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A genealogy of data assemblages: tracing the geospatial open access and open data movements in Canada

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AAG Session
4204 Data-based living: peopling and placing ‘big data
Tampa, Florida, April 11 2014
Tracey P. Lauriault and Rob Kitchin
National Institute for Regional and Spatial Analysis (NIRSA)
National University of Ireland at Maynooth (NUIM)

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A genealogy of data assemblages: tracing the geospatial open access and open data movements in Canada

  1. 1. AAG Session 4204 Data-based living: peopling and placing ‘big data Tampa, Florida, April 11 2014 Tracey P. Lauriault and Rob Kitchin National Institute for Regional and Spatial Analysis (NIRSA) National University of Ireland at Maynooth (NUIM) The Programmable City Project A genealogy of data assemblages: tracing the geospatial open access and open data movements in Canada
  2. 2. 1.Introduction
  3. 3. The Programmable City • A European Research Council (ERC) and Science Foundation of Ireland (SFI) funding • SH3: Environment and Society • Led by Dr Rob Kitchin, the Primary Investigator • Based at the National Institute for Regional and Spatial Analysis (NIRSA) • At the National University of Ireland Maynooth (NUIM)
  4. 4. Objectives How is the city translated into software and data? How do software and data reshape the city? Translation: City into Code Transduction: Code Reshapes City THE CITYSOFTWARE Discourses, Practices, Knowledge, Models Mediation, Augmentation, Facilitation, Regulation
  5. 5. 2.Research Question
  6. 6. Research Question How are digital data materially and discursively supported and processed about cities and their citizens?
  7. 7. 3.Assemblages
  8. 8. Kitchin’s Data Assemblage Attributes Elements Systems of thought Modes of thinking, philosophies, theories, models, ideologies, rationalities, etc. Forms of knowledge Research texts, manuals, magazines, websites, experience, word of mouth, chat forums, etc. Finance Business models, investment, venture capital, grants, philanthropy, profit, etc. Political economy Policy, tax regimes, public and political opinion, ethical considerations, etc. Govern- mentalities / Legalities Data standards, file formats, system requirements, protocols, regulations, laws, licensing, intellectual property regimes, etc. Materialities & infrastructures Paper/pens, computers, digital devices, sensors, scanners, databases, networks, servers, etc. Practices Techniques, ways of doing, learned behaviours, scientific conventions, etc. Organisations & institutions Archives, corporations, consultants, manufacturers, retailers, government agencies, universities, conferences, clubs and societies, committees and boards, communities of practice, etc. Subjectivities & communities Of data producers, curators, managers, analysts, scientists, politicians, users, citizens, etc. Places Labs, offices, field sites, data centres, server farms, business parks, etc, and their agglomerations Marketplace For data, its derivatives (e.g., text, tables, graphs, maps), analysts, analytic software, interpretations, etc. Systemsofthought
  9. 9. 3. Geospatial Data Infrastructure
  10. 10. 1999 Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure (CGDI) 20012005 2013
  11. 11. CGDI Principles 1. Open: enables better decision making, the CGDI is based on open, barrier-free data sharing and standards that allow users to exchange data. 2. Accessible: allows users to access data and services seamlessly, despite any complexities of the underlying technology. 3. Evolving: the network of organizations participating in the CGDI will continue to address new requirements and business applications for information and service delivery to their respective users. 4. Timely: the CGDI is based on technologies and services that support timely or real-time access to information. 5. Sustainable: is sustained by the contributions of the participating organizations and broad user community and through the infrastructure’s relevance to these groups. 6. Self-organizing the CGDI enables various organizations to contribute geospatial information, services and applications, and guide the infrastructure’s development. 7. User and community driven emphasizes the nurturing of and service to a broad user community. These users, including Canadians in general, will drive the CGDI’s development based on user requirements. 8. Closest to source maximizes efficiency and quality by encouraging organizations closest to source to provide data and services. Thereby eliminating duplication and overlap. 9. Trustworthy is continually enhanced to protect sensitive and proprietary data. The CGDI offers this protection through policies and mechanisms that enable data to be assessed for quality and trusted by users. Source: : 2012, Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure Vision, Mission and Roadmap - The Way Forward
  12. 12. Maps 6th Edition 1999 3rd Edition 1957 4th Edition 1974 1st Edition 1906 2nd Edition 1915 5th Edition 1985
  13. 13. Data
  14. 14. 4. Access to Data Canada a. University b. Federal Government c. Civil Society d. Research e. Public Health
  15. 15. University Setting Image source: http://www.geomatikk.ntnu.no/english/ University Geomatics1992 Proposed, 1996 Launched
  16. 16. Federal Government Setting Provincial and Territorial Geomatics Accord (2001)
  17. 17. Geographic and Numeric Information Systems Social Planning Network of Ontario Civil Society
  18. 18. Data Negotiation http://cdc-dcc.info/mandate.php
  19. 19. Legal Action 1993, Filed 2007, Won 2009
  20. 20. Research Setting
  21. 21. Chief Medical Officer of Health http://emis.santemontreal.qc.ca/
  22. 22. 4. Open Data Canada a. Transition b. Cities c. Licenses and Collaboration d. Research
  23. 23. Access to Public Data
  24. 24. Open Data Definitions (sample) • 1959 Antarctic Treaty • 1992 - UNCED – Agenda 21 Chapter 40, Information for Decision Making • 1996 Global Map • 2007 GEOSS - Data Sharing Principles for the Global Earth Observing System of Systems • 2005 - Open Knowledge Foundation (OKNF) - 11 Principles (Licence specific) • 2007 - US Open Government Working Group - 8 principles of Open Government Data • 2007 Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data • 2007 Sunlight Foundation - 10 Principles for Opening Up Government Informatio • 2007 OECD, Principles and Guidelines for Access to Research Data from Public Funding • 2009 W3C - Publishing Open Government Data • 2010 Tim Berners-Lee 5 Star of Open Data • 2008 OECD, Recommendations on Public Sector Information • 2010 Panton Principles for Open Data in Science • 2010 Ontario Information Privacy Commissioner - 7 Principles • 2013 Open Economics Principles • US Association of Computing Machinery (USACM) – Recommendations on Open Government • American Library Association (ALA) – Access to Government Information Principles
  25. 25. Foundational ARTICLE III 1. In order to promote international cooperation in scientific investigation in Antarctica, as provided for in Article II of the present Treaty, the Contracting Parties agree that, to the greatest extent feasible and practicable: (a) information regarding plans for scientific programs in Antarctica shall be exchanged to permit maximum economy and efficiency of operations; (b) scientific personnel shall be exchanged in Antarctica between expeditions and stations; (c) scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available Agenda 21 – Chapter 40 INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING 40.1. In sustainable development, everyone is a user and provider of information considered in the broad sense. That includes data, information, appropriately packaged experience and knowledge. The need for information arises at all levels, from that of senior decision makers at the national and international levels to the grass-roots and individual levels. The following two programme areas need to be implemented to ensure that decisions are based increasingly on sound information: a. Bridging the data gap; b. Improving information availability.
  26. 26. Most Popular Open Data Defs. 1. Access 2. Redistribution 3. Reuse 4. Absence of Technological Restriction 5. Attribution 6. Integrity 7. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups 8. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor 9. Distribution of License 10. License Must Not Be Specific to a Package 11. License Must Not Restrict the Distribution of Other Works ★ make your stuff available on the Web (whatever format) under an open license ★★ make it available as structured data (e.g., Excel instead of image scan of a table) ★★★ use non-proprietary formats (e.g., CSV instead of Excel) ★★★★ use URIs to denote things, so that people can point at your stuff ★★★★★ link your data to other data to provide context Tim Berners-Lee, 5 star deployment scheme for Open Data
  27. 27. Cities take the lead in Canada
  28. 28. Licences & Collaboration Ottawa, Toronto, Edmonton, Vancouver + Montreal
  29. 29. Open Data Cities 1. Banff Open Data Portal, (AB) Pilot 2. City of Brandon (MB) 3. City of Burlington (ON) 4. City of Calgary (AB) 5. City of Chilliwack (BC) 6. City of Edmonton (AB) 7. City of Fredericton (NB) 8. Portail de données ouvertes de la ville de Gatineau 9. County of Grande Prairie (AB) 10. Open Data Guelph (ON) 11. Halifax Regional Municipality (NS) 12. City of Hamilton Open and Accessible Data (ON) 13. City of Kelowna Open Data Catalog (BC) 14. City of London (ON) 15. Township of Langley (BC) 16. Open Data Medicine Hat (AB) 17. Town of Milton (ON) 18. City of Mississauga (ON) 19. Ville de Montréal Portails données ouvertes (QC) 20. City of Nanaimo (BC) 20. City of Niagara Falls (ON) 21. Region of Niagara (ON) 22. Regional District of Central Okanagan 23. Regional District of North Okanagan (BC) 24. District of North Vancouver (BC) 25. City of Ottawa (ON) 26. Region of Peel (ON) 27. City of Prince George (BC) 28. Ville de Québec Catalogue de données (QC) 29. City of Red Deer, (AB) 30. City of Regina (SK) 31. District of Saanich Open Data (BC) 32. Open Data Saskatoon (SK) 33. Données ouvertes Sherbrookes (QC) 34. Strathcona County Open Data Portal (AB) 35. City of Surrey (BC) 36. City of Toronto (ON) 37. City of Vancouver (BC) 38. District of North Vancouver (BC) 39. City of Victoria (BC) 40. City of Waterloo (ON). 41. Region of Waterloo (ON) 42. City of Whitehorse (YK) 43. City of Windsor (ON) 44. York Region
  30. 30. Open Data Provinces 1. Data BC 2. Alberta Open Data 3. Open Data Saskatchewan, Citizen Led 4. Ontario Open Data 5. Données ouvertes Portail du Gouvernement du Québec, Québec Ouvert – Citizen Led 6. Newfoundland and Labrador
  31. 31. Federal Open Data • Geogratis & Geobase & Discovery Portal & Atlas of Canada • Office of the Information Commissioners Open Government Resolutions • OpenData.gc.ca • Research Data Canada • Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) Open Data
  32. 32. Fed. Open Data Portal
  33. 33. Accessibility Catherine Roy: ecrire@catherine-roy.net http://montrealaccessible.ca/
  34. 34. Transparency  Les appels d’offres et certain contrats octroyés de la Ville de Montréal et la province du Québec (version détaillée ici)  Le registre des entreprises du Canada  Les dons au partis politiques du Canada  Les dons aux partis politiques du Québec  Le registre des lobbyistes du gouvernment fédéral(aussi registre et journal)  Licenses restreintes dans l'industrie de la construction  Les contrats octroyés par la Ville de Laval depuis 2007  Les contrats octroyés par la Ville de Montréal depuis 2006
  35. 35. Hackathons http://www.rhok.org/ http://montrealouvert.net/2011/ 11/23/compte-rendu-du-3e- hackathon-montreal- ouvert/?lang=en http://www.livinglabmontreal.org /TranspoCampMTL
  36. 36. Transportation Planning Au niveau municipal, les données sont accessibles indirectement sur le site de la ville de Montréal. En d'autres termes, ces données n'ont pas été prévues pour être utilisées de manière directe mais sont affichées sur une carte dans la section Info-Travaux. Au niveau provinciale, les données viennent du Ministère des transports du Québec et de son service Québec 511. Là aussi le MTQ se démarque de ses homologues canadiens en étant a priori le premier à proposer des données GPS pour la localisation des chantiers.
  37. 37. Entrepreneurs  All 10,000 public and private foundations.  Exhaustive list of federal and provincial funding programs specifically for non- profits (over 700).  Corporate funders (500 and growing).
  38. 38. Advocacy http://www.opendatabc.ca /index.html http://opennorth.ca/
  39. 39. 6. Observations
  40. 40. Research Data Canada Archiving, Management and Preservation of Geospatial Data National Consultation on Access to Scientific Data Final Report (NCASRD) 20101990 1995 2000 2005 National Data Archive Consultation (SSHRC) Stewardship of Research Data in Canada: A Gap Analysis The dissemination of government geographic data in Canada: guide to best practices Research Data Strategy Working Group Standing Committee on Industry, Science and Technology Toward a National Digital Information Strategy: Mapping the Current Situation in Canada (LAC) Canadian Digital Information Strategy (CDIS) (LAC) IPY 1985 2014 Open Data Consultations Mapping the Data Landscape: Report of the 2011 Canadian Research Data Summit Digital Economy Consultation, Industry Canada Community Data Roundtable Privacy (Geo) Sensitive Data (Geo) Resolution of Canada’s Access to Information and Privacy Commissioners Geomatics Accord Signed Canadian Geospatial Data Policy Liberating the Data Proposal VGI Primer Cloud (Geo) OD Advisory Panel OGP G8 Subjectivities & Forms of Knowledge • Policies • Reports • Proposals • Recommendations • Consultation 2008 MiningWatch Canada & Great Lakes United by Ecojustice (formerly Sierra Legal Defence Fund).Demand release of mine tailing data Digital Infrastructure Leadership Council
  41. 41. 20101990 1995 2000 20051985 2014 Data Liberation Initiative (DLI) Geogratis Data Portal GeoBase Canadian Internet Public Policy Clinic Maps Data and Government Information Services (MADGIC) Carleton U GeoConnections GeoGratis Census Data Consortium Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL) Atlas of Canada Online (1st) CeoNet Discovery Portal Research Data Network How'd they Vote CivicAccess.ca Campaign for Open Government (FIPA) Canadian Association of Public Data Users Datalibre.ca VisibleGovernment.ca I Believe in Open Campaign Change Camps Start Nanaimo BC Toronto Open Data Portals Edmonton Mississauga launches open data Citizen Factory B.C.'s Climate Change Data Catalogue Open Parliament DatadotGC.ca Ottawa Ottawa, Prince George, Medicine Hat Data.gc.ca Global TV Hansard in XML Langley Let the Data Flow GovCamp Fed. Expenses Montreal Ouvert Fed.Gov. Travel and Hospitality Expenses London Hamilton Windsor Open Data Hackfest Aid Agency Proactive.ca DataBC Hacking Health 14 Cities Quebec Ontario OGP 3 Cities Alberta G8 Community Data Program FCM Quality of Life Reporting System Geographic and Numeric Information System (GANIS) Materialities / Infrastructures • Consortia • Portals/Catalogs • Maps • Open data/Open Gov Events 2009
  42. 42. Data Types & Actors Research Data GovData GeoData Physical Sciences AdminData Public Sector Data Access to Data Open Data Social Sciences 2005 GeoWeb?
  43. 43. Commercialization
  44. 44. 6. Summary
  45. 45. Data & Infrastructures do not exist independently of the ideas, techniques, technologies, people and contexts that produce, process, manage, analyze and store them, regardless of them often being presented in this manner... (The Data Revolution, Kitchin in Press 2014). also mediate culture and society by constructing stories which create representations around which subjects are created & actions are taken shaping and shaped by geographic imaginations (Data, Infrastructures and Geographical Imaginations, Lauriault 2012)
  46. 46. Kitchin’s Data Assemblage Attributes Elements Systems of thought Modes of thinking, philosophies, theories, models, ideologies, rationalities, etc. Forms of knowledge Research texts, manuals, magazines, websites, experience, word of mouth, chat forums, etc. Finance Business models, investment, venture capital, grants, philanthropy, profit, etc. Political economy Policy, tax regimes, public and political opinion, ethical considerations, etc. Govern- mentalities / Legalities Data standards, file formats, system requirements, protocols, regulations, laws, licensing, intellectual property regimes, etc. Materialities & infrastructures Paper/pens, computers, digital devices, sensors, scanners, databases, networks, servers, etc. Practices Techniques, ways of doing, learned behaviours, scientific conventions, etc. Organisations & institutions Archives, corporations, consultants, manufacturers, retailers, government agencies, universities, conferences, clubs and societies, committees and boards, communities of practice, etc. Subjectivities & communities Of data producers, curators, managers, analysts, scientists, politicians, users, citizens, etc. Places Labs, offices, field sites, data centres, server farms, business parks, etc, and their agglomerations Marketplace For data, its derivatives (e.g., text, tables, graphs, maps), analysts, analytic software, interpretations, etc. Systemsofthought
  47. 47. Objectives How is the city translated into software and data? How do software and data reshape the city? Translation: City into Data Transduction: Data Reshape City THE CITYDATA Discourses, Practices, Knowledge, Models Mediation, Augmentation, Facilitation, Regulation
  48. 48. 6. Next Steps
  49. 49. 2 strands • Data landscape in the city: • Dublin (Primary City) • Boston (Secondary City) • Ottawa/Montreal (Open Data CS) • 5 in depth case studies • Kitchin Data Assemblage framework • Making Up People/Spaces framework
  50. 50. Typology / Landscape Software/Hardware vendors Analysis Consumers Funders Data Generators Data Infrastructures Research Centres Consultancies Insight providers Inspired by The Irish Data Analytics/Big Data Landscape (http://theanalyticsstore.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/BigDataLandscape.jpg
  51. 51. Q & A Tracey.Lauriault@NUIM.ie @TraceyLauriault http://www.nuim.ie/progcity/ Thank You!
  52. 52. Abstract Title: A genealogy of data assemblages: tracing the geospatial open access and open data movements in Canada The field of geomatics has for decades concerned 'big data' about people and places, and the monitoring and managing of population, resources and territory. To better carry out this function global, regional, national and sub-national spatial data infrastructures have been built. SDIs are defined as the institutions, policies, technologies, processes and standards that direct the who, how, what and why geospatial data are collected, stored, manipulated, analyzed, transformed and shared. They are also inter-sectoral, cross-domain, inter-departmental, distributed and interoperable authoritative large biopolitical systems. As part of these projects a loose coalition of highly skilled actors have sought to open such geospatial data from state bodies for wider use. Some of these actors have been joined by a nascent open data movement. To date, however, the complex unfolding of the geospatial open access to/data movement has not been charted. In this paper we provide such a genealogical analysis, tracing the open access/data movement in Canada over the past three decades, unpacking the various overlapping, co-evolving and oppositional data assemblages. We conceive a data assemblage as a complex socio-technical system consisting of a number of inter-related elements — systems of thought; forms of knowledge; finance; political economy; governmentalities; materialities and infrastructures; practices; organisations and institutions; subjectivities and communities; places; and marketplaces — that work together to frame how data are produced, managed, analyzed, shared and used. We suggest that such a conception and approach has utility in understanding and contextualizing the wider changing data landscape. Authors: Tracey P. Lauriault and Rob Kitchin, Programmable City Project, NIRSA, NUIM

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