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Open Data Technological Citizenship & Imagined Futures


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Canadian Open Data Summit 2017 in Edmonton

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Open Data Technological Citizenship & Imagined Futures

  1. 1. Open Data Technological Citizenship & Imagined Futures June 14th, 2017 Tracey P. Lauriault Assistant Professor, Critical Media and Big Data Communication and Media Studies School of Journalism and Communication Carleton University @traceylauriault
  2. 2. Are more than the unique arrangement of objective and politically neutral facts & they do not exist independently of ideas, techniques, technologies, systems, people and contexts regardless of them being presented in that way Data – big or small Tracey P. Lauriault, 2012, Data, Infrastructures and Geographical Imaginations. Ph.D. Thesis, Carleton University, Ottawa,
  3. 3. Sociotechnical Assemblage (Kitchin 2014)
  4. 4. Open Data Definitions • 1959 Antarctic Treaty • 1992 - UNCED – Agenda 21 Chapter 40, Information for Decision Making • 1996 Global Map • 2002 – UNCED – Ageda 21 + 10 Down To Earth • 2005 - Open Knowledge Foundation (OKNF) - 11 Principles (Licence specific) • 2007 GEOSS - Data Sharing Principles for the Global Earth Observing System of Systems • 2007 - US Open Government Working Group - 8 principles of Open Government Data • 2007 Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data • 2007 Sunlight Foundation - 10 Principles for Opening Up Government Information • 2007 OECD, Principles and Guidelines for Access to Research Data from Public Funding • 2008 OECD, Recommendations on Public Sector Information • 2009 W3C - Publishing Open Government Data • 2010 Tim Berners-Lee 5 Star of Open Data • 2010 Panton Principles for Open Data in Science • 2010 Ontario Information Privacy Commissioner - 7 Principles • 2013 Open Economics Principles • US Association of Computing Machinery (USACM) – Recommendations on Open Government • American Library Association (ALA) – Access to Government Information Principles • 2013 G8 Open Data Charter • 2015 International Open Data Charter
  5. 5. Data Sharing ARTICLE III 1. In order to promote international cooperation in scientific investigation in Antarctica, as provided for in Article II of the present Treaty, the Contracting Parties agree that, to the greatest extent feasible and practicable: (a) information regarding plans for scientific programs in Antarctica shall be exchanged to permit maximum economy and efficiency of operations; (b) scientific personnel shall be exchanged in Antarctica between expeditions and stations; (c) scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available
  6. 6. Earth Summit 1992, 2002 Agenda 21 – Chapter 40 INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING 40.1. In sustainable development, everyone is a user and provider of information considered in the broad sense. That includes data, information, appropriately packaged experience and knowledge. The need for information arises at all levels, from that of senior decision makers at the national and international levels to the grass-roots and individual levels. The following two programme areas need to be implemented to ensure that decisions are based increasingly on sound information: a. Bridging the data gap; b. Improving information availability.
  7. 7. GEOSS
  8. 8. Research Data Canada Archiving, Management and Preservation of Geospatial Data National Consultation on Access to Scientific Data Final Report (NCASRD) 20101990 1995 2000 2005 National Data Archive Consultation (SSHRC) Stewardship of Research Data in Canada: A Gap Analysis The dissemination of government geographic data in Canada: guide to best practices Standing Committee on Industry, Science and Technology Toward a National Digital Information Strategy: Mapping the Current Situation in Canada (LAC) Canadian Digital Information Strategy (CDIS) (LAC) IPY 1985 Open Data Consultations Mapping the Data Landscape: Report of the 2011 Canadian Research Data Summit Digital Economy Consultation, Industry Canada Community Data Roundtable Privacy (Geo) Sensitive Data (Geo) Resolution of Canada’s Access to Information and Privacy Commissioners Geomatics Accord Signed Canadian Geospatial Data Policy Liberating the Data Proposal VGI Primer Cloud (Geo) OD Advisory Panel OGP G8 • Policies • Reports • Proposals • Recommendations • Consultation 2008 2015 Int. Open Data Charter Open Data
  9. 9. 20101990 1995 2000 20051985 2015 Data Liberation Initiative (DLI) Geogratis Data Portal GeoBase Canadian Internet Public Policy Clinic Maps Data and Government Information Services (MADGIC) Carleton U GeoConnections GeoGratis Census Data Consortium Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL) Atlas of Canada Online (1st) CeoNet Discovery Portal Research Data Network How'd they Vote Campaign for Open Government (FIPA) Canadian Association of Public Data Users I Believe in Open Campaign Change Camps Start Nanaimo BC Toronto Open Data Portals Edmonton Mississauga launches open data Citizen Factory B.C.'s Climate Change Data Catalogue Open Parliament Ottawa Ottawa, Prince George, Medicine Hat Global TV Hansard in XML Langley Let the Data Flow GovCamp Fed. Expenses Montreal Ouvert Fed.Gov. Travel and Hospitality Expenses London Hamilton Windsor Open Data Hackfest Aid Agency DataBC Hacking Health 14 Cities Quebec Ontario OGP 3 Cities Alberta G8 Community Data Program FCM Quality of Life Reporting System Geographic and Numeric Information System (GANIS) Int. Open Data Charter ODX/PSD CODS VancouverG4+1 GO Open Data Census E4D First Nations Information Governance OCAP
  10. 10. Data as political platforms
  11. 11. Data Communities Research/scientific Data GovData GeoData Physical Sciences AdminData Public Sector Data NGOs Access to Data Open Data Social Sciences 2005 Operations Data Infrastructural Data Sensor Data Social Media Data AI/Machine Learning Data Smart Open Data? 2015 Private Sector IOT - Smart Cities - Precision Agriculture - Autonomous Cars SM Platforms Algorithms P2P – Sharing Economy Predictive Policing Surveillance Digital Labour Drones 5GPublic/Private Sector Data? Crowdsourcing Citizen Science Civic Teck OCAP Local and Traditional Knowledge
  12. 12. Data & Technological Citizenship • Data based technological society • Where data & technical skills & know how are a form of political discourse & action • data are more than unique arrangement of objective and politically neutral facts • data do not exist independently of ideas, techniques, technologies, systems, people and contexts regardless of them being presented in that way • data are inseparable from their technological enablers – storage, computational power, network, ID, ubicomp/IOT – basically infrastructure
  13. 13. Data Brokers
  14. 14. Some #s • Acxiom, • In 2012 23 000 servers • 50 Trillion transactions a year • Detailed entries for 190 Million Consumers • 144 Million households in the US • +/- 1500 data points per person (NyTimes 2012) • US $300 Billion dollar industry w/Acxiom recording US $1.1 Billion in 2011 • Sells these data too Wells Fargo, HSBC, automakers and Torch Concepts w/contracts DoD • Shift from production orientation toward marketing oriented strategies (Roderick 2012)
  15. 15. Smart & Intelligent Discourse
  16. 16. ‘Smart’ - Actors • GE • CISCO • INTEL • SIEMENS • IBM • Microsoft
  17. 17. What will be encoded?
  18. 18. CGDI Principles 1. Open: enables better decision making, the CGDI is based on open, barrier-free data sharing and standards that allow users to exchange data. 2. Accessible: allows users to access data and services seamlessly, despite any complexities of the underlying technology. 3. Evolving: the network of organizations participating in the CGDI will continue to address new requirements and business applications for information and service delivery to their respective users. 4. Timely: the CGDI is based on technologies and services that support timely or real-time access to information. 5. Sustainable: is sustained by the contributions of the participating organizations and broad user community and through the infrastructure’s relevance to these groups. 6. Self-organizing the CGDI enables various organizations to contribute geospatial information, services and applications, and guide the infrastructure’s development. 7. User and community driven emphasizes the nurturing of and service to a broad user community. These users, including Canadians in general, will drive the CGDI’s development based on user requirements. 8. Closest to source maximizes efficiency and quality by encouraging organizations closest to source to provide data and services. Thereby eliminating duplication and overlap. 9. Trustworthy is continually enhanced to protect sensitive and proprietary data. The CGDI offers this protection through policies and mechanisms that enable data to be assessed for quality and trusted by users. Source: : 2012, Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure Vision, Mission and Roadmap - The Way Forward DOI:10.4095/292417
  19. 19. Rights & Principles 1. The right to remain natural, i.e. ‘merely’ biological and organic 2. The right to be inefficient if, when and where it defines our basic humanness 3. The right to disconnect 4. The right to be, or remain anonymous 5. The right to employ or engage people instead of machines 6. The right to data sovereignty 7. Technological citizenship
  20. 20. What kind of data based technological society do we want? What does governance look like? How are open data & corporate responsibility related? What do open ‘smart’ sensored cities/farms look like? How do we act as a community of data and technological citizens for the public good?