http://cdn.dipity.com/uploads/events/255cda93f598f324d4c4ce87f9c8c16b_1M.pnghttp://www.artvalue.com/photos/auction/0/38/38740/weiss-franz-josef-1735-1790-au-pirates-alley-vieux-carre-new-1368500.jpg (Franz Josef Weiss, 1735 – 1790)
Us history survey # 9
US History surveygovernment for the new nation results of Revolutionary War
Articles of Confederation, 1777 • first written constitution. • guaranteed sovereignty of states. • created a national government, but most powers to states. • disagreement over W land claims -- should land be ceded to national government? • ratified by all 13 in 1781. • Continental Congress acted as though Articles passed.
finances of Continental Congress under Articles of Confederation• no direct taxes on individuals.• could apportion taxes among states.• Congress financed revolution by – grants & loans from friendly countries. – issuing paper money – Continentals.
Treaty of Paris, 1783 • recognition of independence. • withdrawal of British forces. • fish in N Atlantic. • goal: as much terri- tory as possible. • negotiations with French & Spanish. • Mississippi River access.
stay tuned• other revolutions and wars rapidly changed Americans lives and borders of the US in years after the Revolution. – French Revolution, 1789 – 1799. – Haitian slave revolution – St. Domingue, 1791 – 1804. – Napoleonic wars in Europe, 1799 – 1815.• America remained connected to Europe & Caribbean.
results of Revolution• army officers wanted to collect life pensions as bonuses from Congress.• possible military coup.• Washington resigned as general; could have become military dictator.• established principle of military subordination to civil authority.
results of Revolution• the West and Indians – more settlers.• African Americans – mixed results, depending on area of country.• politics• finances• inadequacy of Confederation led to Constitution.• Bill of Rights.
the West• British abandoned Indian allies.• during & after war, settlers migrated over mountains & down Ohio River valley.• Confederation Congress created method for Western territories to become states equal to original 13.• surveyed & auctioned public lands seized from Indians.• Congress sold 1.5 million acres to Ohio Company.
Northwest Ordinance, 1787• 3 to 5 states to be created & admitted to nation as equals.• slavery prohibited north of Ohio River.• president of Ohio Company chosen governor.• creation of land system & system to become states was the major accomplishment of Confederation government.
African Americans• some slaves were freed, by multiple methods – fighting for Patriots, Loyalists, British. – running away. – manumission. – purchasing selves, families, friends.• free people of color became primarily urban.• slow demise of slavery in North.• rapid expansion of slavery in South, especially lower South & lower Mississippi Valley.
Northern states• all N states legislated abolition of slavery, but slaveholders resisted, created new ways to retain labor.• middle states very slowly emancipated enslaved.• free people of color became more urban, slaves more rural.• free people of color created institutions – churches, schools, fraternal organizations – named them “African.”• free people of color – changed names, found own jobs, took own residences. – developed class differences, between respectable & not.
Upper South• many slaves fled, including “property” of founding fathers.• planters condemned slave trade; saw slavery as necessary evil.• tobacco ceased to be dominant crop; mixed farming.• mostly rural; free people & enslaved very intertwined, unlike North. More Af-Am unity.• excess slaves, so some sold farther south.
Lower South & lower Mississippi Valley• planters pushed to reopen slave trade w Africa.• rapid expansion of slavery, from lower South moving west, from Gulf Coast moving north.• new crops: cotton in SC & GA, expanded into back country. Sugar in Louisiana.• violence toward slaves increased.• development of 3-caste society: white, slaves, and mixed race free people. Free people identified with slaveholders, Euro- American culture.
politics• new state legislatures included more rural & western men: farmers & artisans, as well as lawyers, merchants, large landowners.• varied state constitutions, with democratic & conservative elements.• Virginia Declaration of Rights, 1776 (precedent to Bill of Rights) – George Mason.• states abolished entail & primogeniture (1st son inherits all).
politics• Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom – Jefferson, Virginia – to remove established church (supported & funded by state government).
finances• British blockade resulted in inflation during Revolutionary War.• depression after war.• huge debt from war. Merchants & speculators wanted to have loans repaid in full.• average farmers had no cash.• Britain remained major trading partner.
Shay’s Rebellion, 1786 • western Massachusetts. • farmers closed courts where debtors were being sued. • conservative nationalists unhappy states had so much power; believed there was too much democracy.
next week• the Constitution & its compromises• Federalist Papers• student evaluations of class.