Session 49 Martti Peräaho

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Session 49 Martti Peräaho

  1. 1. A proposal for driver training in three stages to acquire a B-category driving licence Martti Peräaho Transportforum 2011, Linköping
  2. 2. Background
  3. 3. <ul><li>Renewal / update of Finnish category B driver training </li></ul><ul><li>Two parts: </li></ul><ul><li>2008, Theory and structure (AKE report 2/2009) </li></ul><ul><li>2010, Proposal for curriculum (TraFi report 7/2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Authors: </li></ul><ul><li>Turku university, Traffic research group </li></ul><ul><li>Esko Keskinen, Martti Peräaho, Sirkku Laapotti, </li></ul><ul><li>Ari Katila, Kati Hernetkoski </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Reasons for new driver training system </li></ul><ul><li>EU plans and requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic safety programme 2011-2020 </li></ul><ul><li>- objective #1 = &quot;improve education and training of road users&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>- emphasis on young drivers </li></ul><ul><li>- harmonization of driver education </li></ul><ul><li>- contents, methods </li></ul><ul><li>Current Finnish curriculum dates back to 1989 (slightly revised 2004) </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Young driver accidents </li></ul><ul><li>- accident &quot;peak&quot; just after licensing prevails </li></ul><ul><li>European ideas and developments (e.g. Norway, Sweden, Austria) </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>- Basic, Gadget, DAN, Hermes ..... </li></ul><ul><li>GDE acknowledged as a central theoretical framework for developing driver education </li></ul>
  6. 6. GDE-matrisen ”Goals for Driver Education” (Hatakka, Keskinen, Gregersen, Glad, 2002) Nivå Kunskaper Färdighet Riskökande aspekter Självkänne- dom Individen Livsstil Ålder Kön Grupp Personlighet Äventyrssökande Grupptryck Ungdom Sjukdom Egna förutsättningar Impulskontroll Förmåga att re-flektera Resan Strategiska val av: - färdsätt - restillfälle - färdväg - syfte När, Var, Hur? Alkohol Trötthet Tävlande Mörker Vinterväglag Rusningstid Egna motiv för strategiska val Självkritiskt tän-kande Trafiken Trafiksituationer Trafikregler Samspel Riskmedvetande Hög hastighet Korta avstånd Gående barn Skymd sikt Vilt Kalibrering av sin egen körförmåga Självkritiskt tän-kande Fordonet Funktion Teknik Skyddssystem Naturlagar Manövrering Utan bälte Dåliga däck Slitna bromsar Sliten vindruta Gamla bilar Kalibrering av sin manövrerings-förmåga Motivation att använda skydds-system
  7. 7. <ul><li>The current 2-stage driver training system </li></ul><ul><li>1 st stage </li></ul><ul><li>in driving school or privately (instruction permit) </li></ul><ul><li>16 driving hours, 20 theory lessons </li></ul><ul><li>> driver exam > provisional licence </li></ul><ul><li>Independent practice period (6 months – 2 years) </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd stage </li></ul><ul><li>1 day: driving, track and group > permanent licence </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Development needs in current 2-stage system </li></ul><ul><li>Connection between 1 st and 2 nd stage unclear </li></ul><ul><li>Independent practice period between phases too long </li></ul><ul><li>and unstructured </li></ul><ul><li>- great variation among students </li></ul><ul><li>Main focus on GDE levels 1 + 2 (3) </li></ul><ul><li>Too little focus on driving style and behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>- also after driver exam (indep. driving period) </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>New methods needed > coaching (HERMES) </li></ul><ul><li>Unclear goals </li></ul><ul><li>More driving needed </li></ul><ul><li>More emphasis on environment issues </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient structure in private instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Simply: it was time to update </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Driver training in 3 stages </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Aim of proposal was to... </li></ul><ul><li>Target the needs, but keep what is good in the current model </li></ul><ul><li>We looked at other GDE-based curriculum models and proposals for ideas: </li></ul><ul><li>Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Finland </li></ul><ul><li>Norway </li></ul><ul><li>Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>The Netherlands </li></ul>
  12. 12. 4 Personal goals for life, skills for living e.g. lifestyle, motives, values, self-control, habits, health 3 Goals and context of driving e.g. trip related choices, goals, driving environment, company 2 Mastery of traffic situations e.g. rules, observation, driving path, interaction 1 Vehicle handling and manoeuvring e.g. gears, controls, direction, tyre grip, speed adjustment 5 Social environment e.g. culture, legislation, enforcement, subculture, social groups, group values and norms Proposal based on a five-level GDE5-SOC matrix ( Keskinen, Peräaho & Laapotti, 2010)
  13. 13. &quot;Level 4&quot; - focus on individual goals, motives, characteristics and competences &quot;Level 5&quot; - focus on the driver's social environment , culture, social networks, group goals and motives
  14. 14. Main objective: The student becomes a &quot;responsible driver&quot;, who… … wants to enhance safety in traffic (handling, rules, planning, risk awareness) … is social , takes others into consideration (norms, communication, vulnerable road users) … cares about the environment (fuel economy, sensible use of car) … has insight into his / her own behaviour as driver (safety impact of personality, motives and choices)
  15. 15. <ul><li>Structure </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>1. Base stage </li></ul><ul><li>in driving school or privately (instruction permit) </li></ul><ul><li>> driver exam > provisional licence </li></ul><ul><li>2. Practice stage (3 months – 1 year) </li></ul><ul><li>independent practice + driving school feedback </li></ul><ul><li>3. Advanced stage </li></ul><ul><li>1 day: driving, track and group > permanent licence </li></ul>
  17. 17. DRIVING SCHOOL - 19 theory lessons - minimum 16 driving hours - difficult conditions 1+1 driving hours - self-studying + learning diary - content focus: basics > traffic situations > independent driving PRIVATE TRAINING - 19 theory lessons - minimum 14 driving hours - introduction course in DS (3 tl + 1 dh) - evaluation in DS (1 dh) - difficult conditions 1+1 dh in DS - self-studying + learning diary - content focus: basics > traffic situations > independent driving 1. BASE STAGE Duration: driving school / no limit private / max 1 year DRIVER EXAM Provisional licence New driver penalty system (2 yrs) DS = driving school dh = driving hour, tl = theory lesson
  18. 18. Feedback in DS within 1 month after exam: 1 + 1 dh and 1 tl learning diary BASE Duration: min 3 months - max 1 year (- 1 day ) DRIVER EXAM Provisional licence New driver penalty system (2 yrs) 2. PRACTICE STAGE DRIVING SCHOOL PRIVATE TRAINING Independent practice
  19. 19. BASE DRIVER EXAM Provisional licence New driver penalty system (2 yrs) PRACTICE Individual evaluation of driving (1 + 1 dh) and feedback (0.5 + 0.5 tl) Demonstrations and practice in groups (2 dh) Group disc. (3 tl) - risks - interaction - self-evaluat. 3. ADVANCED STAGE Full license Duration: 1 day at end of practice stage
  20. 20. <ul><li>Student responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>- independent work, learning diary, homework </li></ul><ul><li>- some contents entirely through self-study </li></ul><ul><li>- student prepares for class and </li></ul><ul><li>- content deepened in class </li></ul><ul><li>- more coaching </li></ul><ul><li>> more effective use of lessons </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Learning diary </li></ul><ul><li>- exercises </li></ul><ul><li>- self-evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>- how behaves as driver and why </li></ul><ul><li>- what decisions and why </li></ul><ul><li>- keep track of driving in practice stage </li></ul><ul><li>- used also in base stage </li></ul><ul><li>- used in advanced stage feedback </li></ul><ul><li>- included in theory part of driver examination </li></ul><ul><li>(similar proposal also in the EU Traffic safety programme 2011-2020) </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Limited amount of driving and theory – can the GDE be covered? </li></ul><ul><li>Connection to driver exam – what skills are in focus? </li></ul><ul><li>- EU Traffic safety programme requires that attitudes, values etc. are included in exam. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Acceptance from instructors, the public, politicians? </li></ul><ul><li>- more work </li></ul><ul><li>- more driving </li></ul><ul><li>- more expensive </li></ul><ul><li>- more demand on instructors </li></ul><ul><li>- lay instructors’ competence </li></ul><ul><li>Training of instructors? </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>The road of the proposal so far: </li></ul><ul><li>International seminar (TraFi, May 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>National evaluation process (concerned parties + experts) </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal approved by TraFi and the Ministry </li></ul><ul><li>Law evaluated by Parliament Transport and </li></ul><ul><li>Communications Committee (december 2010) </li></ul><ul><li> > only one major revision </li></ul><ul><li> - practice stage 6 months - 2 years (as currently) </li></ul><ul><li> > lay instruction by family members only </li></ul><ul><li> > 17.5 minimum age for driver training </li></ul><ul><li> > EU driver license directive </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>What will happen next? </li></ul><ul><li>Committee proposal to Parliament (January 2011). </li></ul><ul><li>New law as from january 2013. </li></ul><ul><li>Comments </li></ul><ul><li>Surprisingly little comments in the media. </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly positive feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Main points of criticism: </li></ul><ul><li>- increased cost </li></ul><ul><li>- obligatory driving school elements in private instruction </li></ul>
  26. 26. DRIVING SCHOOL - 19 theory lessons - minimum 16 driving hours - difficult conditions 1+1 driving hours - self-studying + learning diary - content focus: basics > traffic sit. > independent driving PRIVATE TRAINING - 19 theory lessons - minimum 14 driving hours - introduction course in DS (3 tl + 1 dh) - evaluation in DS (1 dh) - difficult conditions 1+1 dh in DS - self-studying + learning diary - content focus: basics > traffic sit. > independent driving Independent practice Feedback in DS within 1 month after exam: 1 + 1 dh and 1 tl learning diary Individual evaluation of driving (1 + 1 dh) and feedback (0.5 + 0.5 tl) Demos and practice in groups (2 dh) Group disc. (3 tl) - risks - interaction - self-evaluat. BASE ADVANCED Duration: driving school / no limit private / max 1 year Duration: min 3 months - max 1 year (or 6-24 months??) DRIVER EXAM Provisional licence Full license New driver penalty system (2 yrs) DS = driving school dh = driving hour, tl = theory lesson PRACTICE
  27. 27. Thank you for your attention! More information from: http://www.trafi.fi/sv/

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