US History # 5Politics of empire & colonization, 1550 - 1750
announcements• Midterm exam: Tuesday 15/11/11, 10:10 – 11:45.• Exam covers everything: power points, lectures, discussion, assigned reading.• There will be choices of questions.• No dictionaries, please.
Competition for colonies & trade: England, Spain, France, Netherlands• series of wars throughout 16th, 17th, 18th centuries.• desire to control New World land, resources, peoples, and to monopolize trade.• religious competition in most wars (Protestant, Catholic, dissenting Protestants).• shifting alliances among European countries.• wars fought on oceans, in colonies around the world, and in Europe.
English conquest of Ireland• Warfare, late 16th c – imposition of English centralized rule, language, law, & culture.• Imposition of Anglicanism on Catholic Ireland.• Occupation by English troops & colonization by English people.• Ended autonomous, armed, clan-based lordships.• Treatment of Irish a model for treatment of Africans in British colonies.
Irish “savages” • British believed civilized people could not mix w savages, such as Irish. Brought this idea to New World.
Internal political & religious change in England• Civil War, 1642 – 1651• Puritans, led by Oliver Cromwell, executed king, created Commonwealth, ended Anglican monopoly.• monarchy restored 1660.• Parliament deposed James II for Mary & William of Orange, 1688, Glorious Revolution.• Bill of Rights – England now a constitutional monarchy.
Wars for empire (and religious dominance)• Anglo-Dutch wars, 1650s – 1670s. English became the Atlantic power. New York colony became English.• English trade monopoly of Atlantic coast.• Intermittent wars between England & France (usually allied with Spain) for control of North American interior, 1689 – 1763.• France typically had Indian allies.
Wars for empire• 1713 – Spain yielded exclusive right to England to supply slaves to British colonies.• In northern colonies, wars over control of Indian trade.
Indian participation in wars• Among British, French, & Spanish, various Indian nations attempted to play off Europeans against one another & to gain allies against their Indian enemies.
colonial politics• 1st colonial assembly established Jamestown, 1619.• voters were white, male, adult, propertied.• during English Civil War & aftermath, colonial legislatures grew powerful & independent.• colonists rebelled against royal governors.• English imposed royal government on all colonies except Pennsylvania (proprietary), Massachusetts, Connecticut.• Development of self-government. Spanish & French colonies completely governed from Europe.
• Jamestown, 1619• Election day, with candidates supplying alcohol, 18th c.
English attempts to control colonies• Navigation Acts – 2nd half of 17th c – all trade between British & its colonies had to be on ships built in England or British colonies.• Other nations forbidden to trade with British colonies.• No competition with home country industries – wool, hat, & iron production forbidden.• Huge growth of trade between England & colonies, 1700 – 1760.
mercantilism• Political control of economy by the state. System designed to benefit the “mother” country.• Slavery stimulated manufacturing w/ a huge colonial market for exports – textiles, metal products, shipwares.• Profit from slavery a source of investment – modern banks, insurance companies, growth of British ports.