20100407 kostelec green_infrastructure_web


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  • Station 31 Example, City of CharlotteStudy area is 2.5 mile radius from station (RDI and ID)Link-Node Ratio results from study by City of CharlotteImpacted parcels are those with RDI change greater than 0.20
  • 20100407 kostelec green_infrastructure_web

    1. 1. Integrating Green Infrastructure into Regional Planning<br />2010 APA Conference<br />New Orleans, LA<br />April 12, 2010<br />
    2. 2. Speakers<br />State of the Practice & Green Infrastructure Concepts<br />Don Kostelec, AICP; <br />Transpo Group, Asheville, NC<br />Linking Lands & Communities in the Land-of-Sky Region<br />Linda Giltz, AICP; <br />Land-of-Sky Regional Council, Asheville<br />Jacksonville Collector and Green Streets Plan<br />Don Kostelec substituting for Chris Lukasina<br />
    3. 3. Objectives<br />Appreciate how a regional GI network/plan can be used and integrated with other regional and local plans and practices.<br />Know state-of-the-practice techniques <br />Understand the value in assessing and identifying green infrastructure at a regional, landscape scale.<br />Gain insight on what to consider if you want to undertake similar projects.<br />
    4. 4. Being Green is Contextual<br />Not all things are as they appear<br />Some bad may come as a result of a lot of good<br />Elected officials don’t like these types of tradeoffs & uncertainties<br />Planners need to understand the good/bad and the tradeoffs to be effective<br />
    5. 5. Defining Green Infrastructure - Natural Environment<br />Green Infrastructure is a region’s Natural Life Support System – an interconnected network of land and water that contributes to the health, economic well being & quality of life for communities & people.<br />
    6. 6. Defining Green Infrastructure - Natural Environment<br />A GI Network may include:<br />Natural areas<br />Public and private conservation lands<br />Farmlands and lands managed for forestry<br />Outdoor recreation areas and trails<br />Cultural resources and sites<br />GI networks exist at various scales (parcel, community, regional)<br />
    7. 7. Defining Green Infrastructure - Built Environment<br />Green infrastructure is a way for municipalities, developers, engineers and planner to provide for urban infrastructure that supports and improves the region’s natural resources, including:<br />Land, Water, Forests, Air, Etc. <br />
    8. 8. Defining Green Infrastructure - Built Environment<br />A GI Network may include:<br />Reduced impervious structures<br />Stream buffer requirements<br />Stormwater management practices that treat water at its source<br />Street design that promotes efficient transportation (e.g. connectivity policies)<br />Provides for safe travel by pedestrians, bicyclists and transit users. <br />Again, GI networks exist at various scales (parcel, community, regional)<br />
    9. 9. Green Infrastructure Policies<br />There is a direct correlation between land use patterns, the way a site is developed and environmental degradation. Well-planned growth using good site design and development practices can restore and prevent environmental degradation and enhance community character. <br />RI Department of Environmental Management<br />
    10. 10. Characteristics of Policy/Regulations<br />Regulations are often developed with no research base.<br />Regulations are often developed as an emotional response to some phenomena.<br />Regulations are often imposed by layers of cumbersome structure.<br />Regulations have many benefits including protecting the health, safety and general welfare of the public.<br />
    11. 11. Characteristics of Policy/Regulations<br />Regulations serve as a “bar” or standard for the regulator.<br />Regulations often impose maximums.<br />Regulations often impose minimums (e.g. EPA, federal).<br />Regulations that are vague sometimes allow environmental initiatives<br />
    12. 12. Impervious Surfaces<br />
    13. 13. Impervious Surfaces<br />
    14. 14. Typical Language in an Ordinance<br />“All built-upon areas shall be designed and located to minimize stormwater runoff impacts to the receiving waters and minimize concentrated stormwater flow.”<br />Ideal?<br />Too vague?<br />Too restrictive?<br />Don’t know?<br />
    15. 15. Impacts of Stormwater<br />Urban stormwater contributes to:<br />13% of impaired rivers and streams;<br />21% of impaired lakes;<br />46% of impaired estuaries;<br />55% of impaired ocean shorelines<br />Stormwater BMP Maintenance & Inspection<br />
    16. 16. Impacts of Stormwater<br />Addressed through:<br />Controlling stormwater runoff<br />Low impact development techniques<br />Green architectural techniques<br />Green parking lots<br />
    17. 17.
    18. 18. Street Connectivity as a Green Infrastructure practice<br />Cities are looking at a host of transportation, land use, energy, environmental and sustainability policy issues and considering new measurement techniques:<br /><ul><li>Complete Streets Policy
    19. 19. Concurrency Program Refinements
    20. 20. VMT and GHG per Capita Reduction</li></li></ul><li>Background Policy Issues<br /><ul><li>Multi-Modal Level-of-Service (LOS)
    21. 21. Street Connectivity Policies
    22. 22. Connectivity between new/existing developed lands
    23. 23. Non-motorized public accessways and limiting cul-de-sacs
    24. 24. Grid-based standards for streets (500 feet ) and Non-motorized (330 feet) – emphasis on smaller block lengths
    25. 25. Developing connectivity metrics </li></li></ul><li>Systems Connectivity is Important<br />Measuring and quantifying system connectivity is essential to evaluating non-motorized plans and central to addressing part of the climate change dilemma.<br />Improved street and non-motorized connectivity increases accessibility and route options and reduces VMT and GHG. Traffic congestion, accidents and pollution emissions are reduced while mobility for non-drivers is increased. Emergency response improves because emergency vehicles have more direct access with less the risk that an area will become inaccessible if a particular part of the street network is blocked. <br />
    26. 26. Systems Connectivity is Important<br />Recent academic studies identified four land use and transportation factors associated with walking and cycling, and the resulting reduction in VMT:<br />Density: residential units within a specified area<br />Destinations: grocery stores, restaurant, retail, schools<br />Distance: to key destinations<br />Route: smaller blocks, better sidewalks <br /> <br />The optimization of routes in relations to these factors can help reduce VMT by as much as 35%, with similar reductions in vehicle energy consumption and emissions.<br />
    27. 27. Achieving VMT Capita Reduction<br />Research conducted in Seattle area by C. Lee and Anne Moudon (University of Washington), 2006: Quantifying Land Use and Urban Form Correlates of Walking<br />- 2 %<br />- 4 %<br />- 5%<br />Measures of connectivity helps indicate transportation-efficient land uses that yield lower VMT and GHG per capita<br />
    28. 28. What is Route Directness Index?<br />A<br />B<br />straight-line distance “A”<br />actual route distance “B”<br />RDI = A / B<br />
    29. 29. Before<br />After<br />Impacted Parcels<br />Route Directness Index <br />Using ViaCityTM<br />0.58<br />0.62<br />1,115<br />Intersection<br />Density<br />55.9<br />56.0<br />N/A<br />Link-Node Ratio<br />1.09<br />1.10<br />N/A<br />
    30. 30. Example RDI - Existing Conditions<br />Shared-Use Path Connections<br />
    31. 31. Using RDI to Test New Project / Plan<br />Shared-Use Path Connections<br />
    32. 32. RDI is Sensitive to Critical Street Design<br />Sensitive to Block Length<br />Shared-Use Path Connections<br />Sensitive to Cul-de-Sac Length<br />305 ft<br />330ft<br />
    33. 33. Integrating Green Infrastructure into Regional Planning<br />2010 APA Conference<br />New Orleans, LA<br />April 12, 2010<br />