US History 2nd Class

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  • The Peasant Wedding (1568) - Pieter Brueghel the Elder
  • Pieter Brueghel
  • Pieter Brueghel, Hunters in the Snow
  • House of Ill Repute, Pieter Aertsen, 1560s
  • Pieter Aertsen, mid to late 16th c
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  • http://www.xtimeline.com/__UserPic_Large/101567/evt110315184200071.jpg
  • http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/Homework/tudors/images/explorer/map.jpg
  • US History 2nd Class

    1. 1. US history, 2nd class<br />Western Europeans <br />before & during <br />exploration and colonization<br />
    2. 2. Portuguese peasants<br />
    3. 3. 15 & 16th c peasant life<br />
    4. 4. Pieter Bruegel (1525 – 1569)Flemish painter & printmaker<br />
    5. 5.
    6. 6.
    7. 7.
    8. 8.
    9. 9.
    10. 10. Pieter Aertsen, mid – late 16th c.<br />
    11. 11.
    12. 12. What’s happening in Europe?<br />1492 – 1501 – Spanish Inquisition requires conversion or departure of Jews & Muslims. Sephardic Jews depart & many settle in Izmir. <br />1517 – Martin Luther writes 95 Theses & nails to church door in Wittenberg. He breaks with Rome & begins the Protestant Reformation. <br />1558 – 1603 -- Elizabeth I rules England. <br />1588 – England defeats the Spanish Armada. <br />
    13. 13. Christopher Columbus<br />“All the inhabitants could<br /> be made slaves.”<br />
    14. 14. Within one generation of CC…<br />exchanges of<br />people<br />crops<br />animals<br />germs<br /> profoundly changed the Atlantic world. <br />Voyages were financed by funds confiscated from Spanish Jews, forced out by Inquisition. <br />
    15. 15. Spanish & Portuguese exploration<br />
    16. 16. Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)<br />also known as Papal Demarcation Line of 1494<br />divided the “New World” between Spain & Portugal<br />results today<br />Brazilian speak Portuguese<br />countries where Spain maintained control speak Spanish<br />
    17. 17. Portuguese empire<br />
    18. 18. Spanish Empire<br />
    19. 19. Bartolome de las Casas<br />Destruction of the Indies (1552)<br />denounced conquerors.<br />goal was to Christianize –<br />“not to rob, to scandalize, to capture or destroy them, or to lay waste their lands.”<br />reported huge population losses. <br />One century after 1519, Mexico had decline from 25 million to 1 million. <br />
    20. 20. decline of Indian population until 1900<br />Warfare<br />Famine<br />Lower birth rate<br />Epidemic diseases<br />90% decline.<br />Major difference with European colonialism in Africa & Asia – not a radical reduction of native population. <br />
    21. 21. Northern America<br />French – commerce rather than conquest. <br />Furs traded for textiles, glass, copper, ironware. <br />St. Lawrence River & Great Lakes<br />
    22. 22. French colonialism<br /> By 1600, 1,000 ships <br /> annually trading for<br /> furs. <br />
    23. 23. English colonialism<br />1562 – John Hawkins transported African slaves to Caribbean, violating Spanish law.<br />Walter Raleigh – “he that commands the sea commands the trade.”<br />Francis Drake – raids against Spanish New World ports & fleets. <br />Slavery & plunder began English involvement.<br />Spain & England main rivals in Catholic/Protestant confrontation. <br />
    24. 24. Francis Drake (English)<br />1577 – 1580 – 2nd circumnavigation of globe<br />
    25. 25. Pt. Reyes, north of San Francisco, explored by Drake<br />

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