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US history surveySlavery in 19th century   March 20, 2012
announcements• Paper # 1 is due Tuesday, March 27.• Late papers will be penalized.• Please ask questions if instructions a...
closing of slave trade, 1808
Internal slave trade
slavery moves farther west• With cotton boom, slavery expands into  Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Texas.• Slave owners o...
cotton states (dark red)
cotton slavery makes huge profits• By 1860, cotton accounts for 60% of US exports.• S economy is concentrated on plantatio...
Small elite group owned most slaves.• Almost 2/3 white southerners owned 0  slaves.• 2.5% white southerners owned  50 or m...
Slave life varied, but all enslaved.•   large or small plantation.•   type of crop.•   domestic servants, close contact wi...
Georgia
Alabama
South Carolina
Louisiana
survival• Slave community acted as family.• Fear of separation – 1/3 children sold away  from parents. Couples separated.•...
Resistance & revolt       • Denmark Vesey (free man),         Charleston, 1822.       • Nat Turner, Virginia, 1831,       ...
Underground Railroad            • Harriet Tubman
• http://www.freedomcenter.org/visit-the-  center/• National Underground Railroad Freedom  Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, on Oh...
extension of slavery• Missouri applied for admission to union as  slave state, 1819.• Recall that Northwest Ordinance said...
Missouri Compromise• 1820, 1st extended debate in Congress over  slavery.• Missouri Compromise, 1820 – Maine  admitted as ...
announcements• Paper # 1 is due Tuesday, March 27.• Late papers will be penalized.• Please ask questions if instructions a...
reading assignment for March 27• Zinn & Arnove, Voices of a People’s History of  the US, 2nd ed. P. 153 – 166.• War with M...
Us history survey.032012
Us history survey.032012
Us history survey.032012
Us history survey.032012
Us history survey.032012
Us history survey.032012
Us history survey.032012
Us history survey.032012
Us history survey.032012
Us history survey.032012
Us history survey.032012
Us history survey.032012
Us history survey.032012
Us history survey.032012
Us history survey.032012
Us history survey.032012
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Us history survey.032012

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Us history survey.032012

  1. 1. US history surveySlavery in 19th century March 20, 2012
  2. 2. announcements• Paper # 1 is due Tuesday, March 27.• Late papers will be penalized.• Please ask questions if instructions are not clear.
  3. 3. closing of slave trade, 1808
  4. 4. Internal slave trade
  5. 5. slavery moves farther west• With cotton boom, slavery expands into Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Texas.• Slave owners of upper south & Atlantic states either move to new cotton areas, or sell their excess slaves to those areas.• 1 million slaves forcibly uprooted, 1820 – 1860 – more than total number of Africans imported to US, 1619 – 1808 (400,000).
  6. 6. cotton states (dark red)
  7. 7. cotton slavery makes huge profits• By 1860, cotton accounts for 60% of US exports.• S economy is concentrated on plantation agriculture, so urban & commercial development are much slower than in N.• S industrialized much more slowly. S capital tied up in land & slaves.• 1850 slave labor is primarily agricultural – 55% cotton. – 20% tobacco, rice, sugar, hemp. – 15% domestic servants. – 10% mining, lumbering, industry, construction.
  8. 8. Small elite group owned most slaves.• Almost 2/3 white southerners owned 0 slaves.• 2.5% white southerners owned 50 or more slaves, big plantations.• Paternalistic.• Saw their wealth & ownership as a duty & a burden.
  9. 9. Slave life varied, but all enslaved.• large or small plantation.• type of crop.• domestic servants, close contact with whites.• urban slaves.• Field laborers worked from “can” to “can’t.”• Families & African-American Christianity created culture of endurance & resistance.
  10. 10. Georgia
  11. 11. Alabama
  12. 12. South Carolina
  13. 13. Louisiana
  14. 14. survival• Slave community acted as family.• Fear of separation – 1/3 children sold away from parents. Couples separated.• Rough equality between women & men; women not treated as weaker.• African-American Christianity – a way to express longings for freedom & justice.• Daily resistance – working slowly, sabotage, destruction of tools, animals, crops.
  15. 15. Resistance & revolt • Denmark Vesey (free man), Charleston, 1822. • Nat Turner, Virginia, 1831, killed 55 whites. • Both literate & preachers. • Both executed. • Result: tighter laws prohibiting slaves from learning to read.
  16. 16. Underground Railroad • Harriet Tubman
  17. 17. • http://www.freedomcenter.org/visit-the- center/• National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, on Ohio River
  18. 18. extension of slavery• Missouri applied for admission to union as slave state, 1819.• Recall that Northwest Ordinance said northwest states would be free.• Equal number of slave & free states existed.• Southerners believed slavery was property, so a matter for state legislation, not federal.• Slavery as a constitutional issue.
  19. 19. Missouri Compromise• 1820, 1st extended debate in Congress over slavery.• Missouri Compromise, 1820 – Maine admitted as free, Missouri as slave.• Slavery prohibited north of 36 30 latitude line (S boundary of Missouri).• Most of Louisiana Territory would be free.• Did not address future balance of slave/free states.
  20. 20. announcements• Paper # 1 is due Tuesday, March 27.• Late papers will be penalized.• Please ask questions if instructions are not clear.
  21. 21. reading assignment for March 27• Zinn & Arnove, Voices of a People’s History of the US, 2nd ed. P. 153 – 166.• War with Mexico

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