The objectives are to provide an interdisciplinary analysis of the two core inter-related aspects of the emerging programmable city: (a) Translation: how cities are translated into code, and (b) Transduction: how code reshapes city life” (Kitchin 2011).
Benchmarks Baselines Thresholds
This is the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommended body weight based on BMI values for adults. It is used for both men and women, age 18 or older. The index was devised by Adolphe Quetelet during the course of developing what he called "social physics", between 1830 and 1850. BMI is a measurement of your body weight based on your height and weight. Although your BMI does not actually "measure" your percentage of body fat, it is a useful tool to estimate a healthy body weight based on your height. Due to its ease of measurement and calculation, it is the most widely used diagnostic indicator to identify a person's optimal weight depending on his height. Your BMI "number" will inform you if you are underweight, of normal weight, overweight, or obese. However, due to the wide variety of body types, the distribution of muscle and bone mass, etc., it is not appropriate to use this as the only or final indication for diagnosis.
Ingala Smith – chief executive of London-based domestic violence charity Nia Project Count started Jan. 2012 Data were derived from a set of names collected by Karen Ingala Smith reported in her blog Counting Dead Women. She searched the web for news of women who had been killed by men. Data were gathered from publicly available sources, primarily press articles.
The Femicide project will have to gain some of its information through presenting freedom of information requests to police forces every six months – something Ingala Smith hopes might be avoided if they can be persuaded to collate their figures in a different way, allowing easier access to statistics on men killing women
Domestic Homicide Reviews, police statistics, local press articles, reports, Freedom of Information Act requests Women’s Aid is supported by Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP and Deloitte LLP Recording women in England killed by men since 2009 With Women’s Aid and the legal firm Freshfields, Public tally of the dead is kept in a more formal manner, using police statistics as well as court reports.
were made to police departments, local authorities and other public bodies throughout England to: verify certain information that we had collected and identify new victims that had not been identified. data were also collected from publicly available sources such as the press and the NHS Trust England website.
The Open Knowledge (OK) is a non-profit organisation founded in 2004 and dedicated to promoting open data and open content in all their forms – including government data, publicly funded research and public domain cultural content. Founded in 2011 in Ireland. tcube is a Dublin city centre coworking space. It's for freelancers, entrepreneurs and start-ups in the web, app, mobile, software and digital sectors among others. Tito The original dataset was created by Adrian O’Flynn. The charity data used for this CharityHack exercise are as follows: Data were extracted from the annual financial reports of 24 of the largest charities in Ireland (€1Mil+). NOTE This represents a small sample of the thousands of charities in Ireland. These are charities known through their public brand awareness for the fiscal year 2012 (see the definition). ONLY charities where funding represents charitable funds collected voluntarily from the public were selected. This excludes charities that primarily rely on large institutional funds (e.g., Irish Aid Grants, HSE Grants). Only charities that have been independently audited and who have published their financial statements on a publicly accessible websites were used. Only charities who followed the Statement by the Accounting Standards Board on the SORP Accounting and Reporting by Charities: Statement of Recommended Practice were used (Section B: Resources Expended). Not all organizations in Ireland follow this standard. It is only because of this standard that it was possible to derive standardized financial data from the financial statements in the annual reports. The data here reflect resources spent on Governance, Fundraising and Charity. The list of charities was derived from the survey conducted by the Irish Charity Engagement Monitor (ICEM). This final dataset was quality checked by the participants at the 2014 Charity Hackday on July 26.
Mariska Hargitay Actress on Law and Order Special Victims Unit 6 years ago in Detroit there were 11,000 untested rape kits found in an abandoned police storage unit. Since then, most of those kits have been sent to crime labs for testing. Prosecutors say the initial results point to at least 188 serial rapists. Often the same DNA shows up in multiple rape kits, or matches DNA in other state databases. But investigating all the results will take millions of dollars the city says it just doesn't have. The backlog of untested rape kits is not just a problem in Detroit. For example, there are almost 12,000 untested rape kits in Memphis, Tenn., and over 4,000 in Las Vegas. In November, the Manhattan district attorney's office pledged $35 million to help end the nationwide backlog.
Montreal-based software company that builds tools that the Canadian non-profit sector needs. Combine open and public data with their own research to help funders and non-profits better understand the patterns, and specifically the risks and opportunities in their funding environment. Backgrounds in community development, software development and web entrepreneurship. Fundtracker Fundtracker Pro is the most comprehensive listing of funders of the Canadian non-profit sector, including All Canadian foundations, including the 70% of those that do not maintain a public profile Over 1,100 Canadian corporations Over 700 federal and provincial granting programs designed for non-profit organizations PoweredbyData, helps stakeholders collect and publish transactional, contextual and impact data about the non-profit sector that is open and interoperable. the non-profit of Ajah, Ajah’s core expertise is using open data and “big data” methodologies to help fundraisers and funders make informed decisions. PoweredbyData was born out of a desire to use that expertise in the larger non-profit sector in areas which have promising social impact, but not necessarily strong financial returns.
Oversight regulator Domestic Reporting Standard Initiative International
Advocates for the transparent use of science and evidence in public policy and government decision-making. A national, non-partisan, and not-for-profit organization, E4D formed out of concern over recent government cuts to important science institutions, and policies that restrict the flow of scientific information to the public. Governments can be tempted to make decisions based on ideology or political convenience unless the public loudly demands that decisions be based on evidence. Evidence for Democracy facilitates, organizes, and amplifies these demands through its education, monitoring, and advocacy campaigns. The generation, collection, rigorous evaluation, and open communication of science is essential for informed public debate and a functioning democracy. Our Vision: Strong public policies built on the best available evidence for the health and prosperity of all Canadians. A thriving democracy where citizens are informed and engaged, and all levels of government are both transparent and accountable. A national culture that values science and evidence and the important role they play in our society.
What are the current theoretical debates or intellectual questions? What publics and institutional projects are served by knowing? What do non-academic collaborators want to know? VGI Participatory mapping Citizen science
Although data are commonly understood in practical terms, understandings differ depending on the actors involved there are different epistemologies and ontologies.
Their collection requires specialized knowledge, techniques, sophisticated technologies, and often, significant resources. Data are also owned, regulated, guarded, standardized, and created within a particular community of practice. They are collected according to a particular model of the world based on the author’s worldview, and in turn, become an image or a representation of it. Data can be considered as arrangements of “facts within a specific cultural perspective” (Harley, in Dodge 2011:276).
An earth scientist, urban planner, cartographer, electrical engineer or epidemiologist each represents a community of practice or epistemic group, each with their unique outlook on what constitutes data.
Definitions, understandings, values and quality parameters also vary according to discipline (e.g., geography, physics, social work, archaeology), sector (e.g., communication, energy, housing, health), level of government and their departments (e.g., city, county, EU), private sector (e.g., Google, Axcion, IBM), non-governmental organization (e.g., CreativeCommons.ca, coastwatch, friends of the earth) or to individual citizens.
In addition, data resellers, lawyers, data value-added service providers, and researchers in academia or the private sector value data for different reasons.
Finally, the roles people have in relation to data (e.g., data librarian, archivist, network specialist, database manager, GIS specialist, cryptographer, cataloguer, artist, project manager) frame how data are handled.
While this list of institutions is by no means comprehensive, we can say that the people and the territory of the Republic of Ireland are governed by 16 departments, 130 non commercial state sponsored bodies, 100+ state sponsored bodies, 31 local authorities, a number of special offices like the CSO, National Archives, commissioners, ombuds people and so on.
Governments create, use and maintain massive datasets about the territories they manage, the resources they oversee, and the people they govern. These are publicly funded national assets or resources.
These same institutions collect different types of data in order to govern and administer the economy, resources, environment, society, history, knowledge, safety and security, etc.
Data are also part of and the result of large or complex socio-technological systems, such as the web of submarine cables, or satellite image mosaic which underlies Googlemaps.
Data are artifacts in a complex web of technology, people, and social, political and economic structures. Furthermore, data are far from the often conceptualized, neutral arrangements of facts accompanied by descriptive metadata. They are political in their creation, use, arrangement, dissemination, representations, and in their ownership.
A data assemblage is conceived as a complex socio-technical system consisting of a number of inter-related elements — systems of thought; forms of knowledge; finance; political economy; governmentalities; materialities and infrastructures; practices; organisations and institutions; subjectivities and communities; places; and marketplaces — that work together to frame how data are produced, managed, analyzed, shared and used.
This framework we think has utility in understanding and contextualizing the wider changing data landscape.
Data: Activism, Access, Open
S06011A, Research methods advanced seminar.
NIRSA Seminar Room Iontas Building
May 8, 2015
Tracey P. Lauriault
Programmable City Project
Data: Activism, Access, Open
The Programmable City
• A European Research Council (ERC) and
Science Foundation of Ireland (SFI) funding
• SH3: Environment and Society
• Led by Dr Rob Kitchin, the Primary Investigator
• Based at the National Institute for Regional and
Spatial Analysis (NIRSA)
• At the National University of Ireland Maynooth
MIT Press 2011 Sage 2014
Aim of the ERC
project is to build
off and extend a
decade of work that
(MIT Press) with a set
of detailed empirical
How is the city translated into software and data?
How do software and data reshape the city?
City into Code
Code Reshapes City
Discourses, Practices, Knowledge, Models
Mediation, Augmentation, Facilitation, Regulation
Counting things makes them visible
Quantifying things provides information
Counting and quantifying reveals what is normal
Correlating things shows relationships
When things are known actions are taken
Homosexuals were deviants and
genetics demonstrated a biological predisposition
Poor air quality is associated w/traffic congestion,
transit and car pooling are remedial planning
Obesity was considered a moral defect, biology
and the political economy have been shown as
factors, it has become a social issue
Bureaucracy acts upon known things
Classification and counting is resisted
Counting Dead Women
• The Home Office now records and publishes data on
homicide victims and the relationship of the victim to the
principal suspect and sex the of the victim.
• But it does not have the sex of the killer or connect
different forms of male violence against women.
Why the Femicide Census?
• Provide a clearer picture of domestic homicides in the UK by
age/ethnic origin/ relationship/ profession/region/outcome;
• Provide a clearer picture of men’s fatal violence against women
that is not committed by a partner or ex-partner;
• Information to create advocacy tools to provide concrete data
on domestic violence homicides;
• Provide data when NGOs working to end domestic violence
against women is providing expert evidence on domestic
homicides in civil cases or before the Coroners court;
• Provide comparisons and parallels between cases to identify
where there is the potential for a systemic argument against
the State for failing to protect the Right to Life; and
• Provide a resource for academics researching femicides
Homelessness Data collection
Homelessness Data Dissemination
• Dublin Region Homeless
Executive (DRHE) -
Research and Data
• Housing Agency
• Public Health
• Focus Ireland
• School of Social work and
Social Policy TCD
• Programmable City, NUIM
• School of Business, TCD
Network of Decision makers
• Homelessness Oversight
• National Homeless Consultative
• Dublin Joint Homelessness
• 2016 Census Advisory Committee
• Department of the Environment,
Community and Local Government
• Local Authorities/HSE
• Charitable organizations
• Housing and service providers
Homelessness Data Actors
Atlas of the Risk of Homelessness
Transit & Demographic Data
Eoin O’Mahony, Assistant Lecturer SPD/DCU & Omar Sarhan, GIS and data enthusiast
Public Transit Conversation
Privatizing public transport from the periphery to the centre?
• Data Sources
• Dublin Bus routes considered for privatisation - 23 Dublin Bus & 5 Bus Éireann routes
• CSO/AIRO maps at small area & electoral division to examine what public is served
by public transport
• Data Sets:
• Population by social class – professional workers, skilled manual labour
• Private Car Ownership
• Deprivation Index
• Core – periphery analysis of bus route privatization
• Examine demographics of ‘orbital’ areas served by proposed privatised bus routes
• Effects of frequency of service delivery to different populations
• Absence of route-specific passenger load data
Eoin O’Mahony, Assistant Lecturer SPD/DCU & Omar Sarhan, GIS and data enthusiast
Co-Production of knowledge with and/or for
community based groups, charitable
organizations & issue driven activists
1. Scholar activists commit to channel their
resources and the privileges afforded to
2. Resource in the form of research design
3. Research that explores the barriers to
sustained and active participation in
Kate Driscoll Dericksona & Paul Routledgeb (2014) Resourcing Scholar-Activism:
Collaboration, Transformation, and the Production of Knowledge. The Professional Geographer
67(1), DOI: 10.1080/00330124.2014.883958
Open Data Definitions (sample)
• 1959 Antarctic Treaty
• 1992 - UNCED – Agenda 21 Chapter 40,
Information for Decision Making
• 1996 Global Map
• 2002 – UNCED – Ageday 21 + 10 Down To
• 2005 - Open Knowledge Foundation (OKNF)
- 11 Principles (Licence specific)
• 2007 GEOSS - Data Sharing Principles for the
Global Earth Observing System of Systems
• 2007 - US Open Government Working Group
- 8 principles of Open Government Data
• 2007 Science Commons Protocol for
Implementing Open Access Data
• 2007 Sunlight Foundation - 10 Principles for
Opening Up Government Informatio
• 2007 OECD, Principles and Guidelines for
Access to Research Data from Public
• 2008 OECD, Recommendations on Public
• 2009 W3C - Publishing Open Government
• 2010 Tim Berners-Lee 5 Star of Open Data
• 2010 Panton Principles for Open Data in
• 2010 Ontario Information Privacy
Commissioner - 7 Principles
• 2013 Open Economics Principles
• US Association of Computing Machinery
(USACM) – Recommendations on Open
• American Library Association (ALA) – Access
to Government Information Principles
1. In order to promote international cooperation in
scientific investigation in Antarctica, as provided for
in Article II of the present Treaty, the Contracting
Parties agree that, to the greatest extent feasible and
(a) information regarding plans for scientific programs in
Antarctica shall be exchanged to permit maximum
economy and efficiency of operations;
(b) scientific personnel shall be exchanged in Antarctica
between expeditions and stations;
(c) scientific observations and results from Antarctica
shall be exchanged and made freely available
Earth Summit 1992, 2002
Agenda 21 – Chapter 40
INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING
40.1. In sustainable development, everyone is a
user and provider of information considered in
the broad sense. That includes data,
information, appropriately packaged
experience and knowledge. The need for
information arises at all levels, from that of
senior decision makers at the national and
international levels to the grass-roots and
individual levels. The following two
programme areas need to be implemented to
ensure that decisions are based increasingly on
a. Bridging the data gap;
b. Improving information availability.
Most Popular Open Data Defs.
4. Absence of Technological
7. No Discrimination Against Persons
8. No Discrimination Against Fields
9. Distribution of License
10. License Must Not Be Specific to a
11. License Must Not Restrict the
Distribution of Other Works
★ make your stuff available on the Web
(whatever format) under an open license
★★ make it available as structured data (e.g.,
Excel instead of image scan of a table)
★★★ use non-proprietary formats (e.g., CSV
instead of Excel)
★★★★ use URIs to denote things, so that people
can point at your stuff
★★★★★ link your data to other data to provide
Tim Berners-Lee, 5 star deployment
scheme for Open Data
G8 Open Data Charter
Companies Company/business register
Crime and Justice Crime statistics, safety
Earth observation Meteorological/weather, agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting
Education List of schools; performance of schools, digital skills
Energy and Environment Pollution levels, energy consumption
Finance and contracts
Transaction spend, contracts let, call for tender, future tenders, local budget,
national budget (planned and spent)
Geospatial Topography, postcodes, national maps, local maps
Global Development Aid, food security, extractives, land
Government contact points, election results, legislation and statutes, salaries
(pay scales), hospitality/gifts
Health Prescription data, performance data
Science and Research Genome data, research and educational activity, experiment results
Statistics National Statistics, Census, infrastructure, wealth, skills
Social mobility and welfare Housing, health insurance and unemployment benefits
Transport and Infrastructure Public transport timetables, access points broadband penetration
Public Sector Data
Access to Data Open Data
Scientists, Cultural Institutions E-Government, CTOs
1. Agriculture, Food and the Marine
2. Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht
3. Children and Youth Affairs
4. Communications, Energy and Natural
6. Education and Skills
7. Environment, Community and Local
9. Foreign Affairs and Trade
11.Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation
12.Justice and Equality
13.Public Expenditure and Reform
16. Transport, Tourism and Sport
• 130 Non Commercial State
Sponsored Bodies (EPA, Marine
Institute, SFI, RIA, Rail, OSI,
Universities, Roads, etc.)
• 100+ State-sponsored bodies
(Utilities, Irish Rail, IDA,
• 31 local authorities (3 are
Dublin, 2 are City and Council)
• CSO, Archives, etc.
• Data Protection Commissioner,
Ombunds person, Information
• Meet constitutional commitments & ensure
adherence to regulation, treaties, directives
• Administer government institutions
(budgets, performance indicators, audits,
• Output of program & service delivery
(licences, PPS, registration, fees, )
• Census, maps, surveys, inventories,
• Investigation, research, development
Kitchin’s Data Assemblage
Modes of thinking, philosophies, theories, models,
ideologies, rationalities, etc.
Research texts, manuals, magazines, websites,
experience, word of mouth, chat forums, etc.
Business models, investment, venture capital,
grants, philanthropy, profit, etc.
Policy, tax regimes, public and political opinion,
ethical considerations, etc.
Data standards, file formats, system requirements,
protocols, regulations, laws, licensing, intellectual
property regimes, etc.
Paper/pens, computers, digital devices, sensors,
scanners, databases, networks, servers, etc.
Techniques, ways of doing, learned behaviours,
scientific conventions, etc.
Archives, corporations, consultants, manufacturers,
retailers, government agencies, universities,
conferences, clubs and societies, committees and
boards, communities of practice, etc.
Of data producers, curators, managers, analysts,
scientists, politicians, users, citizens, etc.
Labs, offices, field sites, data centres, server farms,
business parks, etc, and their agglomerations
For data, its derivatives (e.g., text, tables, graphs,
maps), analysts, analytic software, interpretations,
Q & A
Tracey P. Lauriault
Programmable City Project