Trafiksimulering för utvärdering av fordonsbaserade ITS-tillämpningar Andreas Tapani
Förarstöd och andra ITS <ul><li>Vilka blir effekterna? </li></ul><ul><li>Trafiksimulering ger svar!   </li></ul>
Trafiksimulering för utvärdering av fordonsbaserade ITS <ul><li>Traditionell trafiksimulering.  Studier av framkomlighet v...
Trafiksimulering för utvärdering av fordonsbaserade ITS
Trafiksimulering för utvärdering av fordonsbaserade ITS Trafiksimulering av fordonsbaserade ITS: Mera detaljerade och flex...
Analysis of rumble strips and driver fatigue Infrastructure-based  milled rumble strips Vehicle-based  ”virtual” rumble st...
Individual driver behaviour <ul><li>Observations from a driving simulator study: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alert and sleep...
Modelling rumble strips and driver fatigue <ul><li>Rumble strips on two-lane highways: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The simul...
Performance indicators <ul><li>Average journey speed </li></ul><ul><li>Time-to-collision based safety indicators (with res...
RuTSim simulations <ul><li>Driver behaviour data and road alignment from the driving simulator study </li></ul><ul><li>Sim...
Results
Effekter av en ”omkörningsassistent”
Overtaking Assistant on the N305 <ul><li>Almere - Zeewolde, 15 km long, 8 m wide </li></ul><ul><li>Current situation </li>...
Resultat (exempel)
Simulering av trafik i olika regioner <ul><li>Skillnader mellan geografiska (kulturella) områden </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li...
Vehicle Trajectory Impacts  of  Adaptive Cruise Control <ul><li>Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC): fixed speed cruise control ...
Studies of ACC <ul><li>Driver behaviour in ACC-equipped vehicles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced attention </li></ul></ul><u...
This study <ul><li>Impacts of ACC on vehicle acceleration and deceleration rates </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation of m...
An indicator of vehicle trajectory smoothness Acceleration noise (ACN)
ACN for ACC-equipped and standard vehicles Equal desired following distances and speeds for ACC-equipped  and standard veh...
Sammanfattning <ul><ul><li>Trafiksimulering ger möjlighet att analysera trafiksystemeffekter av förarstöd och andra ITS </...
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Session 21 Andreas Tapani

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Session 21 Andreas Tapani

  1. 1. Trafiksimulering för utvärdering av fordonsbaserade ITS-tillämpningar Andreas Tapani
  2. 2. Förarstöd och andra ITS <ul><li>Vilka blir effekterna? </li></ul><ul><li>Trafiksimulering ger svar! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Trafiksimulering för utvärdering av fordonsbaserade ITS <ul><li>Traditionell trafiksimulering. Studier av framkomlighet vid olika: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trafikstyning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vägutformning (nät, enskilda länkar/korsningar) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Trafiksimulering för utvärdering av fordonsbaserade ITS: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ITS funktionalitet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skillnader i förar/fordonsbeteende </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ytterligare tillämpningsområden (säkerhet, miljö) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Trafiksimulering för utvärdering av fordonsbaserade ITS
  5. 5. Trafiksimulering för utvärdering av fordonsbaserade ITS Trafiksimulering av fordonsbaserade ITS: Mera detaljerade och flexibla förar/fordonsmodeller!?
  6. 6. Analysis of rumble strips and driver fatigue Infrastructure-based milled rumble strips Vehicle-based ”virtual” rumble strips
  7. 7. Individual driver behaviour <ul><li>Observations from a driving simulator study: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alert and sleep deprived driving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Driving speed in free driving conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Car-following reaction times </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distance to oncoming vehicles at the start of overtaking </li></ul></ul></ul>Sleep deprived drivers accepted 4 % shorter distances to the closest oncoming Average reaction time: Alert drivers 1.47 s Sleep deprived drivers 1.63 s
  8. 8. Modelling rumble strips and driver fatigue <ul><li>Rumble strips on two-lane highways: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The simulation model must allow modelling of two-lane highways </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The RuTSim model </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Modelling of rumble strips and driver fatigue in RuTSim by modification of: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desired speeds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction times </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overtaking probabilities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Performance indicators <ul><li>Average journey speed </li></ul><ul><li>Time-to-collision based safety indicators (with respect to oncoming vehicles during overtaking situations) </li></ul>
  10. 10. RuTSim simulations <ul><li>Driver behaviour data and road alignment from the driving simulator study </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations of traffic with </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No rumble strip </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Milled Rumble strip </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In-vehicle rumble strip </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Varying percentages of sleep deprived drivers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Results
  12. 12. Effekter av en ”omkörningsassistent”
  13. 13. Overtaking Assistant on the N305 <ul><li>Almere - Zeewolde, 15 km long, 8 m wide </li></ul><ul><li>Current situation </li></ul><ul><li>Overtaking Assistant threshold </li></ul><ul><li>Overtaking Assistant penetration level </li></ul><ul><li>The Overtaking Assistant in RuTSim: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changed driver willingness to overtake </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calculate time to oncoming vehicle, commence overtaking if longer than the assistant threshold </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Resultat (exempel)
  15. 15. Simulering av trafik i olika regioner <ul><li>Skillnader mellan geografiska (kulturella) områden </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Olika regler </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Olika beteende </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> Risk för ogiltiga modellantaganden </li></ul>
  16. 16. Vehicle Trajectory Impacts of Adaptive Cruise Control <ul><li>Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC): fixed speed cruise control extended with a distance controller </li></ul><ul><li>ACC is primarily marketed as a system for increased driver comfort </li></ul><ul><li>ACC has a potential to influence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic’s environmental impact? </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Studies of ACC <ul><li>Driver behaviour in ACC-equipped vehicles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over-reliance on the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in speeds and desired following distances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects of ACC on the traffic system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic simulation based analyses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity and speeds </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. This study <ul><li>Impacts of ACC on vehicle acceleration and deceleration rates </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation of mixed traffic including ACC-equipped and standard vehicles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences of observed driver behavioural changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Car-following modelling of ACC-equipped and standard vehicles: </li></ul>ACC-vehicles : (IDM, Treiber et al. 2000) Standard vehicles: (HDM, Treiber et al. 2006) <ul><li>IDM + human reaction delays, anticipation and perception errors </li></ul><ul><li>Full speed range ACC – system limitations and driver acceptance is not considered </li></ul>
  19. 19. An indicator of vehicle trajectory smoothness Acceleration noise (ACN)
  20. 20. ACN for ACC-equipped and standard vehicles Equal desired following distances and speeds for ACC-equipped and standard vehicles
  21. 21. Sammanfattning <ul><ul><li>Trafiksimulering ger möjlighet att analysera trafiksystemeffekter av förarstöd och andra ITS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ITS-tillämpningens funktionalitet och inverkan på förarbeteendet påverkar simuleringsresultaten </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fortsatt forskning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Förarbeteende och trafiksimulering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sambandet mellan simuleringsbaserade indikatorer och effekter i verklig trafik </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Co-operative systems” </li></ul></ul></ul>

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