US History 2/28/12international politics & revolutions territorial expansion
announcements• syllabus handout – note 2 required papers.• need volunteer to copy readings.
Independence doesn’t mean the rest of the Atlantic world is irrelevant.
French Revolution, 1789 - 1799• Liberte, egalite, fraternite!• Abolished slavery in colonies.
Haitian revolution, 1791 - 1804• 1st independent Black republic in the Americas
Napoleonic wars• 1799, coup d’etat by Napoleon. Became head of French state, eventually called Emperor.• 1799 – 1815, Napoleon attempted to conquer Europe. All major European powers at war.• installed his brother on Spanish throne.• Napoleon defeated, 1815, & French monarchy returned.
Latin American independence, 1806 - 1825 • Europe diverted by Napoleonic wars. • Simon Bolivar, Great Liberator, Venezuelan (1783 – 1830). • led Columbia, Venezuela, Ecuador, & Bolivia to independence. • Bolivar regarded as the father of all • Latin American independence movements. • Spain loses all American colonies by 1825, except Caribbean. • Latin American countries abolish slavery.
Spain established outpost in Alta California• 21 missions constructed, 1769 – 1823, San Diego to Sonoma, each a day’s journey apart.• Forced conversion & enslavement of Indians.• Avila Adobe, Olvera Street, Los Angeles (1818)
Russia colonization• Russian forts in Alaska & as far south as Fort Ross, California, 1812 - 1842.• Fort Ross in Spanish territory.
Mexican independence• War, 1810 – 1821, ended in independence from Spain.• population consisted of indios, descendants of Spaniards, and mestizos (mixed).• -- call for land reform.• -- call for racial equality.• -- 1823, became a republic after 300 years of Spanish rule -- abolished slavery.
Barbary Wars in Mediterranean • Merchant ships in Mediterranean attacked by Barbary pirates, Arabic-speaking North Africans from Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli. • ships were plundered, men held for ransom or enslaved. • Long-term practice with European ships.
Barbary pirates & need for US navy• Independence meant British navy no longer protected American merchant ships. – no possibility of creation of a navy under Articles of Confederation. – after Constitution created, major debate over building a navy.• “tribute” commonly paid for protection.• debate over paying tribute or going to war.• multiple wars with Barbary pirates early 19th c.
meanwhile, back in the USA…. • Americans rapidly settle across Appalachian mountains. • Negotiation, not conquest, brought Transappalachia into US after Revolution. • US wants to control use of Mississippi River. • Jefferson believes in “enlarging the empire for liberty.”
constant & dramatic population increase• no famines in North America, plentiful farmland.• no plagues – except diseases to which Indians had no immunities.• high rate of reproduction, especially in frontier areas.• all caused more pressure for more land.
Louisiana Purchase, 1803• Having successfully become independent, US leaders wanted to expand & to protect US against European powers: France, Spain, Britain. Also wanted access to Mississippi River.• Diplomats empowered to buy New Orleans from France, for $2 million.• Napoleon decided to sell it all, for $15 million. (Total income of federal government was $11 million, 1803).• more than doubled the size of US.• Constitutional?• Unclear whether France had rights from Spain, & Napoleon consulted no one.
Louisiana Purchase -- note river & Rocky Mountain boundaries
Lewis & Clark expedition, 1804 - 1806• sent by Pres. Jefferson to explore Louisiana Territory, find land route to Pacific Ocean, & declare sovereignty over Natives along Missouri River.
permanent capitol: Washington, DC• compromise on location: locate the capitol in south & southern states would help pay war debts of northern states.• site selected on Potomac River between Maryland & Virginia (both slave states).• a separate legal entity, District of Columbia.• always had significant African American population.• city plan designed by Pierre l’Enfant, 1791.• 1800 – government moves to DC.
Washington, DC: a planned city• National Mall• Congress• White House• Supreme Court
announcements• syllabus handout – note 2 required papers.• need volunteer to copy readings.• reading for March 6, 2012: 105 – 107, 110 – 114 in Out of Many: Documents. – Lewis & Clark meet Shoshones. – Henry Clay calls for war – President Madison’s war message