Historiography
Dr. John Lomax

Professor Traci Welch Moritz
Public Services Librarian
Purpose for today
• Current state of research for
historians
• Developing a research strategy for
this course
• Using scho...
How am I going to remember all
this stuff?
Period of Transition
• Information explosion
• Problems with locating materials
• Problems with storage and
accessibility ...
Period of transition
• Legibility/Stability of media
• Availability of equipment to read
and reproduce
• Availability of r...
Legibility/ Stability of Media
• Availability of equipment to read and
reproduce
• Availability of retrieval software
• St...
Sources - Media

Format: Clay tablet
Storage Density: Really low
Stability: Really high

See: A History of
Information Sto...
Sources - Media

Format: Papyrus scroll
Storage Density: Low
Stability: Centuries
Sources - Media

Format: Book (paper)
Storage Density: Low
Stability: Centuries
Sources - Media

Format: Microfilm
Storage Density: Medium
Lifetime: Centuries
Sources - Media

Format: Magnetic / optical /
digital memory
Storage density: high
Stability: Low
Media - Sources

Format: Internet
Storage Density: High
Stability: ?
Research Strategy
Seven Steps of the Research Process
Amended with permission by the Librarians at the Olin and Uris Libra...
What do I do first?
 Take a look at your topic and identify key
search terms, Ask a question.
 Most databases now use an...
Note: If
working
off
campus
please
see the
“Google
scholar”
tab at the
Research
Guide for
HIST 2041

Google Scholar

ONU b...
Annotated Bibliography
• Allows you to see what is out
there
• Helps you narrow your topic
and discard any irrelevant
mate...
Bibliographic Citation Software
REFWORKS
Managing Information - RefWorks
• Licensed state-wide, access free to Ohio
students for the rest of your life!
• See: http...
Tools for locating resources
• EDS
• Catalogs
– POLAR
– OhioLINK
– SearchOhio
– WorldCat.org

• Databases
• Websites
Primary, Secondary and Tertiary
Sources
Primary, Secondary and Tertiary
Sources
•Definitions depend on the department and
subject matter being studied
“In the hum...
Primary, Secondary and Tertiary
Sources
• Primary sources = raw data = history’
• Reading and evaluating can
be difficult
...
Primary, Secondary and Tertiary
Sources
Evaluating primary sources:
1. Identifying type
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Formal treatise
Con...
Primary, Secondary and Tertiary
Sources
Questions to ask yourself when reviewing a
document
1. Is the source genuine?
2. W...
Primary, Secondary and Tertiary
Sources
•Suggestions for reading a primary source
• Read through the entire document quick...
Primary, Secondary and Tertiary
Sources

•Identify the following:
• Time and place
• Author
• Audience
• Personalities and...
Primary, Secondary and Tertiary
Sources
Additional questions to ask yourself
1. Do the contents seem reasonable?
2. Are th...
Primary, Secondary and Tertiary
Sources
•As you are following the steps above, be
sure to note anything you need to come
b...
Primary, Secondary and Tertiary
Sources
•“Tertiary sources provide
overviews of topics by
synthesizing information
gathere...
Primary, Secondary and Tertiary
Sources
•Secondary Sources analyze or
interpret an historical event or artistic
work.
•Sec...
SEARCH
What is included?
•POLAR
•Article-level searching for all EBSCO
databases
•Article-level searching for a variety of
other ...
Results: Full Text, Polar
Results: OhioLink
Results: Find It @ ONU
Results: ILL
Facets: Limit Your Results
Things to Remember
•Facets are your Friend: After you
search, limit your results to what you
really want
•A tool not a sol...
Catalog -- POLAR
• Public Online Library Access & Retrieval
• Covers holdings of both Heterick & the law
library
• Access ...
Catalogs -- OhioLINK +
SearchOhio
• Includes holdings of all Ohio colleges &
universities (SearchOhio links to the
catalog...
CATALOGS - WorldCAT
• Includes holdings of libraries world wide
• Covers all types of libraries &
increasingly non-library...
What about the web?
• Greater access to primary source
materials than ever before
• Documents, letters, maps,
photographs ...
Critically analyzing
web sources
•
•
•
•

What? is the page/site about
Who? created and maintains this site
Where? Is the ...
Databases
•
•
•
•
•
•

America History and Life
American Periodical Series
Historical Abstracts
JSTOR
Digital; Dissertatio...
Content
•

Full-text Resource – War of the Rebellion (TIF files)
http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/moa/moa_browse.html

•

Fu...
Locating Tools - Metasites
• OAIster (Open Archives Initiative
(now a part of Worldcat)

• Repository of Primary Sources
•...
Websites -- Types
•
•
•
•

Professional Organizations
Topical/ Thematic Sites
Text/ Graphic Collections
Museums and Other ...
Websites -- Professional
Am. Assoc. for State and Local History
http://www.aaslh.org

American Historical Association
http...
Websites -- Text
• Railroad Maps
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/rrhtml/rrhome.html

• Duke Papyrus Archive
http://scr...
Websites -- Topical
• Aquae Urbis Romae
http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/waters/

• Ctr. For the Hist. Of Information...
Websites -- Museums, Libraries,
Archives
• U. Of Memphis Inst. Of Egyptian
Art
http://www.memphis.edu/egypt/main.html

• J...
FURTHER HELP
• Reference Desk (see
library hours)
• Phone to Ref. Desk –
2185
• E-mail help on
database help pages

• Prof...
Hist 2041
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Hist 2041

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Hist 2041

  1. 1. Historiography Dr. John Lomax Professor Traci Welch Moritz Public Services Librarian
  2. 2. Purpose for today • Current state of research for historians • Developing a research strategy for this course • Using scholarly resources • Using popular resources in scholarly research
  3. 3. How am I going to remember all this stuff?
  4. 4. Period of Transition • Information explosion • Problems with locating materials • Problems with storage and accessibility of materials • Unreliability of burgeoning body of literature
  5. 5. Period of transition • Legibility/Stability of media • Availability of equipment to read and reproduce • Availability of retrieval for software • Stability of content
  6. 6. Legibility/ Stability of Media • Availability of equipment to read and reproduce • Availability of retrieval software • Stability of content
  7. 7. Sources - Media Format: Clay tablet Storage Density: Really low Stability: Really high See: A History of Information Storage & Retrieval, Foster Stockwell
  8. 8. Sources - Media Format: Papyrus scroll Storage Density: Low Stability: Centuries
  9. 9. Sources - Media Format: Book (paper) Storage Density: Low Stability: Centuries
  10. 10. Sources - Media Format: Microfilm Storage Density: Medium Lifetime: Centuries
  11. 11. Sources - Media Format: Magnetic / optical / digital memory Storage density: high Stability: Low
  12. 12. Media - Sources Format: Internet Storage Density: High Stability: ?
  13. 13. Research Strategy Seven Steps of the Research Process Amended with permission by the Librarians at the Olin and Uris Libraries of Cornell University STEP 1: IDENTIFY AND DEVELOP YOUR TOPIC STEP 2: FIND BACKGROUND INFORMATION STEP 3:USE DATABASES TO FIND PERIODICAL ARTICLES *STEP 4: FIND INTERNET RESOURCES STEP 5: EVALUATE WHAT YOU FIND STEP 6: PULLING IT ALL TOGETHER STEP 7: CITE WHAT YOU FIND
  14. 14. What do I do first?  Take a look at your topic and identify key search terms, Ask a question.  Most databases now use an implied Boolean logic search scheme so a keyword search will get you started.  Boolean logic is the use of AND, NOT, OR to narrow or expand your search  See Research Guide WHO
  15. 15. Note: If working off campus please see the “Google scholar” tab at the Research Guide for HIST 2041 Google Scholar ONU buys Full-text database OhioLINK Permits Google to link to full-text ONU user sees licensed full-text articles Google asks to link to content Run Google Scholar Search
  16. 16. Annotated Bibliography • Allows you to see what is out there • Helps you narrow your topic and discard any irrelevant materials • Aids in developing the thesis • Makes you a better scholar
  17. 17. Bibliographic Citation Software REFWORKS
  18. 18. Managing Information - RefWorks • Licensed state-wide, access free to Ohio students for the rest of your life! • See: http://0-www.refworks.com.polar.onu.edu/ • • • • Write n’ Cite interfaces with MS Word Excellent Tutorials Help available at Heterick Research Guide for instructions on how to get your free-for-a-life-time account
  19. 19. Tools for locating resources • EDS • Catalogs – POLAR – OhioLINK – SearchOhio – WorldCat.org • Databases • Websites
  20. 20. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sources
  21. 21. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sources •Definitions depend on the department and subject matter being studied “In the humanities, a primary resource could be defined as something that was created either during the time period being studied or afterward by individuals reflecting on their involvement in the events of the time.” http://www.ala.org/rusa/sections/history/ resources/pubs/usingprimarysources Primary Sources: Definitions. Lafayette College Libraries & Academic Information Resources. <http://ww2.lafayette.edu/~library/guides/primarysources/definitions.html> Accessed August 8, 2013
  22. 22. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sources • Primary sources = raw data = history’ • Reading and evaluating can be difficult • Opportunity to come into contact with the past • Enables histories to experience the past recreate it Thanks to the University of North Carolina at Pembroke
  23. 23. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sources Evaluating primary sources: 1. Identifying type • • • • • • • Formal treatise Contemporary formal treatise Public Record Private Letters and Journals Literary source Nonverbal sources Oral history
  24. 24. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sources Questions to ask yourself when reviewing a document 1. Is the source genuine? 2. What is the date of origin? 3. Who is the author? 4. Who is the audience?
  25. 25. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sources •Suggestions for reading a primary source • Read through the entire document quickly to set a sense of the whole source. Does it show bias? Is the bias yours or the source? • Read the document a second time carefully noting authorship, time period, intended purpose and probably impact on the intended audience.
  26. 26. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sources •Identify the following: • Time and place • Author • Audience • Personalities and roles of all people mentioned • Meaning and purpose • Content (colloquial terminology, language of the day, phrases and phrasing) • Allusions • Assumptions and/or bias
  27. 27. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sources Additional questions to ask yourself 1. Do the contents seem reasonable? 2. Are there other primary documents for collaboration or are there contradictions? 3. Place the document in the larger historical context. Do secondary resources fit with your interpretation?
  28. 28. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sources •As you are following the steps above, be sure to note anything you need to come back to and look these up in reliable reference works. .
  29. 29. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sources •“Tertiary sources provide overviews of topics by synthesizing information gathered from other resources. Tertiary resources often provide data in a convenient form or provide information with context by which to interpret it.” ~ Virginia Tech Oxford Reference Libraries, Accessed 08/14/2013 • Encyclopedias • Dictionaries • Handbooks
  30. 30. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sources •Secondary Sources analyze or interpret an historical event or artistic work. •Secondary sources often base their theories and arguments on the direct evidence found in primary sources. • A secondary work for a subject is one that discusses the subject but is written after the time contemporary with it.
  31. 31. SEARCH
  32. 32. What is included? •POLAR •Article-level searching for all EBSCO databases •Article-level searching for a variety of other databases: JSTOR, Hoover’s, AccessPharmacy, etc. •Title-level searching for most other databases: IEEE, CIAO, Proquest Nursing & Allied Health •OhioLink central catalog
  33. 33. Results: Full Text, Polar
  34. 34. Results: OhioLink
  35. 35. Results: Find It @ ONU
  36. 36. Results: ILL
  37. 37. Facets: Limit Your Results
  38. 38. Things to Remember •Facets are your Friend: After you search, limit your results to what you really want •A tool not a solution: This is not the solution to everything •Ask the librarians for help •There will still be some small changes coming
  39. 39. Catalog -- POLAR • Public Online Library Access & Retrieval • Covers holdings of both Heterick & the law library • Access from library home page • Includes items in all formats – including online material
  40. 40. Catalogs -- OhioLINK + SearchOhio • Includes holdings of all Ohio colleges & universities (SearchOhio links to the catalogs of 23 of the largest public library systems in Ohio • Connected to POLAR • Students can request materials from other libraries – IF they are not available from ONU • Most items requested arrive 5 working days
  41. 41. CATALOGS - WorldCAT • Includes holdings of libraries world wide • Covers all types of libraries & increasingly non-library organizations • Materials can be in all formats • Unlike OhioLINK - Does not allow students to request materials directly • Available via www.worldcat.org
  42. 42. What about the web? • Greater access to primary source materials than ever before • Documents, letters, maps, photographs of ancient artifacts and other primary material are available online in different formats from free websites • With the proliferation of electronic resources from a wide variety of web site producers, evaluation is more important than ever before
  43. 43. Critically analyzing web sources • • • • What? is the page/site about Who? created and maintains this site Where? Is the information coming from Why? Is the information presented on the web • When? Was the page created or last updated • How? Accurate or credible is the page From the University of Wisconsin Library, worksheet for evaluating web sites
  44. 44. Databases • • • • • • America History and Life American Periodical Series Historical Abstracts JSTOR Digital; Dissertations History of Science and Medicine • HarpWeek • ITER • Sanborn Maps
  45. 45. Content • Full-text Resource – War of the Rebellion (TIF files) http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/moa/moa_browse.html • Full-text Resource – New York Times (PDF file) • Full-text Resource – Gentle Measures in the Training of the Young… (ASCII file, text)
  46. 46. Locating Tools - Metasites • OAIster (Open Archives Initiative (now a part of Worldcat) • Repository of Primary Sources • Text Encoding Initiative consortium
  47. 47. Websites -- Types • • • • Professional Organizations Topical/ Thematic Sites Text/ Graphic Collections Museums and Other Learned Bodies
  48. 48. Websites -- Professional Am. Assoc. for State and Local History http://www.aaslh.org American Historical Association http://www.historians.org Ohio Historical Society http://www.ohiohistory.org Organization of American Historians http://www.oah.org Scholarly Societies Project http://www.lib.uwaterloo.ca/society/overview.html
  49. 49. Websites -- Text • Railroad Maps http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/rrhtml/rrhome.html • Duke Papyrus Archive http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/papyrus • Documenting the American South http://docsouth.unc.edu • Internet Library of Early Journals http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/ilej/ • Eurodocs http://library.byu.edu/~rdh/eurodocs
  50. 50. Websites -- Topical • Aquae Urbis Romae http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/waters/ • Ctr. For the Hist. Of Information Technol. http://www.cbi.umn.edu • Ancient Metallurgy Research Group http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/archsci/depart/resgrp/amrg/amrginfo.htm • Bill Douglas Ctr. For the Hist. Of Cinema http://www.ex.ac.uk/bill.douglas/menu.html
  51. 51. Websites -- Museums, Libraries, Archives • U. Of Memphis Inst. Of Egyptian Art http://www.memphis.edu/egypt/main.html • J. Paul Getty Museum http://www.getty.edu/museum • Sistine Chapel http://www.christusrex.org/www1/sistine/0-Tour.html • National Palace Museum – Taipei http://www.npm.gov.tw/english/index-e.htm
  52. 52. FURTHER HELP • Reference Desk (see library hours) • Phone to Ref. Desk – 2185 • E-mail help on database help pages • Professor Traci Welch Moritz • T-moritz@onu.edu • Ext. 2473

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