VTI – 2010 Dr. Bård Tronvoll How to take care of the customers: The need for a holistic service recovery system in public ...
Transport remains the  number one problem sector for consumers, accounting for one third of complaints in EU <ul><li>Europ...
Under de senaste 12 månaderna, har du utfört ett formellt klagomål skriftligen, på telefon eller personligen till säljaren...
Allmän kundtillfredsställelse avseende 19 tjänster och varor  på marknaderna Källa: IPSOS undersökningar om kundtillfredss...
Theoretical background <ul><li>Service recovery was one of the earliest service areas to be addressed by marketing scholar...
Theoretical background <ul><li>Customer recovery:  The majority of the service recovery literature has taken a marketing v...
Network recovery <ul><li>A network is a composite of a large number of actors and the pattern of relationships is what tie...
Public transportation <ul><li>Public transportation is usually created in complex, human-based systems involving several a...
Levels of concerns <ul><li>To expand the understanding and conceptualisation of service recovery we may use Johnston and C...
The recovery diamond Customer recovery Employee recovery Network recovery Process recovery Service recovery learning syste...
PTA  Entrp Sub-entr <ul><li>Responsibility for all public traffic within a geographic area and has 90 entrepreneurs </li><...
Comments from an entrepreneur <ul><li>”  ...  Vi får alltså kundsynpunkter sända till oss, men vi har sällan direktkontakt...
How complaints are been handled PTA Entrepreneur Sub - entrepreneur Send complaint Send complaint Feedback Feedback Contra...
Summary <ul><li>In addition to customer, process and employee recoveries there is also a need, in a complex human-based sy...
End quote <ul><li>‘  When complaints are freely heard, deeply considered and speedily reformed, then is the utmost bound o...
Questions Bård Tronvoll [email_address] SAMOT
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Session 13 Bård Tronvoll

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  • Vi behöver satsa på forskning och utveckling om vi ska lyckas skapa en attraktiv kollektivtrafik! Min presentation i dag består av två delar. Först kommer jag att presentera vårt gemensamma forskningsarbete inom ramen för SAMOT. Jag kommer att beskriva vad SAMOT är, vår vision och vilka aktiviteter vi tillsammans genomför för att öka kollektivtrafikens attraktivitet. Därefter kommer jag att gå in på aktuell forskning om attraktiv kollektivtrafik utifrån ett resenärsperspektiv. Jag har gått igenom internationell forskning men också genomfört en hel del studier själv inom området. Det är en stor församling samlad här i dag men tveka inte att ställ frågor om det är något ni undrar över.
  • Session 13 Bård Tronvoll

    1. 1. VTI – 2010 Dr. Bård Tronvoll How to take care of the customers: The need for a holistic service recovery system in public transportation
    2. 2. Transport remains the number one problem sector for consumers, accounting for one third of complaints in EU <ul><li>European Consumer Centres </li></ul><ul><li>Brussels, 3 August 2009 </li></ul>
    3. 3. Under de senaste 12 månaderna, har du utfört ett formellt klagomål skriftligen, på telefon eller personligen till säljaren / företaget om ett problem som du har upplevt Source: Special Eurobarometer 298: Consumer protection in the internal market
    4. 4. Allmän kundtillfredsställelse avseende 19 tjänster och varor på marknaderna Källa: IPSOS undersökningar om kundtillfredsställelse 2006 och 2008.
    5. 5. Theoretical background <ul><li>Service recovery was one of the earliest service areas to be addressed by marketing scholars because it introduced the elements of interactive customer experience, continuing customer relationship, and their long-term financial impact (Rust and Chung 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Service recovery benefits the company, as it positively influences customers’ expected utilities of a purchase, perceived purchase risk, customer perception of quality, and the generalisation of favourable word-of-mouth (Rust and Chung 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Indeed, Tax and Brown (1998) proposed that managing complaints well and recovery customers should be the cornerstone of an organizations overall customer strategy. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Theoretical background <ul><li>Customer recovery: The majority of the service recovery literature has taken a marketing view, focusing mainly on the impact on customer satisfaction and loyalty (Maxham 2001; McCollough and Gremler 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>Process recovery: Spreng et al. (1996) have emphasised that the prime purpose of service recovery is to help drive improvement through the organisation. Such improvements of service recovery procedures can lead to cost reduction through the removal of inefficient and ineffective processes and to fewer failures in the future, and hence more satisfied customers. </li></ul><ul><li>Employee recovery: Bowen and Johnston (1999) have suggested a internal service recovery/employee recovery to be important in the overall recovery process. They have revealed that it is vital for the organisation to support their employees in their difficult role of dealing with complaining customers. </li></ul><ul><li>Recently have Johnston and Michel (2008) assembled the outcome of service recovery; customer, process and employee recoveries into the overall recovery strategy. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Network recovery <ul><li>A network is a composite of a large number of actors and the pattern of relationships is what tie them together (Iacobucci and Hopkins 1992). </li></ul><ul><li>A business network can be defined as a set of two or more connected relationships, in which each exchange relation is between service providers that are conceptualised as collective actors (Emerson 1981). </li></ul><ul><li>To be more precise, a value-creating network can be viewed as a service eco-system that is built upon loosely coupled value proposing social and economic actors interacting through institutions and technology (Lusch et al. 2009). </li></ul><ul><li>A network service recovery adaption refers to the act of modifying the strategy, stance, posture or resources in order to enhance complementarily with partners (Pillai 2006). </li></ul>
    8. 8. Public transportation <ul><li>Public transportation is usually created in complex, human-based systems involving several actors. </li></ul><ul><li>The more complex systems, the more actors involved in the service co-creation, the larger is the possibility for errors, mistakes or service failures to happen. </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently, complex service systems need high attention to service recovery. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Levels of concerns <ul><li>To expand the understanding and conceptualisation of service recovery we may use Johnston and Clark (2001) metaphor of different company’s levels of concerns. They suggest that service companies should be analysed from three standpoints: </li></ul><ul><li>Business-related concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Operations-related concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Encounter-related concerns </li></ul>
    10. 10. The recovery diamond Customer recovery Employee recovery Network recovery Process recovery Service recovery learning system Business Service operation Service encounter
    11. 11. PTA Entrp Sub-entr <ul><li>Responsibility for all public traffic within a geographic area and has 90 entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>Buy lines from different entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>Have general interaction with the customer </li></ul><ul><li>Handle the complaints from the customer </li></ul><ul><li>Handle the transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Västtrafik is their customer </li></ul><ul><li>Get complaints from customer through Västtrafik (e-mail) </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to problems and give feedback to Västtrafik </li></ul><ul><li>Is contracted through one of Västtrafik’s entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>Receive complaints through the entrepreneur </li></ul><ul><li>Get complaints from the entrepreneurs that is channelled through Västtrafik </li></ul>Västtrafik Göteborgs Spårvägar Göteborgs-buss Swebus Uddevalla Turisttrafik Veolia Transport (+ 86 entre-preneurs)
    12. 12. Comments from an entrepreneur <ul><li>” ... Vi får alltså kundsynpunkter sända till oss, men vi har sällan direktkontakt med resenärerna utan det är Västtrafik som har det. De ärenden som kommer till oss är av två olika slag. Det är kännedomsärenden och det är remisser. Remisser är sådana där kunden uttryckligen har önskat ett svar tillbaka på någonting, de vill ha en förklaring eller ursäkt. Då ser vi till att de får det, men det är fortfarande så att Västtrafik besvara kunden ...” </li></ul><ul><li>” ... arbetsledare åtgärder utifrån samtalen med föraren vad som behövs och sedan ger de ett svarsunderlag tillbaks till oss som vi kan besvara resenären. Eller rättare sagt, skicka vårt kompletta svar till Västtrafik som kan besvara kunden. Så det är ju lite lång gång kan man tycka. Men för Västtrafiks del är detta är oerhört mycket lättare för de har ju bara kontakt med oss då, bara kontakt med mig och min kollega på spårvägen. De behöver inte ringa till någon förman ute i något trafikområde eller så, utan det är vi som har den kontakten ” </li></ul>
    13. 13. How complaints are been handled PTA Entrepreneur Sub - entrepreneur Send complaint Send complaint Feedback Feedback Contract Contract Answer the customer Receive complaint
    14. 14. Summary <ul><li>In addition to customer, process and employee recoveries there is also a need, in a complex human-based systems, for a network recovery system. </li></ul><ul><li>Service recovery has to be embedded in all levels of concerns within the company and therefore should also be included in the business level. </li></ul><ul><li>A network recovery should focus on how actors can adapt to each other through a learning service recovery system </li></ul>
    15. 15. End quote <ul><li>‘ When complaints are freely heard, deeply considered and speedily reformed, then is the utmost bound of civil liberty attained that wise men look for’ </li></ul><ul><li>John Milton Areopagitica, 1644 </li></ul>’ Når klagene er fritt hørt, seriøst vurdert og raskt ordnet, så er den ytterste grense for sivil frihet oppnådd, og som kloke menn ser etter’
    16. 16. Questions Bård Tronvoll [email_address] SAMOT

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