to identity theft when they surrender their passports at hotels or car rental companies.”Jana Sochor, 2009-01-09, Transportforum 12
  13. 13. Concerns about Technology • Massachusetts Bay Transit Authority, MIT Students Join to Discuss Improvements to Automated Fare Collection System (USA, EFF, 2008-12-23) The MBTA and the MIT students “agreed to work together to identify and help improve security”, e.g. with the Charlie travel card • Doubts raised over using CCTV cameras (Australia, ABC News, 2008-05-07) Criminologist Professor Paul Wilson, Bond University: “the systems do little to prevent crime or catch offenders … [and are] expensive … to set up and maintain” Cameras a complement to, not a replacement for law enforcement (Wells, Allard, & Wilson, 2006, Crime & CCTV in Australia: Understanding the Relationship)Jana Sochor, 2009-01-09, Transportforum 13
  14. 14. Privacy Concerns and ITS 2002 VINNOVA report on transport informatics & privacy – CCTV in PT, localization, automatic speed controls, cards for payment & access • Concerns over: – potential misuse & unauthorized access – registering data about behavior, location, accompanying persons – data repurposing & integrating databases • Conclusion: certain privacy intrusions may be acceptable if the benefit is greater than the consequences But who decides this?Jana Sochor, 2009-01-09, Transportforum 14
  15. 15. Enhancing Privacy • Privacy-Enhancing Technology (PET) – encryption – anonymize surveillance & databases • Legislation However: “The law alone cannot protect privacy, as it is not self-executing. Lawyers and technologists should proactively try to solve privacy problems instead of responding to complaints when harm has already been done” – John Borking, “The use and value of privacy- enhancing technologies” in The Glass Consumer: Life in a Surveillance SocietyJana Sochor, 2009-01-09, Transportforum 15
  16. 16. Enhancing Privacy • Individuals – withhold information – stay informed – be proactive consumers & citizens • Organizations – least intrusive approach, e.g. data minimization – limited access & abuse prevention – notification & correction – offer choices & means of recourse – transparent policies – Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA)Jana Sochor, 2009-01-09, Transportforum 16
  17. 17. Conclusion • IT has the potential to enhance mobility • Using IT to enhance mobility gives rise to ethical issues • Such ethical issues need to be addressed in order for ITS technologies to reach their full potential • We all, as consumers & producers, researchers & administrators, leaders & legislators, and as citizens, can proactively design for & protect privacyJana Sochor, 2009-01-09, Transportforum 17
  18. 18. ITS och integritet - ITS & Privacy - Thank you for listening! Happy New Year & Welcome to Stockholm in September! Jana Sochor, M.Sc., Ph.D. Candidate Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm Transportation & Logistics janasoch@infra.kth.seJana Sochor, 2009-01-09, Transportforum 18