Effective Strategies for Shifting Behaviors, Presentation 2

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Presentation by Roger Geller, Bike Coordinator, Portland Bureau of Transportation

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  • Why are we looking to shift behavior? Driving makes you poor and fat.
  • We must understand for whom we’re designing. We need stronger policies that focus on outcomes, desirable qualities, and an emphasis about serving the needs of the majority of Portlanders. We need to clearly state our intentions. Our existing policies are excellent. They have been the bulwarks of our system—the foundation upon which we built almost all of what we’ve accomplished. Currently, our policy is to make the bicycle a part of daily life in Portland. I think we need something stronger that emphasizes an outcome—that we want to make the bicycle the preferred means of private transportation for trips less than 3 miles. That’s an 18-minute bike ride at a comfortable, no-sweat pace. It’s also a distance that captures the majority of the trips we take. Isn’t that what we want if we’re to address climate change, obesity, air and water pollution, congestion, and overall livability? Isn’t that what we need? Don’t we want to create conditions so bicycle-friendly that most Portlanders would prefer to use their bicycles? Wouldn’t that be a beautiful city? I think developing and enacting the new policies that will lay the foundation for Portland to advance to world-class levels of bicycle-friendliness will be the most discussed, considered, and perhaps contentious issues we’ll address as part of updating the Bicycle Master Plan. It should be, if we do our job well. The Bicycle Master Plan—in order to set the stage for doubling, tripling, quadrupling bicycle use here—must engage the fearless, the confident and the concerned citizens of Portland. It must engage property owners, business owners, and our business, institutional, and operational partners. We need an in-depth civic conversation about bicycling and its future role in Portland. That is what we will strive to do over the next year as we work towards updating the Plan.
  • The Portland Bicycle Plan for 2030, adopted by Council little more than one year ago (2/11/10) recommended an ambitious goal and vision: create conditions so that bicycling will be more attractive than driving for trips of 3 miles or less and achieve a minimum of 25% bicycle trips city wide. This number is particularly significant, as it is the proportion of trips in Multnomah County recommended to be accomplished by bicycle in the joint City-County Climate Action Plan 2009 (commute trips only). As the brief presentation by Roger shows, bicycle commute trips are increasing rapidly across Portland and are on a pace to hit 25% in inner parts of the city with our continued efforts. At this point, as I will discuss a bit further into my presentation, funding becomes a true limiting factor in what we will be able to achieve and by when. Overall, the way we will achieve our goals is by pursuing the six key areas identified in the plan. --AS ABOVE— This report on our progress describes how we’ve advanced in each of these six areas. The report’s appendix also identifies specific progress that the city has made in addressing each of the 105 immediate action items the plan identified. This plan has been informing our work plan for the past year to good effect. This number is particularly significant, as it is the proportion of trips in Multnomah County recommended to be accomplished by bicycle in the joint City-County Climate Action Plan 2009 (commute trips only). As the brief presentation by Roger shows, bicycle commute trips are increasing rapidly across Portland and are on a pace to hit 25% in inner parts of the city with our continued efforts. At this point, as I will discuss a bit further into my presentation, funding becomes a true limiting factor in what we will be able to achieve and by when. Overall, the way we will achieve our goals is by pursuing the six key areas identified in the plan. --AS ABOVE— This report on our progress describes how we’ve advanced in each of these six areas. The report’s appendix also identifies specific progress that the city has made in addressing each of the 105 immediate action items the plan identified. This plan has been informing our work plan for the past year to good effect.
  • City of Portland: 145 mi2. Approximately 583,000 people in a region of approximately 2 million
  • There is a slight difference between the city’s political boundary and the census tracts within the city. The gray lines define the boundaries of the city’s neighborhood associations.
  • There is a slight difference between the city’s political boundary and the census tracts within the city. The gray lines define the boundaries of the city’s neighborhood associations.
  • There is a slight difference between the city’s political boundary and the census tracts within the city. The gray lines define the boundaries of the city’s neighborhood associations.
  • There is a slight difference between the city’s political boundary and the census tracts within the city. The gray lines define the boundaries of the city’s neighborhood associations.
  • There is a slight difference between the city’s political boundary and the census tracts within the city. The gray lines define the boundaries of the city’s neighborhood associations.
  • There is a slight difference between the city’s political boundary and the census tracts within the city. The gray lines define the boundaries of the city’s neighborhood associations.
  • We are in the midst of a cultural phenomenon here in Portland. Nowhere else in North America is bicycling increasing as fast as it is here. We’ve seen exponential growth in bicycle use in the past 3 years...
  • Unlike most modes, bicycle use is rapidly increasing in Portland
  • We are in the midst of a cultural phenomenon here in Portland. Nowhere else in North America is bicycling increasing as fast as it is here. We’ve seen exponential growth in bicycle use in the past 3 years...
  • Cyclists themselves are becoming a dominant feature of the urban landscape.
  • This has proven a useful categorization of cyclists and has been a good way to organize the discussion about our “design vehicle” and the work ahead of us. We need stronger policies that focus on outcomes, desirable qualities, and an emphasis about serving the needs of the majority of Portlanders. We need to clearly state our intentions. Our existing policies are excellent. They have been the bulwarks of our system—the foundation upon which we built almost all of what we’ve accomplished. Currently, our policy is to make the bicycle a part of daily life in Portland. I think we need something stronger that emphasizes an outcome—that we want to make the bicycle the preferred means of private transportation for trips less than 3 miles. That’s an 18-minute bike ride at a comfortable, no-sweat pace. It’s also a distance that captures the majority of the trips we take. Isn’t that what we want if we’re to address climate change, obesity, air and water pollution, congestion, and overall livability? Isn’t that what we need? Don’t we want to create conditions so bicycle-friendly that most Portlanders would prefer to use their bicycles? Wouldn’t that be a beautiful city? I think developing and enacting the new policies that will lay the foundation for Portland to advance to world-class levels of bicycle-friendliness will be the most discussed, considered, and perhaps contentious issues we’ll address as part of updating the Bicycle Master Plan. It should be, if we do our job well. The Bicycle Master Plan—in order to set the stage for doubling, tripling, quadrupling bicycle use here—must engage the fearless, the confident and the concerned citizens of Portland. It must engage property owners, business owners, and our business, institutional, and operational partners. We need an in-depth civic conversation about bicycling and its future role in Portland. That is what we will strive to do over the next year as we work towards updating the Plan.
  • All buses accommodate bicycles.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All bicycle corrals have been requested by business owners. We are now working on concert with business associations to plan multiple corrals in business districts across the city. We have 33 corrals installed as of October, 2009 with many more identified on a waiting list. Our Mayor’s Office is receiving complaints from business owners that we are not moving fast enough to remove their on-street car parking in favor of bicycle parking. In addition to providing for parking, corrals also create a more pleasant pedestrian environment by removing all the bikes from the sidewalk. They also create more space and a more pleasant environment for sidewalk cafes. Such corrals also benefit businesses by ensuring that no large vehicle will park in front of them and obscure their store front from passing traffic.
  • Few people in the agency would have believed that we now have business owners calling the Mayor’s office to complain that we’re not removing their on-street car parking fast enough—but they are. She’s on the phone right here, no doubt asking for more racks…
  • We’ve also seen a tremendous growth in the demand for on-street bicycle parking. Portland’s first corral hit the street in 2004. In the past two years demand has sky-rocketed. We have now removed more than 105 car parking spaces and providing parking for more than 1,100 bicycles – and better café conditions – at 64 locations across town. We cannot keep up with the demand, as we currently have a more than two year backlog of requests. In fact, the number of businesses waiting for corrals grew from 68 to 75 [ CLICK] since we produced the report and today. Every single bicycle corral has been installed at the request of the business owner. PBOT has worked closely with those business owners—and the business associations—to create a workable plan and installation for each business. HERE’S 140 PORTLAND BUSINESSES THAT UNDERSTAND THAT BICYCLING IS GOOD FOR BUSINESS, WITH MORE BEING ADDED EVERY MONTH
  • You see a lot of smiling faces at Sunday Parkways…
  • It’s why we’re seeing requests for more bicycle parking at schools and why it’s being used. Because we’re building routes on which families feel comfortable riding We’re encouraging them to get out and ride in various ways We’re working directly with the schools to educate and promote bicycling to youth And, it’s catching on with individuals, who are doing things like organizing bike trains…
  • Compared to average national data, Portland’s students and their parents are doing a much better job of driving less [CLICK] and getting to school more by either walking or biking [CLICK] . This makes a big difference in the classroom. As the Assistant Principal at Beach Elementary School has stated, “Our kids come ready to learn because they’ve gotten fresh air; they’ve gotten exercise; they feel a part of our school community.” KIDS ARRIVE READY TO LEARN
  • Bicycling is good for our scarce transportation resources. By way of example, for $60 million we can construct 300-miles of North America’s best urban bikeway network or we can construct approximately one mile of urban freeway.
  • Bicycling is good for our scarce transportation resources. By way of example, for $60 million we can construct 300-miles of North America’s best urban bikeway network or we can construct approximately one mile of urban freeway.
  • Bicycling is good for our scarce transportation resources. By way of example, for $60 million we can construct 300-miles of North America’s best urban bikeway network or we can construct approximately one mile of urban freeway.
  • And our investments have been modest. The progress we’ve made in the past year is a strong continuation—and indeed acceleration—of long-term trends. With that I am pleased to introduce Sue Keil, Director of the Bureau of Transportation. In what will be one of her last public acts as Director, Ms. Keil will present to you the work she and her bureau has accomplished over the past year in implementing the Portland Bicycle Plan for 2030. I know that Sue is rightfully proud of all the work PBOT has accomplished under her direction—and she should be.
  • Not just for Portland. Amsterdam and Copenhagen credit their current form to the consistent application of policies over many years. Davis, CA, identiifed as “America’s Bicycling Capitol” in the 1960s, benefited from a strong working relationship between visionary leaders, strong advocates, and a bureaucracy that was willing to take chances and experiment. Political Leadership Strong Laws Bicycle facilities required Funding guaranteed Strong Policies For provision of bikeways For role of bicycling in city Requirements for parking Effective Advocacy Knowledgeable, effective bureaucracy Willingness to experiment with designs Not: what will our existing designs allow us to do?, but: what is the best way to do it?
  • We will be adding many miles of bicycle boulevards and similar facilities in the coming 5 years.
  • These are the Dutch design principles for bikeway networks and facilities. Here “comfort” has to do both with the physical conditions of the bikeways as well as with minimizing the complexity of the cycling task, especially in regard to interactions with motor vehicles.
  • Whereas most of our system is currently bicycle lanes, and while we intend to improve upon them, we are also undertaking an aggressive expansion of our bicycle boulevard network, shown in green.
  • Whereas most of our system is currently bicycle lanes, and while we intend to improve upon them, we are also undertaking an aggressive expansion of our bicycle boulevard network, shown in green.
  • Whereas most of our system is currently bicycle lanes, and while we intend to improve upon them, we are also undertaking an aggressive expansion of our bicycle boulevard network, shown in green.
  • You will be seeing more of this Urban Bikeway Design Guide, which was just made public last month. We will be coming back to you with a resolution to adopt this as part of Portland’s bikeway design guide. Our current guide—adopted with the Bicycle Master Plan in 1996—is in need of updating, and this is the document that will provide that update. In addition to our work on this guide we are continuing to lead the American charge to provide better bikeways. In 2010 we expanded our use of bike boxes, bicycle signals, enhancement of existing signals and built better bicycle lanes, as on Stark, Oak, Broadway, Cully and Holgate.
  • Our award winning Smarttrips program annually provides encouragement to approximately 20,000 households in Portland, tackling it’s 6 th neighborhood—in East Portland—in 2010 Sunday Parkways had its biggest year yet with 5 events that attracted more than 90,000 Portlanders. It’s been a great partnership between PBOT, Parks, PPB, local businesses, neighborhood associations and the hundreds of volunteers that make these events fun for everybody SmartTrips Business expanded in 2010 to provide 189 East Portland businesses with active transportation resources for employees and customers. That program has assisted more than 600 businesses to date More businesses are realizing and acting on the notion that: Their employees are healthier when they bike There is less competition for nearby parking Cyclists are good customers who are not spending discretionary money on gasoline Bicycling is growing so fast in Portland that to not attract cyclists limits a busineses the customer base Safe Routes to School is now providing direct service to more than 80 Portland schools, after beginning with just 8 in 2005
  • Smart trips brochure: one of the programs run each summer: Portland By Cycle Kit
  • Getting people active in their neighborhoods in a manner that reflects neighborhood character $90k per event Control 60-120 intersections 350 volunteers Neighborhood coalition involvement One year of organizing Fund raising Working with community groups Requires approval from the top to: Get traffic control permits, police availability
  • NW Portland Sunday Parkway 2010
  • You see a lot of smiling faces at Sunday Parkways…
  • …everybody’s having a good time.
  • Our Safe Routes to School program is also an award-winning program.
  • Begun in 2005 with only 8 schools, the program is now active in more than 80 schools city wide. Results are impressive city-wide but a few sterling examples jump out: More than 60 schools participated in the International Walk & Bike to School Day last October, which included more than 75% of students at one school: Llewellyn School in Sellwood [CLICK]
  • The bike train at Beach Elementary School attracted national attention when the Honorable Jim Oberstar, former Chairperson of the US House of Representatives Transportation and Infrastructure Committee visited last winter Citywide, the number of students getting to school in an active manner increased from 28% in 2006 to 39% in 2010.
  • Building bikeways is very much a question of good design and we are fortunate to have some of the most talented traffic engineers in the country in our agency. Our City Traffic Engineer was one of the founders of Cities for Cycling, an initiative of the National Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO). Cities for Cycling has brought together engineers and planners from America’s best cycling cities to develop a national urban bicycle design guide.
  • You will be seeing more of this Urban Bikeway Design Guide, which was just made public last month. We will be coming back to you with a resolution to adopt this as part of Portland’s bikeway design guide. Our current guide—adopted with the Bicycle Master Plan in 1996—is in need of updating, and this is the document that will provide that update. In addition to our work on this guide we are continuing to lead the American charge to provide better bikeways. In 2010 we expanded our use of bike boxes, bicycle signals, enhancement of existing signals and built better bicycle lanes, as on Stark, Oak, Broadway, Cully and Holgate.
  • Building bikeways is very much a question of good design and we are fortunate to have some of the most talented traffic engineers in the country in our agency. Our City Traffic Engineer was one of the founders of Cities for Cycling, an initiative of the National Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO). Cities for Cycling has brought together engineers and planners from America’s best cycling cities to develop a national urban bicycle design guide.
  • Building bikeways is very much a question of good design and we are fortunate to have some of the most talented traffic engineers in the country in our agency. Our City Traffic Engineer was one of the founders of Cities for Cycling, an initiative of the National Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO). Cities for Cycling has brought together engineers and planners from America’s best cycling cities to develop a national urban bicycle design guide.
  • This helps us in many ways—one of which is that our four long-term bicycle-friendly central city portal bridges work as well today for motor vehicles as they did in 1990 because the increased demand for mobility on those bridges has been borne almost exclusively by the bicycle. In the case of the Hawthorne Bridge, the negative effects of congestion have been kept at bay. Because, while the number of vehicles increased 20% between 1991 and 1998, that increase has been almost wholly in bicycle traffic. Had the increase been—as it might be in most places—automobiles, then the intersections at either ends of the bridge would likely have failed in their ability to effectively and efficiently move traffic. The engineering solution to this type of congestion would have been to widen the intersections, add more travel lanes to the bridge, add more green time to the movements onto the bridge. In reality, because there are scant funds for such improvements, nothing would have been done and the costs would have been those of increased congestion. However, because the increased demand for mobility have been borne almost exclusively by the bicycle automotive traffic flows in this area the same today as it did in 1991. It is for this reason, in part, that Portland’s award winning traffic engineer, Rob Burchfield, states that: “Bicycling infrastructure is relatively easy to implement and low cost compared to other modes. It is by far the most cost-effective way to provide for personal mobility in an urban transportation system.”
  • Building bikeways is very much a question of good design and we are fortunate to have some of the most talented traffic engineers in the country in our agency. Our City Traffic Engineer was one of the founders of Cities for Cycling, an initiative of the National Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO). Cities for Cycling has brought together engineers and planners from America’s best cycling cities to develop a national urban bicycle design guide.
  • Because citizens of the Portland region spend less than the national average on our automobiles (operating, purchasing and maintaining them) we realize what economist Joe Cortright refers to as a “Green Dividen” In the Metro region, because we drive four miles per day less than the average US citizen, we spend $1.2 billion less annually than we otherwise would. Of that $1.2 billion, an estimated $800 million circulates through our local economy that would have otherwise left the region had we spent it in service of automotive transportation. This benefit accrues because money spent in the Portland region on automotive transportation generally leaves the region because we do not produce or refine oil, nor do we manufacture automobiles. Keep in mind these are region-wide averages. For those people who rely on bicycling--they drive much less than the national average, spend little money on transit, and thus contribute disproportionately higher to these figures.
  • Building bikeways is very much a question of good design and we are fortunate to have some of the most talented traffic engineers in the country in our agency. Our City Traffic Engineer was one of the founders of Cities for Cycling, an initiative of the National Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO). Cities for Cycling has brought together engineers and planners from America’s best cycling cities to develop a national urban bicycle design guide.
  • Speaking of quantifiable health benefits, these people all share something in common. [click] They are likely saving the equivalent of $1.00 in health care costs for every mile they travel by bike. [click]
  • Exhaust from cars and trucks exacerbates asthma in children and may cause new cases as well as other respiratory illnesses and heart problems resulting in deaths. Report issues Wednesday, January 13, 2010 Health Effects Institute found evidence of a causal relationship between pollution from motor vehicles and impaired lung function and accelerated hardening of the arteries. This institute is jointly financed by the EPA and the auto industry to help assure its independence. The biggest effects occurred among people who lived within 300-500 meters from highways and major roads; this applies to 30-45% of the population of North America.
  • Exhaust from cars and trucks exacerbates asthma in children and may cause new cases as well as other respiratory illnesses and heart problems resulting in deaths. Report issues Wednesday, January 13, 2010 Health Effects Institute found evidence of a causal relationship between pollution from motor vehicles and impaired lung function and accelerated hardening of the arteries. This institute is jointly financed by the EPA and the auto industry to help assure its independence. The biggest effects occurred among people who lived within 300-500 meters from highways and major roads; this applies to 30-45% of the population of North America. These streets are the major roadways in Portland: Regional Trafficways, Major City Traffic Streets and District Collectors
  • Exhaust from cars and trucks exacerbates asthma in children and may cause new cases as well as other respiratory illnesses and heart problems resulting in deaths. Report issues Wednesday, January 13, 2010 Health Effects Institute found evidence of a causal relationship between pollution from motor vehicles and impaired lung function and accelerated hardening of the arteries. This institute is jointly financed by the EPA and the auto industry to help assure its independence. The biggest effects occurred among people who lived within 300-500 meters from highways and major roads; this applies to 30-45% of the population of North America. This shows 500m from those major city streets
  • …and the Federal Centers for Disease Control states that replacing automobile trips with bicycling and walking is that first target for increased physical activity because of the measurable health benefits offered by bicycling and walking. [click]
  • …and the Federal Centers for Disease Control states that replacing automobile trips with bicycling and walking is that first target for increased physical activity because of the measurable health benefits offered by bicycling and walking. [click]
  • …and the Federal Centers for Disease Control states that replacing automobile trips with bicycling and walking is that first target for increased physical activity because of the measurable health benefits offered by bicycling and walking. [click]
  • All bicycle corrals have been requested by business owners. We are now working on concert with business associations to plan multiple corrals in business districts across the city. We have 33 corrals installed as of October, 2009 with many more identified on a waiting list. Our Mayor’s Office is receiving complaints from business owners that we are not moving fast enough to remove their on-street car parking in favor of bicycle parking. In addition to providing for parking, corrals also create a more pleasant pedestrian environment by removing all the bikes from the sidewalk. They also create more space and a more pleasant environment for sidewalk cafes. Such corrals also benefit businesses by ensuring that no large vehicle will park in front of them and obscure their store front from passing traffic.
  • Few people in the agency would have believed that we now have business owners calling the Mayor’s office to complain that we’re not removing their on-street car parking fast enough—but they are. She’s on the phone right here, no doubt asking for more racks…
  • -- Based on Presentation Master 101609 – Modified 031810 1I’m going to talk about problems and opportunities. I’m going to talk about context and I’ll be placing bicycling in Portland in two distinct contexts.
  • This has proven a useful categorization of cyclists and has been a good way to organize the discussion about our “design vehicle” and the work ahead of us. We need stronger policies that focus on outcomes, desirable qualities, and an emphasis about serving the needs of the majority of Portlanders. We need to clearly state our intentions. Our existing policies are excellent. They have been the bulwarks of our system—the foundation upon which we built almost all of what we’ve accomplished. Currently, our policy is to make the bicycle a part of daily life in Portland. I think we need something stronger that emphasizes an outcome—that we want to make the bicycle the preferred means of private transportation for trips less than 3 miles. That’s an 18-minute bike ride at a comfortable, no-sweat pace. It’s also a distance that captures the majority of the trips we take. Isn’t that what we want if we’re to address climate change, obesity, air and water pollution, congestion, and overall livability? Isn’t that what we need? Don’t we want to create conditions so bicycle-friendly that most Portlanders would prefer to use their bicycles? Wouldn’t that be a beautiful city? I think developing and enacting the new policies that will lay the foundation for Portland to advance to world-class levels of bicycle-friendliness will be the most discussed, considered, and perhaps contentious issues we’ll address as part of updating the Bicycle Master Plan. It should be, if we do our job well. The Bicycle Master Plan—in order to set the stage for doubling, tripling, quadrupling bicycle use here—must engage the fearless, the confident and the concerned citizens of Portland. It must engage property owners, business owners, and our business, institutional, and operational partners. We need an in-depth civic conversation about bicycling and its future role in Portland. That is what we will strive to do over the next year as we work towards updating the Plan.
  • …is better than this. When it comes to bicycle facilities on busy streets, our experience is generally “bigger is better,” and more separated is better.
  • …and it can be a glorious thing.
  • A typical Spring Friday evening. People riding on the clearly marked bicycle boulevard, following signs to their destinations, taking advantage of the on-street bicycle parking, which also creates a better café and pedestrian environment.
  • …is better than this. When it comes to bicycle facilities on busy streets, our experience is generally “bigger is better,” and more separated is better.
  • Parking is becoming so scarce that we are beginning to develop trees designed specifically for bicycle parkiing
  • Our Tram connects a riverside campus of OHSU with a campus way up on the hill. Since the Tram was built bicycle ridership to OHSU has exploded. Of course, most people stay low, park and take the tram up the hill. This photo doesn’t really do justice to the nature of daily bicycle parking at this location, which, perhaps more than any other place in Portland is reminiscent of bicycle parking at European central train stations (albeit in a smaller town…). Also in the picture is the Portland Streetcar, which also runs through the area.
  • Our Tram connects a riverside campus of OHSU with a campus way up on the hill. Since the Tram was built bicycle ridership to OHSU has exploded. Of course, most people stay low, park and take the tram up the hill. This photo doesn’t really do justice to the nature of daily bicycle parking at this location, which, perhaps more than any other place in Portland is reminiscent of bicycle parking at European central train stations (albeit in a smaller town…).
  • Facilities beget ridership, which begets advocacy and calls for (and success in achieving) better policies and more funding, which in turn results in better facilities, which leads to more ridership, which strengthens advocacy, leading to more funding, better politics and even more riding. At a certain point, ridership reaches a point where it’s practically mainstream. Public acceptance of bicycling grows, as does awareness of what is necessary to further the use of the bicycle for transportation. That’s where we appear to be right now. We will be using this awareness to again strengthen our policies and designs, to generate more funding to create better facilities and more ridership and on and on…
  • If you are still doubting the future of bicycling in this town, here is a photo to remind you of the indomitable spirit of Portland’s bicyclists! (Thanks to BikePortland for the use of this photo and many others in the presentation. Thanks also to Marjon Bleeker, Anna Laxague, Renovo Hardwood Bicycles, Dat Nguyen, Benjamin Rue, Alta Planning and Design and everyone who graciously permitted the use of their photographs.)
  • Portland is the hub of a connected regional bicycle network that includes bike lanes and bike boulevards, paths, trails and greenways, as well as protected bikeways separated from traffic on busy streets.
  • Cyclists themselves are becoming a dominant feature of the urban landscape.
  • …is better than this. When it comes to bicycle facilities on busy streets, our experience is generally “bigger is better,” and more separated is better.
  • This is our time. This is oiur moment. This is akin to people gathering at picnics around their cars, having the comfort of them nearby. The shiny GT’s, Mavericks, Plymouths. All shiny and new and well-maintained. Status symbols.
  • Our Tram connects a riverside campus of OHSU with a campus way up on the hill. Since the Tram was built bicycle ridership to OHSU has exploded. Of course, most people stay low, park and take the tram up the hill. This photo doesn’t really do justice to the nature of daily bicycle parking at this location, which, perhaps more than any other place in Portland is reminiscent of bicycle parking at European central train stations (albeit in a smaller town…).
  • Our Tram connects a riverside campus of OHSU with a campus way up on the hill. Since the Tram was built bicycle ridership to OHSU has exploded. Of course, most people stay low, park and take the tram up the hill. This photo doesn’t really do justice to the nature of daily bicycle parking at this location, which, perhaps more than any other place in Portland is reminiscent of bicycle parking at European central train stations (albeit in a smaller town…).
  • Our Tram connects a riverside campus of OHSU with a campus way up on the hill. Since the Tram was built bicycle ridership to OHSU has exploded. Of course, most people stay low, park and take the tram up the hill. This photo doesn’t really do justice to the nature of daily bicycle parking at this location, which, perhaps more than any other place in Portland is reminiscent of bicycle parking at European central train stations (albeit in a smaller town…).
  • Our Tram connects a riverside campus of OHSU with a campus way up on the hill. Since the Tram was built bicycle ridership to OHSU has exploded. Of course, most people stay low, park and take the tram up the hill. This photo doesn’t really do justice to the nature of daily bicycle parking at this location, which, perhaps more than any other place in Portland is reminiscent of bicycle parking at European central train stations (albeit in a smaller town…).
  • Our Tram connects a riverside campus of OHSU with a campus way up on the hill. Since the Tram was built bicycle ridership to OHSU has exploded. Of course, most people stay low, park and take the tram up the hill. This photo doesn’t really do justice to the nature of daily bicycle parking at this location, which, perhaps more than any other place in Portland is reminiscent of bicycle parking at European central train stations (albeit in a smaller town…).
  • Our Tram connects a riverside campus of OHSU with a campus way up on the hill. Since the Tram was built bicycle ridership to OHSU has exploded. Of course, most people stay low, park and take the tram up the hill. This photo doesn’t really do justice to the nature of daily bicycle parking at this location, which, perhaps more than any other place in Portland is reminiscent of bicycle parking at European central train stations (albeit in a smaller town…).
  • More expensive versions of the corrals. Each corral costs approximately $3,000. An oasis is more in the vicinity of $40,000-$50,000.
  • Surveys show that approximately 67% of Portlanders own bicycles. Based on anecdote, we know that people do not own just one!
  • The world’s best bicycling cities have at least a 50:50 split between men and women cyclists. Why? Perhaps women are more sensitive to difficult conditions. Perhaps women are more often transporting children and are not likely to do so where traffic conditions are not most favorable to bicycling. Transportation researcher John Pucher states that women are perhaps an “indicator species” for bicycling. Only when you’ve achieved a 50:50 split between the genders will you know that you’ve achieve excellent cycling conditions.
  • Ideally, we wish to create conditions so that helmets are not necessary. Indeed, studies from Australia indicate that mandatory helmet use has a negative effect on bicycle use. What we want to create are conditions so that helmetless people can ride safely and comfortably from their homes to destinations in equal gender proportions.
  • All buses accommodate bicycles.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • All light rail cars do, as well.
  • Effective Strategies for Shifting Behaviors, Presentation 2

    1. 1. Effective Strategies for Shifting Behaviors: Portland Oregon’s experience Presented by Roger Geller Livable St. Louis Conference
    2. 2. 4 Types of Transportation Cyclists Strong & Fearless Enthused & Confident No way No How Interested but Concerned
    3. 3. Six key area to achieve minimum 25% bicycle mode split: <ul><li>Attract new riders </li></ul><ul><li>Form a denser bikeway network </li></ul><ul><li>Increase bicycle parking </li></ul><ul><li>Expand programs to support bicycling </li></ul><ul><li>Increase funding for bicycle facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen bicycle policies </li></ul>
    4. 4. What has Portland accomplished?
    5. 5. Increasing bicycle use as a part of daily life
    6. 6. City of Portland
    7. 7. City of Portland
    8. 8. City of Portland
    9. 9. City of Portland
    10. 10. City of Portland
    11. 11. City of Portland
    12. 12. City of Portland
    13. 13. Increasing Bicycle Use 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2,500 7,500 12,500 17,500 Cyclists per Day 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Bikeway Miles Bridge Bicycle Traffic Bikeway Miles Bridge Bicycle Traffic 2,850 3,555 3,885 3,830 3,207 4,520 5,225 5,690 5,910 6,015 7,686 8,250 8,562 8,875 10,192 12,046 14,563 16,711 15,749 17,576 Bikeway Miles 79 84.5 87 104 114 144 167 183 214 222.5 236 253 256 262 265.5 269 272 274 281 299 2010: 289 miles of bikeways 17,576 daily trips 1992: 83 miles of bikeways 2,850 daily trips 2004: Smarttrips program expands
    14. 14. % Change in Commuting Modes Compared to 1996
    15. 15. Crashes and Crash Rate 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2,500 7,500 12,500 17,500 Cyclists per Day 0 200 400 600 800 Crashes and Indexed Crash Rate Bridge Bicycle Traffic Reported Bicycle Crashes* Indexed Bicycle Crash Rate (Trend Line) Reported Crashes* 155 163 171 189 195 160 167 166 161 179 175 173 164 174 188 203 186 265 287 * Bicycle Fatalities 2 0 4 3 2 1 5 3 0 0 5 0 4 1 4 0 6 0 4 *
    16. 16. Urban Form: Bicyclists Everywhere
    17. 17. Urban Form: Bicyclists Everywhere
    18. 18. Bicycle signals Bicycle signal heads HAWK Scramble signal Exclusive bike phasing
    19. 20. Urban Form: Modal Integration
    20. 21. Urban Form: Modal Integration
    21. 22. Business owners embracing bicycling
    22. 25. Corral photos
    23. 26. Corral photos
    24. 27. Corral photos 66 installed 2 under construction 73 wait-listed / 75
    25. 28. Kids riding to school again
    26. 29. Expand programs to support bicycling
    27. 31. EVALUATION Portland data compared to the rest of the US 35% 31% 21% 8% 5% 50% 36% 1% 2% 11% Auto Walk School Bus Bicycle Other Portland National Drive less Walk and bike more
    28. 32. How have we done it?
    29. 33. Inexpensively
    30. 34. Regional expenditures
    31. 35. $60 Million
    32. 36. “ Cheap Date”
    33. 37. $60 Million 300 MILE bikeway network 1 MILE of urban freeway OR
    34. 38. 1. Political Support
    35. 39. from bikeportland.org “… give people choices and they’ll use less oil…:
    36. 40. What’s Been Important for Portland? <ul><li>Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Funding </li></ul><ul><li>Political Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative Professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Advocacy </li></ul>
    37. 41. 2. Built a network
    38. 42. Bikeways 650 Miles
    39. 43. Bikeways 650 Miles
    40. 44. Bikeways 650 Miles
    41. 45. Bikeways 650 Miles
    42. 46. Bikeways 650 Miles
    43. 47. Bikeways 650 Miles
    44. 48. Bikeways
    45. 49. 3. Made the network as good as possible
    46. 50. Follow the Dutch principles: <ul><li>comfort </li></ul><ul><li>safety </li></ul><ul><li>attractiveness </li></ul><ul><li>direct routes </li></ul><ul><li>connected system </li></ul>
    47. 51. Bikeways
    48. 52. Bikeways
    49. 53. Bikeways
    50. 54. Addressing design barriers A project of the National Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO) to catalog, promote and implement the world’s best bicycle transportation practices in American municipalities
    51. 55. 4. Encouragement
    52. 56. logos
    53. 57. Expand programs to support bicycling
    54. 58. Sunday Parkways Photo by Jonathan Maus/bikeportland.org
    55. 59. Expand programs to support bicycling
    56. 60. Expand programs to support bicycling
    57. 61. Expand programs to support bicycling
    58. 63. EQUITY NOW In over 90 schools throughout the City <ul><li>Materials in 6 languages </li></ul><ul><li>Trainings in Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic and economic diversity </li></ul>
    59. 64. ENCOURAGEMENT
    60. 65. Advancing best design practices
    61. 66. Addressing design barriers A project of the National Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO) to catalog, promote and implement the world’s best bicycle transportation practices in American municipalities
    62. 67. Funding
    63. 68. 4. Funding
    64. 69. Regional expenditures
    65. 70. Regional expenditures
    66. 71. Regional expenditures
    67. 72. How have we benefitted?
    68. 73. Operational Benefits
    69. 74. Traffic on Portland’s Four Central City Bicycle-Friendly Bridges 1991-2008
    70. 75. Economic Benefits
    71. 76. Benefit to Portland Region’s Economy Due to Transportation System <ul><li>$1,200,000,000 </li></ul>Amount we don’t spend on transportation that we otherwise would $800,000,000 Amount that then circulates through local economy
    72. 77. Health Benefits
    73. 78. Health Benefits
    74. 79. $0.25-$1.00
    75. 80. Vehicle Exhaust & Health Evidence of a Causal Relationship Between Vehicle Exhaust and: <ul><li>Impaired lung function </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerated hardening of the arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Exacerbated asthma in children </li></ul><ul><li>New cases of asthma in children </li></ul><ul><li>Other respiratory illnesses </li></ul><ul><li>Heart problems resulting in deaths </li></ul>
    76. 81. Vehicle Exhaust and Health
    77. 82. Vehicle Exhaust and Health
    78. 83. “ Growing awareness…that transportation systems impact quality of life and health.” New CDC transportation policy
    79. 84. “ Expanding the availability of…health-enhancing choices into transportation policy has the potential to save lives by preventing chronic diseases, reducing motor-vehicle…injuries and deaths, improving environmental health, while stimulating economic development….” New CDC transportation policy
    80. 85. <ul><li>Improve air quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift to active transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce vmt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Promote active transportation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased investment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encourage healthy community design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dense, mixed-use development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce vmt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce speeds </li></ul></ul>New CDC transportation policy
    81. 88. Corral photos
    82. 90. Bicycle signals
    83. 92. 5’ Bike Lanes!? Not enough capacity
    84. 93. Crossing treatment
    85. 95. Urban Form: Bicyclists Everywhere
    86. 96. 5’ Bike Lanes!? Not enough capacity
    87. 97. Naturally Installed: Commercial
    88. 98. Privately Installed: Multi-Modal
    89. 99. Privately Installed: Multi-Modal
    90. 100. facilities some ridership advocacy policies funding better facilities Ridership stronger advocacy stronger policies more funding FACILITIES RIDERSHIP POLITICAL MAINSTREAMING PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE STRONGER POLICIES FUNDING ...
    91. 102. Bicycles everywhere!
    92. 103. Urban Form: Bicyclists Everywhere
    93. 106. Privately Installed: Whimsical
    94. 107. Privately Installed: Whimsical
    95. 108. Privately Installed: Whimsical
    96. 109. Privately Installed: Whimsical
    97. 110. Publicly Installed: Whimsical
    98. 111. Publicly Installed: Whimsical
    99. 112. Bike “Oasis” Commercial District
    100. 113. Privately Installed: Residential
    101. 114. Gender Split 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Year 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Percentage of all Cyclists Men Women 4:1 3:1 2:1 1:1
    102. 115. Helmet Use 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Year 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Percentage of all Cyclists with helmets without helmets 45% 70% 82% 0%
    103. 116. Bikes on all buses
    104. 117. Bikes on all light rail vehicles
    105. 118. How do people get around?
    106. 119. Data from 2004-2009 census comparison
    107. 120. Data from 2004-2009 census comparison
    108. 121. Data from 2004-2009 census comparison
    109. 122. Data from 2004-2009 census comparison
    110. 123. Data from 2004-2009 census comparison
    111. 124. Data from 2004-2009 census comparison
    112. 125. Data from 2004-2009 census comparison
    113. 126. Data from 2004-2009 census comparison
    114. 127. Data from 2004-2009 census comparison
    115. 128. Data from 2004-2009 census comparison
    116. 129. Data from 2004-2009 census comparison
    117. 130. Data from 2004-2009 census comparison
    118. 131. Data from 2004-2009 census comparison
    119. 132. Data from 2004-2009 census comparison
    120. 133. Data from 2004-2009 census comparison
    121. 134. Data from 2004-2009 census comparison
    122. 135. Data from 2004-2009 census comparison
    123. 136. Data from 2010 bike counts
    124. 137. Data from 2010 bike counts
    125. 138. Data from 2010 bike counts
    126. 139. Data from 2004-2009 census comparison
    127. 140. Data from 2004-2009 census comparison
    128. 141. Data from 2004-2009 census comparison
    129. 142. Data from 2004-2009 census comparison
    130. 143. Data from 2004-2009 census comparison
    131. 144. Data from 2004-2009 census comparison

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