http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-0jhxOs_oKpY/TaXr8EN8uzI/AAAAAAAAAGk/Ub2YeRkLmcs/s640/louisiana-plantations.jpg -- Destrehan Plantation, built in 1787 in French Colonial style, remodeled to Greek revival in 1840.http://www.bon-voyage.co.uk/img/uploads/7472_fit588x588.jpg -- Nashville
http://avhs-apush.wikispaces.com/file/view/jcalhoun.jpg/43125559/jcalhoun.jpg – John C. Calhoun.
slavery moves farther west• With cotton boom, slavery expands into Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Texas.• Slave owners of upper south & Atlantic states either move to new cotton areas, or sell their excess slaves to those areas.• 1 million slaves forcibly uprooted, 1820 – 1860 – more than total number of Africans imported to US, 1619 – 1808 (400,000).
cotton slavery makes huge profits• By 1860, cotton accounts for 60% of US exports.• S economy is concentrated on plantation agriculture, so urban & commercial development are much slower than in N.• S industrialized much more slowly. S capital tied up in land & slaves.• 1850 slave labor is primarily agricultural – 55% cotton. – 20% tobacco, rice, sugar, hemp. – 15% domestic servants. – 10% mining, lumbering, industry, construction.
Small elite group owned most slaves.• Almost 2/3 white southerners owned 0 slaves.• 2.5% white southerners owned 50 or more slaves, big plantations.• Paternalistic.• Saw their wealth & ownership as a duty & a burden.
Slave life varied, but all enslaved.• large or small plantation.• type of crop.• domestic servants, close contact with whites.• urban slaves.• Field laborers worked from “can” to “can’t.”• Families & African-American Christianity created culture of endurance & resistance.
survival• Slave community acted as family.• Fear of separation – 1/3 children sold away from parents. Couples separated.• Rough equality between women & men; women not treated as weaker.• African-American Christianity – a way to express longings for freedom & justice.• Daily resistance – working slowly, sabotage, destruction of tools, animals, crops.
Resistance & revolt • Denmark Vesey (free man), Charleston, 1822. • Nat Turner, Virginia, 1831, killed 55 whites. • Both literate & preachers. • Both executed. • Result: tighter laws prohibiting slaves from learning to read.
• http://www.freedomcenter.org/visit-the- center/• National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, on Ohio River
extension of slavery• Missouri applied for admission to union as slave state, 1819.• Recall that Northwest Ordinance said northwest states would be free.• Equal number of slave & free states existed.• Southerners believed slavery was property, so a matter for state legislation, not federal.• Slavery as a constitutional issue.
Missouri Compromise• 1820, 1st extended debate in Congress over slavery.• Missouri Compromise, 1820 – Maine admitted as free, Missouri as slave.• Slavery prohibited north of 36 30 latitude line (S boundary of Missouri).• Most of Louisiana Territory would be free.• Did not address future balance of slave/free states.
announcements• Paper # 1 is due Tuesday, March 27.• Late papers will be penalized.• Please ask questions if instructions are not clear.
reading assignment for March 27• Zinn & Arnove, Voices of a People’s History of the US, 2nd ed. P. 153 – 166.• War with Mexico