<ul><li>High mileage </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost per kilometer </li></ul><ul><li>All season capabilities, winter traction </li></ul><ul><li>Robustness, durability and retreadability </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>High efficiency (max. load / cargo volume)) </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible vehicle usage (long haulage, short haulage, distribution service) </li></ul>Customer requirements: <ul><li>Stability and Handling </li></ul><ul><li>High load capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Light weight </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Low noise </li></ul><ul><li>Low overall diameters </li></ul>FLEETS OEM’s
Low Rolling Resistance - (new) limits for tire RR (rolling resistance) - 2 stage implementation (2012 / 2016) Low noise emissions - tighter tire noise level requirements (2012) Safety, wet grip - applies only to Consumer and light truck tires (at this stage) Regulatory requirements: EC regulation 661/2009 (13july2009) New , more stringent requirements for tires with regard to safety, rolling resistance and rolling noise – 2012 onwards.
EC regulation 1222/2009 (25nov2009) EC has decided on the introduction of a “tyre labelling” system, based on EC 661/2009 regulation, and with regard to tire rolling resistance, tire noise emission and “wet grip”. “ The aim of this regulation is to increase the safety, and the economic and evironmental efficiency of road transport by promoting fuel –efficient and safe tyres with low noise levels.” Tyre manufactures will have to communicate the fuel efficiency class as well as the external rolling noise class and, where applicable, the wet grip class in their promotional literature as well as on their web sites. Regulatory requirements (cont’d): Note: for truck/bus tyres, a common “wet grip” class measurement method is under discussion.
<ul><li>More restrictive emission standards upcoming </li></ul><ul><li>High oil prices </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle manufacturer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emissions reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumption reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased engine efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower energy losses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tire manufacturer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of the tire rolling resistance </li></ul></ul>Euro 4 Euro 5 Euro 6 In addition to the “tyre specific” legislative requirements, vehicle legislations do have an impact on truck/bus tyre developments e.g.: Regulatory requirements (cont’d): Truck – emission standards evolution Euro 6 (2012
Impact on Tyre Development <ul><li>Truck tire development is faced with a multitude of “evolving” requirements (OEM’s , legislation, fleet needs, ecological, economical, ….) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Conflicting” performance characteristics need to be addressed. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Trade Offs” in other areas to be minimized. </li></ul>Modern truck / Bus tyre development; a walk between conflicting performance requirements RR Mileage Wet Grip Robustness
Chafer Carcass Wedge Shoulder wedge Sidewall Tread Flipper Belts Chipper Innerliner Beads Beads Sample : Components 41 Compounds 10 Steel types 5 Fabric 1 Truck tire components Apexes 1-3 To cope with these evolving requirements, continuous developments are required on a variety of tyre components
Material Trends Innovative Tread Compound generations: High level silica tread compounds, for improved braking on wet “ and” low rolling resistance New Reinforcement materials: High strength carcass and belt wires, enhanced durability, light weight conventional compound "high silica" compound high tensile cords “ SUPER” tensile cords
Trends in Pattern Design Directional tyre designs improved traction and braking better “torque” resistance Wider tread widths improved braking on wet improved stability and handling Innovative sizes higher load capacity low aspect ratio higher cargo volume non directional directional 355/50R22.5 steer (7.5 tons axle load) 455/40R22.5 trailer < 1m diam..
Trends in Pattern Design (cont’d) Flat Wave "Waffle" or "3D BIS" Increase interlocking effect, improved braking on wet & winter grip Increased “blading” density enhanced braking on wet better all season performances New “blading technologies” improved traction enhanced braking all season capabilities
Low noise tread pattern geometries Same Block Lengths Different Block Lengths - Regular Distribution Different Block Lengths - Irregular Distribution diagonal tread “ block shifting” Blocks do not impact all at the same time L1 L2 L3 L4 L1 < > L2 < > L3 < > L4 “ Pitching” different blocks lenthgs Lower Noise emission
Innovative Tyre features Built in sealant improved safety enhanced mobility Soft rubber material built into casing Specific Winter Truck/Bus tyres improved safety enhanced traction in sever winter conditions
SUMMARY Ecology low noise emission fuel efficient Safety enhanced braking and traction stability and handling Economy high mileage, low cost per km durable and retreadable Modern Truck and Bus tires are developed to suit today’s and future transport requirements in terms of: