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National Economic and Social Council (NESC)
Environmental Data: Priorities and Innovation
Wood Quay Venue, Dublin, 24 Apri...
1. Introduction
The Programmable City
• A European Research Council (ERC) and
Science Foundation of Ireland (SFI) funding
• SH3: Environme...
MIT Press 2011 Sage 2014
Aim of the ERC
project is to build
off and extend a
decade of work that
culminated in
Code/Space ...
Objectives
How is the city translated into software and data?
How do software and data reshape the city?
Translation:
City...
2. Openness
Open Data Definitions (sample)
• 1959 Antarctic Treaty
• 1992 - UNCED – Agenda 21 Chapter 40,
Information for Decision Mak...
Data Sharing
ARTICLE III
1. In order to promote international cooperation in
scientific investigation in Antarctica, as pr...
Earth Summit 1992, 2002
Agenda 21 – Chapter 40
INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING
40.1. In sustainable development, everyone ...
GEOSS
https://www.earthobservations.org/geoss_dsp.shtml
3. Open Data
Most Popular Open Data Defs.
1. Access
2. Redistribution
3. Reuse
4. Absence of Technological
Restriction
5. Attribution
6...
Open Data Census
G8 Open Data Charter
Companies Company/business register
Crime and Justice Crime statistics, safety
Earth observation Mete...
Open Data / Gov Ireland
Federal Geographic Data
Platform
• Comprehensive collection &
sharing of authoritative data
• Search, discovery, access, &...
CGDI Principles
1. Open:
enables better decision making, the CGDI is
based on open, barrier-free data sharing and
standard...
4. Data at work
All-Island Research Observatory
• Spatial data portal and consultancy specializing in
evidence-based planning
• Been opera...
AIRO – data, maps, services
The Dublin Dashboard includes:
• real-time information
• time-series indicator data
• & interactive maps about all aspects...
5. Considerations
Research Setting
Legal Action
1993, Filed 2007, Won 2009
Crowsourced Data
• Interaction
type
• Trigger event
• Domain
• Organization
• Actors
• Data sets
• Process
• Feedback
• Go...
VGI
http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/earth-sciences/geomatics/canadas-spatial-data-
infrastructure/8904
http://spatialinformation.fi...
ISO 37120
http://www.iso.org/iso/37120_briefing_note.pdf
6. Final Remarks
Data Types & Actors
Research Data
GovData
GeoData
Physical
Sciences
AdminData
Public Sector Data
Access to Data Open Data
...
• Open data is an opportunity.
• An openness ideology may censor / impede
access / discoverability to some data.
• Geomati...
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Critique and Reflections on Open Data Initiatives

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National Economic and Social Council (NESC)
Environmental Data: Priorities and Innovation
Wood Quay Venue,
Dublin,
24 April 2015

Published in: Data & Analytics
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Critique and Reflections on Open Data Initiatives

  1. 1. National Economic and Social Council (NESC) Environmental Data: Priorities and Innovation Wood Quay Venue, Dublin, 24 April 2015 Tracey P. Lauriault Programmable City Project Tracey.Lauriault@NUIM.ie @TraceyLauriault Critique and Reflections on Open Data Initiatives
  2. 2. 1. Introduction
  3. 3. The Programmable City • A European Research Council (ERC) and Science Foundation of Ireland (SFI) funding • SH3: Environment and Society • Led by Dr Rob Kitchin, the Primary Investigator • Based at the National Institute for Regional and Spatial Analysis (NIRSA) • At the National University of Ireland Maynooth (NUIM)
  4. 4. MIT Press 2011 Sage 2014 Aim of the ERC project is to build off and extend a decade of work that culminated in Code/Space book (MIT Press) with a set of detailed empirical studies Aim
  5. 5. Objectives How is the city translated into software and data? How do software and data reshape the city? Translation: City into Code Transduction: Code Reshapes City THE CITYSOFTWARE Discourses, Practices, Knowledge, Models Mediation, Augmentation, Facilitation, Regulation
  6. 6. 2. Openness
  7. 7. Open Data Definitions (sample) • 1959 Antarctic Treaty • 1992 - UNCED – Agenda 21 Chapter 40, Information for Decision Making • 1996 Global Map • 2002 – UNCED – Ageday 21 + 10 Down To Earth • 2005 - Open Knowledge Foundation (OKNF) - 11 Principles (Licence specific) • 2007 GEOSS - Data Sharing Principles for the Global Earth Observing System of Systems • 2007 - US Open Government Working Group - 8 principles of Open Government Data • 2007 Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data • 2007 Sunlight Foundation - 10 Principles for Opening Up Government Informatio • 2007 OECD, Principles and Guidelines for Access to Research Data from Public Funding • 2008 OECD, Recommendations on Public Sector Information • 2009 W3C - Publishing Open Government Data • 2010 Tim Berners-Lee 5 Star of Open Data • 2010 Panton Principles for Open Data in Science • 2010 Ontario Information Privacy Commissioner - 7 Principles • 2013 Open Economics Principles • US Association of Computing Machinery (USACM) – Recommendations on Open Government • American Library Association (ALA) – Access to Government Information Principles
  8. 8. Data Sharing ARTICLE III 1. In order to promote international cooperation in scientific investigation in Antarctica, as provided for in Article II of the present Treaty, the Contracting Parties agree that, to the greatest extent feasible and practicable: (a) information regarding plans for scientific programs in Antarctica shall be exchanged to permit maximum economy and efficiency of operations; (b) scientific personnel shall be exchanged in Antarctica between expeditions and stations; (c) scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available
  9. 9. Earth Summit 1992, 2002 Agenda 21 – Chapter 40 INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING 40.1. In sustainable development, everyone is a user and provider of information considered in the broad sense. That includes data, information, appropriately packaged experience and knowledge. The need for information arises at all levels, from that of senior decision makers at the national and international levels to the grass-roots and individual levels. The following two programme areas need to be implemented to ensure that decisions are based increasingly on sound information: a. Bridging the data gap; b. Improving information availability. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10455/down-to-earth- geographical-information-for-sustainable-development-in-africa http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/Ag enda21.pdf
  10. 10. GEOSS https://www.earthobservations.org/geoss_dsp.shtml
  11. 11. 3. Open Data
  12. 12. Most Popular Open Data Defs. 1. Access 2. Redistribution 3. Reuse 4. Absence of Technological Restriction 5. Attribution 6. Integrity 7. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups 8. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor 9. Distribution of License 10. License Must Not Be Specific to a Package 11. License Must Not Restrict the Distribution of Other Works ★ make your stuff available on the Web (whatever format) under an open license ★★ make it available as structured data (e.g., Excel instead of image scan of a table) ★★★ use non-proprietary formats (e.g., CSV instead of Excel) ★★★★ use URIs to denote things, so that people can point at your stuff ★★★★★ link your data to other data to provide context Tim Berners-Lee, 5 star deployment scheme for Open Data Interoperability Georeference Aggregation Data Quality Archiving
  13. 13. Open Data Census
  14. 14. G8 Open Data Charter Companies Company/business register Crime and Justice Crime statistics, safety Earth observation Meteorological/weather, agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting Education List of schools; performance of schools, digital skills Energy and Environment Pollution levels, energy consumption Finance and contracts Transaction spend, contracts let, call for tender, future tenders, local budget, national budget (planned and spent) Geospatial Topography, postcodes, national maps, local maps Global Development Aid, food security, extractives, land Government Accountability and Democracy Government contact points, election results, legislation and statutes, salaries (pay scales), hospitality/gifts Health Prescription data, performance data Science and Research Genome data, research and educational activity, experiment results Statistics National Statistics, Census, infrastructure, wealth, skills Social mobility and welfare Housing, health insurance and unemployment benefits Transport and Infrastructure Public transport timetables, access points broadband penetration
  15. 15. Open Data / Gov Ireland
  16. 16. Federal Geographic Data Platform • Comprehensive collection & sharing of authoritative data • Search, discovery, access, & visualization tools built once & reused many times, search once and find everything • Common web-based environment enabling data integration, analysis, & visualization to support informed decision-making • Shared governance & management of geospatial assets and capabilities, through operational standards & policies 2014-… http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/earth-sciences/geomatics/canadas-spatial-data- infrastructure/geospatial-communities/federal
  17. 17. CGDI Principles 1. Open: enables better decision making, the CGDI is based on open, barrier-free data sharing and standards that allow users to exchange data. 2. Accessible: allows users to access data and services seamlessly, despite any complexities of the underlying technology. 3. Evolving: the network of organizations participating in the CGDI will continue to address new requirements and business applications for information and service delivery to their respective users. 4. Timely: the CGDI is based on technologies and services that support timely or real-time access to information. 5. Sustainable: is sustained by the contributions of the participating organizations and broad user community and through the infrastructure’s relevance to these groups. 6. Self-organizing the CGDI enables various organizations to contribute geospatial information, services and applications, and guide the infrastructure’s development. 7. User and community driven emphasizes the nurturing of and service to a broad user community. These users, including Canadians in general, will drive the CGDI’s development based on user requirements. 8. Closest to source maximizes efficiency and quality by encouraging organizations closest to source to provide data and services. Thereby eliminating duplication and overlap. 9. Trustworthy is continually enhanced to protect sensitive and proprietary data. The CGDI offers this protection through policies and mechanisms that enable data to be assessed for quality and trusted by users. Source: : 2012, Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure Vision, Mission and Roadmap - The Way Forward
  18. 18. 4. Data at work
  19. 19. All-Island Research Observatory • Spatial data portal and consultancy specializing in evidence-based planning • Been operating since 2005 (initially as CBRRO) • Interactive mapping & graphing modules both North/South
  20. 20. AIRO – data, maps, services
  21. 21. The Dublin Dashboard includes: • real-time information • time-series indicator data • & interactive maps about all aspects of the city Benefits: • detailed, up to date intelligence about the city that aids everyday decision making and fosters evidence-informed analysis. Freely available data sources: • Dublin City Council • Dublinked • Central Statistics Office • Eurostat • government departments • links to a variety of existing applications Produced by: • The Programmable City project • All-Island research Observatory (AIRO) at Maynooth University • working with Dublin City Council Funded by : • the European Research Council (ERC) • Science Foundation Ireland (SFI)
  22. 22. 5. Considerations
  23. 23. Research Setting
  24. 24. Legal Action 1993, Filed 2007, Won 2009
  25. 25. Crowsourced Data • Interaction type • Trigger event • Domain • Organization • Actors • Data sets • Process • Feedback • Goal • Side effects • Contact point • Policy • Legal • Standards • Data quality • Technology • Sustainability • Credibility of the source • Preservation • Security http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1433169/
  26. 26. VGI http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/earth-sciences/geomatics/canadas-spatial-data- infrastructure/8904 http://spatialinformation.files.wordpress.com/2013/04/whi te-paper-final-version.pdf
  27. 27. ISO 37120 http://www.iso.org/iso/37120_briefing_note.pdf
  28. 28. 6. Final Remarks
  29. 29. Data Types & Actors Research Data GovData GeoData Physical Sciences AdminData Public Sector Data Access to Data Open Data Social Sciences 2005 GeoWeb?
  30. 30. • Open data is an opportunity. • An openness ideology may censor / impede access / discoverability to some data. • Geomatics and Science open access is more mature than open data. • Open data communities can learn from these. • Those working on the environment should leverage all opportunities and be engaged.

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