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  1. 1. Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impacts pepa_report_front.qxd 7/29/09 4:35 PM Page 1
  2. 2. Includes analysis report from mangrove surveys conducted November 2008 and January 2009 Tracey Edwards Survey Analysis by Hugh Small Camilo Trench University of the West Indies Reviewed by Prof. Alexander V. Ereskovksy Centre d’Océanologie de Marseille Dr. Mona Webber University of the West Indies Mona Co-Financed by the Environmental Foundation of Jamaica: Mangrove Rehabilitation and Endemic Species Protection Programme and the Drivers River: GEF-IWCAM project Survey Analysis: Centre for Marine Sciences, UWI, Mona Portland Environment Protection Association 6 Allan Ave., Port Antonio, Portland www.pepa-jamaica.org email.pepa@cwjamaica.com pepa_report_front.qxd 7/29/09 4:35 PM Page 2
  3. 3. Table of Contents List of Figures..................................................................................................5 List Photographs..............................................................................................6 Acknowledgment ............................................................................................7 Preface ..........................................................................................................8 Introduction ....................................................................................................9 Section One ................................................................................................13 Brief Overview of Mangroves ..................................................................13 Mangrove Types and Their Adaptations ....................................................14 RED MANGROVES - Rhizophora mangle ..................................................16 BLACK MANGROVES - Avicennia germinans ............................................21 WHITE MANGROVES - Laguncularia racemosa..........................................23 BUTTON WOOD - Conocarpus Erectus......................................................25 Economic Importance of Mangroves ........................................................27 Mangroves and the Food Web..................................................................27 Mangroves as a Habitat for Marine and Terrestrial Animals........................28 Mangroves Role in Soil Stabilization and Reef Protection ..........................28 Other Ecological Benefits of Mangroves....................................................30 Economic Value of Mangroves..................................................................30 Mangroves in Portland ............................................................................30 Location and Distribution ........................................................................30 pepa_report_front.qxd 7/29/09 4:35 PM Page 3
  4. 4. Socio-Economic Dynamics of Portland......................................................31 Salt Creek ..............................................................................................33 Turtle Crawl ............................................................................................33 Manchioneal ..........................................................................................34 Threats to Mangroves in Portland ............................................................34 Characteristics and Practices of Squatters................................................35 Other Uses..............................................................................................36 Conclusions ............................................................................................36 Section Two ................................................................................................39 Introduction ............................................................................................40 Methodology ..........................................................................................41 Mangrove Transects ................................................................................41 Description of Area..................................................................................42 Results ..................................................................................................53 Tree Distribution and Density ..................................................................77 Seedling Distribution and Density ............................................................83 Canopy Height and Water Depth ..............................................................87 Tree Proportion Comparison ....................................................................92 Proportion of Adult Trees to Seedlings ......................................................93 Figure 39 Graph Showing Proportion of Adult Mangrove and Seedlings at All Areas Surveyed: (a) Salt Creek, (b) Dolphin Bay North, (c) Dolphin Bay South, (d) Manchioneal.....................................................93 Canopy Cover and Prop Root Cover..........................................................94 Discussion..............................................................................................98 Salt Creek ..............................................................................................98 Dolphin Bay North ................................................................................100 Dolphin Bay South ................................................................................102 Manchioneal ........................................................................................103 Conclusions ..........................................................................................106 Glossary......................................................................................................107 Appendix ....................................................................................................114 References..................................................................................................122 pepa_report_front.qxd 7/29/09 4:35 PM Page 4
  5. 5. List of Figures Figure 1 Showing Portland in relation to other parishes ............................................................9 Figure 2 Showing location of Portland on the Jamaica map ....................................................10 Figure 3 Google Earth Image Showing Location of Surveyed Mangrove Forests.........................44 Figure 4 Google Earth Image Showing Area Surveyed at Salt Creek. ........................................45 Figure 5 Google Earth Image Showing Transect Line at Salt Creek. ..........................................46 Figure 6 Google Earth Image Showing Surveyed Area at Dolphin Bay North. ............................47 Figure 7 Google Earth Image Showing Transect Surveyed at Dolphin Bay North.........................48 Figure 8 Google Earth Image Showing Area Survey at Dolphin Bay South. ................................49 Figure 9 Google Earth Image Showing Surveyed Transect at Dolphin Bay South. ......................50 Figure 10 Google Earth Image Showing Surveyed Area at Manchioneal. ....................................51 Figure 11 Google Earth Image Showing Surveyed Transect at Manchioneal.................................52 Figure 12 Table Showing Data Collected From Salt Creek. ........................................................55 Figure 13 Table Showing Data Collected at Dolphin Bay North. ..................................................60 Figure 14 Table Showing Data Collected at Dolphin Bay South...................................................66 Figure 15 Table Showing Data Collected at Manchioneal. ..........................................................70 Figure 16 Table Showing Fauna Found at Salt Creek. ................................................................76 Figure 17 Table Showing Fauna at Dolphin Bay North. ..............................................................76 Figure 18 Table Showing Fauna at Dolphin Bay South. ..............................................................76 Figure 19 Table Showing Fauna at Manchioneal. ......................................................................77 Figure 20 Table Showing Physical and Chemical Parameters at Salt Creek.................................77 Figure 21 Table Showing Physical and Chemical Parameters at Dolphin Bay North. ....................77 Figure 22 Table Showing Physical and Chemical Parameters at Dolphin Bay South.....................77 Figure 23 Table Showing Physical and Chemical Parameters at Manchioneal. ............................77 Figure 24 Graph Showing Tree Distribution and Density at Salt Creek.........................................78 pepa_report_front.qxd 7/29/09 4:35 PM Page 5
  6. 6. Figure 25 Graph Showing Tree Distribution and Density at Dolphin Bay North. ............................79 Figure 26 Graph Showing Tree Distribution and Density at Dolphin Bay South.............................80 Figure 27 Graph Showing Tree Distribution and Density at Manchioneal. ....................................81 Figure 28 Graph Showing Seedling Distribution and Density at Salt Creek. ................................83 Figure 29 Graph Showing Seedling Distribution and Density at Dolphin Bay North.......................84 Figure 30 Graph Showing Seedling Distribution and Density at Dolphin Bay South. ....................85 Figure 31 Graph Showing Seedling Distribution and Density at Manchioneal...............................86 Figure 32 Graph Showing Canopy Height and Water Depth at Salt Creek. ..................................87 Figure 33 Graph Showing Canopy Height and Water Depth at Dolphin Bay North. ......................88 Figure 34 Graph Showing Canopy Height and Water Depth at Dolphin Bay South. ......................89 Figure 35 Graph Showing Canopy Height and Water Depth at Manchioneal. ..............................90 Figure 36 Graphs Showing Tree Proportional Distribution at All Areas Surveyed: (a) Salt Creek, (b) Dolphin Bay North, (c) Dolphin Bay South, (d) Manchioneal. ............92 Figure 37 Graph Showing Proportion of Adult Mangrove and Seedlings at All Areas Surveyed: (a) Salt Creek, (b) Dolphin Bay North, (c) Dolphin Bay South, (d) Manchioneal. ............93 Figure 38 Graph Showing Canopy Cover and Prop Root Cover at Salt Creek...............................94 Figure 39 Graph Showing Canopy Cover and Prop Root Cover at Dolphin Bay North. ..................95 Figure 40 Graph Showing Canopy Cover and Prop Root Cover at Dolphin Bay South...................96 Figure 41 Graph Showing Canopy Cover and Prop Root Cover at Manchioneal. ..........................97 Plate 1 Red Mangroves seen growing along the river in the Errol Flyn Marina ........................18 Plate 2 Red Mangroves along the sea in Turtle Crawl: Red mangrove roots partially submerged19 Plate 3 Showing whorled formation of Red Mangrove leaves on the stem ..............................19 Plate 4 Showing Red mangrove propagules before it detaches from the tree ..........................20 Plate 5 Showing Red mangrove flower-photo taken at the Errol Flyn Marina, Port Antonio........20 Plate 6 Showing Black mangroves as they appear in the forest..............................................22 Plate 7 Showing Black mangrove roots (pneumatophores) growing out of the soil, Photo 8 showing the seed and flower of the Black mangrove ....................................23 Plate 8 Showing roots of the white mangroves ......................................................................24 Plate 9 Showing flowers of the white mangroves ..................................................................24 Plate 10 Showing salt glands at the base of leaves on the White Mangrove stem......................25 Plate 11 Ornamental Button woods decorating the driveway at the Errol Fyn Marina ................26 List of Plates pepa_report_front.qxd 7/29/09 4:35 PM Page 6
  7. 7. Acronyms & Abbreviations PEPA Portland Environment Protection Association PAMP Proposed Port Antonio Marine Park MRESPP Mangrove Rehabilitation and Endemic Species Protection Programme NEPA National Environment and Planning Agency pepa_report_front.qxd 7/29/09 4:35 PM Page 7
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  9. 9. Acknowledgements Acknowledgment is hereby given to all who contributed to the timely development of this report. To Camilo Trench and Hugh Small who spent much time completing the analysis of the survey data, Drs. Alexander Ereskovksy and Mona Webber for their professional and scientific contribution in ensuring the validity of the information presented. To the GEF-IWCAM team for their support and participation during the collection of the survey data. With particular mention of Nelsa English and Shannon Rease (Peace Corp Volunteer - PEPA) who regardless of the muddy challenges pursued the goal and stuck with the task. To Machel Donegan who occasionally sacrificed his weekends for the collection of photos and lastly but not least to Patrick Cargill and Omar Doyley who had consistently offered their time and effort to the MRESSP and GEF - IWCAM Project. For those who offered moral support, your kindness is forever appreciated. Tracey Edwards Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact i pepa_report_front.qxd 7/29/09 4:35 PM Page 9
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  11. 11. Preface 1 Of the fourteen parishes in Jamaica, Portland is largely considered one of the most aesthetic, with five major watersheds; one of which is considered the most pristine (NEPA). In addition to the aesthetic beauty, there is a rich diversity of both terrestrial and marine species. Many of the endemic birds of Jamaica are found in Portland, so too is the endangered Giant Swallow Tail Butterfly which makes its home in the cascading landscape of the Blue Mountains. The marine environment has its own share of protected species which include; the Manatee, Hawksbill and Leather Back Turtles. It would have been splendid if the resources remained untouched, undamaged, unspoilt and unchanged but there have been changes; changes that are affected by the increase in the population and the search for better standards of living. With the unemployment epidemic in the parish of Portland, many have come to rely on the natural resources of the land and the sea to sustain or improve their lives. As a result, transformations occur which threaten vital ecosystems and their ëpreservative-natureí. One such ecosystem is the wetlands found in Portland. The information which follows gives insight to mangrove wetlands of Portland, their value to the people and the likelihood of them becoming a history to Portlanders in unchanging circumstances. 1 Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact iii pepa_report_front.qxd 7/29/09 4:35 PM Page 11
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  13. 13. Introduction Portland parish is located at Latitude - 18º.133 N, Longitude - 76º.533 W (see map below). It lies under the shadows of the Blue Mountains, which contribute to its high terrestrial biodiversity, which the Portland Environment Protection Association (PEPA) has mandated to protect and preserve. Figure 1 - Showing Portland in relation to other parishes. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact v pepa_report_front.qxd 7/29/09 4:35 PM Page 13
  14. 14. Figure 2 - Showing location of Portland on the map of Jamaica. PEPA is a Non-Government Organization that was established in 1988 and serves as a steward for the environment through successful implementation of awareness and action programs in schools and within communities throughout the parish of Portland. In addition to its many activities, the organization informally manages resources within the Proposed Port Antonio Marine Park (PAMP). The boundaries of the park stretches from Downers Bluff - west of Port Antonio to the Northeast Point - Its north to south boundaries goes up to the buffer zone of the Blue and John Crow Mountains to 100 metres off the coast. It is within this zone that most of PEPA projects are implemented though not limited to. Conservation activities include; the monitoring, rehabilitation and preservation of coastal and marine ecosystems which include the Environmental Foundation of Jamaica, Mangrove Rehabilitation and Endemic Specie Protection Programme (MRESPP) Figure 3 - Showing the boundaries of the Proposed Port Antonio Marine Park (PAMP). Portland Environment Protection Association vi pepa_report_front.qxd 7/29/09 4:35 PM Page 14
  15. 15. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact vii MRESPP is an eighteen (18) month project whose objectives were to: a. protect the family of crocodiles in Turtle Crawl, b. Rehabilitate four mangrove sites in the parish c. Sensitize residents and visitors to Portland about the ecological significance of mangrove ecosystems and, d. Monitor the health of mangroves and facilitate the development of a report; on the status and use of mangroves in Parish. The later arise out of the need to provide current baseline data on mangrove ecosystems in the parish. The information provided in this report is divided into two sections. The first section includes a brief overview of mangroves, their type, ecological values and the location and use of mangroves in Portland. The later contains the analysis of the data from surveys conducted at four mangrove sites between November 2008 and January 2009. pepa_report_front.qxd 7/29/09 4:35 PM Page 15
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  17. 17. Section One Portland Environment Protection Association Introduction to Mangroves and Mangrove Location and Use in Portland pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:47 PM Page 1
  18. 18. Brief Overview of Mangroves Definition, Types and Natural Progression Mangroves are a type of wetland plants which are members of a number of genera and species of low trees and shrubs which grow and spread quickly on tidal mud in tropical areas (Clark, 1998). The term mangroves refers to over fifty (50) species (Porcher, 1993) of similar trees and shrubs which are adopted to striving in salt tolerant, waterlog soils, but only four of these species are considered strict mangroves. Mangroves are at a unique advantage to other plants as they readily adapt to almost any adverse conditions and changes in the environment except frost (Kathiresan, 2003), hence like corals with which they have an inter-relationship, their distribution is limited to tropical and sub-tropical areas. Mangrove forests in Jamaica constitute 1% of the total land area, covering 10,624 hectares (26,252 acres) with an estimate of 101 sites (Wordsworth, et. Al. 2001). Mangrove forests are at the transition between land and sea (Molles, 2002) and as a result are driven by tidal flows and support a rich biodiversity. Mangroves grow in coastal mud flats where the topographic gradients are moderate and the tidal influence is great. Flooding is consistent throughout the year in these types of forests. Mangrove forests are among the most productive ecosystems on earth and the well drained soil supports a rich growth of mangrove plants.They normally grow poorly in stagnant waters and have luxuriant growth in the alluvial soil substrates with fine-textured loose mud or silt, rich in humus and sulphides (Kathiresan, 2003). Portland Environment Protection Association 2 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:47 PM Page 2
  19. 19. Mangroves can also be found in virgin soils where the substrate is like coastal reefs. In such areas, the mangrove plants grow on peat, which is derived from decayed vegetation. They find it difficult to colonize the coastal zone with waves of high energy and hence they normally establish themselves in sheltered shorelines (Kathiresan, & Bingham, 2001) such as lagoons. Mangrove Types and Their Adaptations Mangroves as said before are adaptive to the environment in which they are found and consequently grow in succession. Succession is the sequence of which a biotic community constantly changes in composition until it achieves near perfect balance with its environment (Kaplan, 1988). A description of mangrove forest types and mangroves follows below. Mangrove structures are differentiated into four types: The Fluvial mangroves develop in river estuaries and on banks benefitting from periodic salt input. Fringing mangroves develop in coastal regions along sheltered shorelines. Basin mangroves developed in the shallows of great stretches bathed by a laminar and very low flow. Dwarf mangroves developed when the growth of trees is limited by the edaphic factors (soil factors, the biological, chemical and physical properties of a soil)(Clark, 1998). Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 3 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:47 PM Page 3
  20. 20. Figure 4 - Showing mangrove type and succession as the forest progresses towards land. Association of mangrove species and their adaptations: RED MANGROVES - Rhizophora mangle Red mangroves are known as pioneers and are the first to colonise a virgin area (Porcher, 1988). They sit at the periphery of the forest, growing out into the sea and inland where the soil is often flooded during high tide. Red mangroves have prop root systems, which the basic function is to provide anchorage and oxygen (oxygen is derived from the lenticels (pores) found on the prop roots of red mangroves). Another unique adaptation of the red mangrove is the nurturing of its seeds which remain on the parent tree until it develops into a seedling. In most other plants the embryo is buried within the seed and surrounded by food, the seed remains in that state until it is covered in moist soil (Kaplan, 1988). The reproductive cycle begins when the red mangroves burst into flower usually during the spring or summer except in the Caribbean where it may flower all year round (Wordsworth, 2001). The waxy bright yellow star shaped blossoms attract beesí causing the flower to fertilize quickly. The embryo remains on the tree growing to about 30cm before it drops off the tree into the water. The elongated seedling floats until the pointed end absorbs water, becomes heavy and sinks; the waxy fruit end repels the water and floats so that the seedling bobs around pointed end down until it finds suitable soil and then it penetrates the sediment and takes root. The seedling can remain in its floating state for up to a year (Kaplan, 1988). Red mangroves grow very quickly and in the right conditions will produce many prop roots within three years. Portland Environment Protection Association 4 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:47 PM Page 4
  21. 21. Red mangroves maintain a normal salt concentration in their tissues by exuding salt from their leaves or transferring salt into the older leaves which are then shed (Webber 2007). Older leaves before they are shed appear yellow on the tree. The leaves of the red mangrove are shiny, broad dark green and rhododendron-like (Kaplan, 1988). The trees of the red mangroves grow to a height of 6m (20ft) to 24m (80ft). Plate 1 - Red Mangroves seen growing along the river in the Errol Flynn Marina. Plate 2 - Red Mangroves along the sea in Turtle Crawl: Red Mangrove roots partially submerged. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 5 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:47 PM Page 5
  22. 22. Plate 3 - Showing whorled formation of Red Mangrove leaves on the stem. Plate 5 - Showing Red Mangrove flower-photo taken at the Errol Flynn Marina, Port Antonio. Plate 4 - Showing Red Mangrove propagules before they detached from the tree. BLACK MANGROVES - Avicennia germinans Black mangrove trees are generally found behind the red mangroves below the high tide mark towards the interior of the forest. It is more tolerant to the cold and can grow more favourable in soils where the salinity is higher. Because of its unique adaptations to these edaphic factors its distribution is wider (Porcher, 1993). The black mangrove is so named because of the dark colour of the trunk which is a result of the blue green algae living in the bark of the tree (Webber 2007). Portland Environment Protection Association 6 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:47 PM Page 6
  23. 23. The black mangroves adaptation to living in these anaerobic soils is slightly different from the red mangroves; unlike the red mangroves its root system is primarily to facilitate gaseous exchange rather than anchorage. The black mangrove has horizontal roots which extend from the main trunk, from the horizontal roots that extend vertical pencil shape roots called pneumatophores or breathing roots which often extends far beyond the canopy of the black mangroves. They are generally about 30cm in length which ensures that the roots stick out above ground during the high tide. On the horizontal roots below the surface there are fine root hairs which absorb nutrients from the soils. The black mangroves have leaves that are opposite each other on the stem. The leaves are narrow and elliptical ( Kaplan 1988) The top part of the leaves are shiny green, while the base are a dull or gray-green in colour and have fine leave hairs. The leaves of the black mangroves are coated with salt crystals, which is derived from the excess salt excreted from the plant.The tree often reaches a height of 21m (70ft) (Kaplan 1988).The black mangrove flowers throughout the summer, but the lima bean shaped propagules are produced during the later part of summer. The flowers are 6mm (1/4in) long, 1cm (3/8in) wide and grow in clusters of white stalkless flowers. Plate 1 - Showing Black Mangroves as they appear in the forest. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 7 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:47 PM Page 7
  24. 24. Plate 2 - Showing Black Mangrove roots (pneumatophores) growing out of the soil, Photo 8 showing the seed and flower of the Black Mangrove. WHITE MANGROVES Laguncularia racemosa White mangroves are similar to black mangroves in that they too have a high tolerance to saline soils. They are however found in the interior of the forest above the high tide mark. Like black mangroves, white mangroves produce pneumatophores which are wider and knobby in appearance. Also the pneumatophores of the white mangroves are less dense around the base of the tree than those of the black. In other regions of the world, white mangroves may produce prop roots depending on the specie and the location. White mangroves excrete excess salt through salt glands found on opposite sides at the base of the leaves (petiole). White mangrove leaves are rounded, broadly oval and sometimes have pinkish or reddish stems; the leaves are arranged opposite on the stem and are yellow-green. The bark is gray-brown, rough and fissured on the trunk (Kaplan, 1988). They bore clusters of small whitish flowers and clustered fruits that are gray- green, pear shaped with ridges. The trees may grow to a height of 18m (60ft) tall (Kaplan, 1988). Portland Environment Protection Association 8 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:47 PM Page 8
  25. 25. Plate 4 - Showing flowers of the White Mangroves. Plate 3 - Showing roots of the White Mangroves. BUTTON WOOD - Conocarpus Erectus Unlike the three species mentioned above, Button Wood mangroves have leaves that alternate on the stem, are long and pointed at both ends and generally produce leaves that are brown or green in colour. Plate 5 - Showing salt glands at the base of leaves on the White Mangrove stem. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 9 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:47 PM Page 9
  26. 26. Plate 6 - Ornamental Button woods decorating the driveway at the Errol Flynn Marina. The fruits grow in clusters on the stem, appear spiny and berrylike, about 1.2cm (1/2in) wide (Kaplan 1988). The Button Woodís are shrub like, barely growing to a height of 1.2m (4ft). Button Woods are found further inland where they grow well on rocky shores. The presence of Button Woods are usually an indication of more suitable, better drained soils (Wordsworth, et. Al., 2001). Due to the suitability of the soil in which they grow, Button Woods have normal root systems unlike the other three mangrove species mentioned here. There is also a variant of this specie called ornamental Button Wood, the main difference between this specie and the actual Button Wood mangroves are the small silvery gray leaves. However, like white mangroves, Button Woods have two small nodes (glands) opposite each other at the base of the leaves to facilitate the excretion of excess salts. Portland Environment Protection Association 10 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:47 PM Page 10
  27. 27. Economic Importance of Mangroves It has been repeatedly stated that mangroves are one of the most productive ecosystems on earth; so true is that statement that it cannot be overemphasized. Mangroves indeed support a wide range of biodiversity; they are of ecological significance to the food web from the primary producers to the peak of the pyramid where man is found. Mangroves interface between land and sea and as such, are of economic value to both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Mangroves and the Food Web The rapid shedding of mangrove leaves, particularly the red mangrove leaves, increase the leaf litter within the forest. Bacteria and fungi quickly decompose leaves and increase the protein content from 3% to 21%, providing a rich food source for animals, such as; mangrove crabs, caterpillars and many other insects. Crocodiles feed on the crabs and insects. Caterpillars and other insects attract birds. Fishes also feed on algae in the water and on the prop roots of red mangroves, the food web is more dynamic than this simple example, but from here one can see how they benefit from the rich source of food supply. Mangroves as a Habitat for Marine and Terrestrial Animals From the water to the canopy, mangroves serve as a habitat, nursery and breeding ground for many species of marine animals and birds, including seabirds. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 11 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:47 PM Page 11
  28. 28. Bacteria and fungi live in the mud and helps in the decomposition process; without these organisms we would be stuck deep in the remains of dead animals and plants. In the water above the mud are juvenile fishes, sea squirts and shrimp which feed on algae and on the roots of the mangroves. On the roots are brightly coloured sponges, fan worms, sea anemones, mangrove oysters and barnacles. Herons, egrets and crabs perch on the roots above the water to rest and feed on any animals exposed during low tide. On the trunk are found borrowing insects and birds such as the parrots and woodpeckers which nest in holes in the trunk of mangrove trees. In the canopy of the tress are found many species of shorebirds among other birds. Like the mangroves which grow uniquely in these unproductive anaerobic soils, so distinctive are some of the animals that live among the mangroves. If the mangroves are removed the habitat of these animals are lost; and preservation is always better than restoration. Mangroves Role in Soil Stabilization and Reef Protection Mangroves share a world with corals and sea grass bed ecosystems. The term often used to describe this dynamic association is inter-relationship. There is an association between some mangrove species and the species of animals found among sea-grass beds and coral reefs; in fact, some animals like the parrotfish spend the first part of their lives feeding and sheltering among mangrove roots. Later when they are more mature, they will migrate to the grass beds before going out to the reefs. Mangroves protect corals and other animals by trapping sediments on their way to the sea. Corals would not be able to survive without this added protection by mangroves since corals will only strive well in a pollution free environment where water quality is high and sedimentation is low. Sediments smoulder reef organisms and impede sunlight, preventing it from reaching corals. Corals need sunlight for the zoozanthellae (single celled algae living within corals) to manufacture food for themselves and the corals. Portland Environment Protection Association 12 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:47 PM Page 12
  29. 29. Corals are also filter feeders and increased sedimentation prevents them from extending their tentacles and feeding on planktons within the water column. Additionally, coral recruitment will be reduced as coral zygotes (fertilized reproductive cells) taste the substrate before they inhabit the area and begin to grow, they will not colonise if the substrate is unfavourable (polluted or highly sedimented). Coral spawning only occurs once per year so zygotes have only a few hours to find a suitable place to inhabit; if there are no suitable areas found during that period, recruitment would be suspended for another year. Other Ecological Benefits of Mangroves In addition to the roles described above, “mangroves are vital in coastal stabilization due to their extensive rooting system. They form natural “breakwater” systems by the roots and trunks reducing wave energy and so reduce coastal erosion and protect the coast from flooding” (Webber 2007). Mangroves also act as a buffer zone, protecting the coastline from strong winds during a storm or hurricane. Economic Value of Mangroves Depending on the locality, mangroves are used for varying economic gain. They supply important quantities of wood for carpentry, firewood and charcoal (Porcher, 1993). They function as a nursery habitat for commercial fishes and shrimps, which are beneficial to fishermen. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 13 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:47 PM Page 13
  30. 30. Location and Distribution Unlike the south coast and the great morass, Portland mangroves are not as vast and in some areas are so degraded that restoration might not be possible due to severe human impacts. For this study, four mangrove sites were identified for observation, survey and rehabilitation.They included; West Harbour, Salt Creek,Turtle Crawl and Manchioneal. Of the four, the most significant site with respect to size and perhaps functionality are the mangroves and wetlands of Turtle Crawl, with Manchioneal being the second largest. In each of the four forests observed, Rhizophora dominates over Lagungularia and Avicennia while Laguncularia dominates over Avicennia.As is the case with mangrove forest succession, the dominant red mangroves were at the margin of the forest where they interface between the sea and land, towards the interior of the forest while white mangroves were observed intermingled with Red mangroves. Black mangroves are fewer in these forests and in some cases are completely absent. In Turtle Crawl, three of the four species of mangroves found in Jamaica were identified: that is the Red, Black and White mangroves. No true Button Wood was identified in Portland; however, the Ornamental Button Wood, which is a variant of the Button Wood, was observed at the Errol Flynn Marina in Port Antonio. Socio-Economic Dynamics of Portland The population of Portland now stands at over eighty thousand; 23.4 percent of which lives in urban towns such as Port Antonio and Buff Bay (STATIN 2002). The average household supports 3.5 persons with a large percent being dependent individuals. Mangroves in Portland Portland Environment Protection Association 14 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:47 PM Page 14
  31. 31. Portland is said to have the highest incidence of poverty than any other parish in Jamaica, but the population continues to grow, particularly within the small urban town of Port Antonio. Like the rest of Jamaica, challenges arise when there is an influx of people from rural to urban centres (Tindigarugaya, 2006) and in this case rural town. According to Tindigarugaya, one of the major factors underlying this type of migration is rural poverty. The Jamaica Survey of Living Conditions also states that the majority of the poor live in rural areas and the Policy Development Unit (PDU) of the Planning Institute of Jamaica outlines four possible explanations for this which include; skewed land distribution, unproductive small farm sector, low levels of education and underdeveloped physical and social infrastructure (Tindigarugaya, 2006). Portland as a parish suffers from all the above.The socio-economic issues mentioned are the main factors threatening the already fragile resources with the main problems being illegal scatter settlements and unmanned farming practices. Scattering results from housing shortages, unemployment and low income makes affording homes under existing schemes near impossible and the high cost of renting does not make things easier. Consequently, individuals settle on land left idle for long periods of time and this practice continues due to political influences since the poor in Portland (as in the rest of Jamaica) makes up the grand majority of voters; members of the leading parties are weary of potential unrest and loss of votes, so the conditions are prolonged. Unfortunately, many of the idle lands in the parish is in close proximity to the coast “where happenings occur” and are the wetlands themselves. Perhaps the very reason property owners have not made an attempt to carry out any form of development on the lands. Of the four sites identified for rehabilitation, three are currently housing a cadre of informal settlers. Salt Creek, Turtle Crawl north and south and Manchioneal all have squatters living in sections of the mangroves and while occupying practice of subsistence farming is carried out nearby. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 15 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 15
  32. 32. Salt Creek At first glance, all seems intact at this site but closer inspection reveals the unsightly conditions of the scatters and the vast degradation of the wetland (more details provided in the survey analysis). At the rear of the mangroves, an entire section has been cleared to accommodate incapacitated houses which are supported by logs in preparation for flooding. To deter the frequency of flooding in the area, one of the two streams which flows adjacent to the wetland out to sea has been rechanneled. For the four houses located in the mud flat, only one sanitary convenience was found. In a survey (see Analysis of Water Quality Trend- Report-PEPA 2006) conducted by the Portland Environment Protection Association between 2005-2006, results showed that more than 60 percent of householders living in informal houses had no form of sanitary convenience nor were any areas designated for garbage disposal.The survey was conducted over a three month period and included householders in communities in Port Antonio, Turtle Crawl and Nonsuch. Turtle Crawl Turtle Crawl is the largest of the sites and land ownership is a dynamic issue. The mangrove is divided into north and south and while a section is considered Grown Land, other areas are said to be privately owned, but the land is mostly unoccupied giving rise to scattering and small farming activities. On the northern side, several houses are found on the outer fringe of the forest and in recent times the occupants have reconstructed their dwellings from board to concrete. Bordering the rivers, are piggery units/feedlots which are constructed to facilitate the removal of waste from the units into the rivers. Portland Environment Protection Association 16 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 16
  33. 33. Manchioneal Manchioneal also has two sites situated in a more developed area. The small town is primarily a fishing village, so squattering is mainly carried out by the fishermen and their families. The houses here are more organized and the rivers/streams have been silted to accommodate the squatter communities. Similarly, sanitary conveniences are absent. Here pigs room freely throughout the struggling forest thereby impeding the growth and survival of mangrove seedlings. Threats to Mangroves in Portland From the information provided above, there is a clear indication that the fate of the mangroves in Portland and consequently coral reefs, are determined by two fundamental factors: the level of poverty among individuals and the roles and effectiveness of policy makers. Characteristics and Practices of Squatters Because the land is not owned by the occupants living on them, they avoid any interactions with the law and therefore, construct their houses without the local parish council permission. In which case cannot be provided because squattering in Jamaica is illegal. In most cases they (squatters) do not build permanent structures that might be bulldozed should the rightful owners reclaim their property, but erect Instead temporary lodgings or shacks that may include some form of sanitary convenience regardless of the inadequacies or they may opt for another method of disposal; commonly called “parachuting” or “kiting”. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 17 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 17
  34. 34. This is the practice of depositing faecal waste in plastic bags, which is then slung into the nearest waterway or further into the wetland. In other cases defecation will occur on the bare soil at a convenient location inside the wetland. When a sanitary convenience is constructed it is usually in close proximity to the water source where seepage is facilitated. In addition to human excretory waste, the mangroves are frequently used as a dump by the occupants of the wetlands. Other Uses In addition to deforestation of mangrove areas for housing construction and farming, residents cut mangroves for use as timber and for the production of coal. The young mangroves are also use to make fish pots, whereas on some fishing beaches, such as Manchioneal, it is cleared and burnt for improved land space. Several negative effects occur when people begin to clear the wetland for housing. The first is the size of the wetland is greatly reduced and so is the habitat, it simply means it will accommodate fewer organisms than befor,e including birds. It changes the structure of the wetland and important mangrove flora could be lost, including some species of mangrove. Others may begin to die off as there is a shift in the ecological balance. Additionally any changes in the flow or direction of the river channel could increase salinity resulting in high mortality of mangrove seedlings or dwarf trees. Furthermore an increase in solid waste on the forest floor impedes the growth of seedlings; recruitment is necessary for any living systems to preserve itself. Finally, the increase nutrients may also reduce the chance of mangrove seedling survival or even that of some marine fishes. Fishes, shrimps and crustaceans nursing among mangroves are the same food resources we rely on. Portland Environment Protection Association 18 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 18
  35. 35. Conclusions Mangroves are important natural resources that, like coral reefs, are productive biological systems. They facilitate existing populations of marine organisms inclusive of fishes, they function as a nursery for juveniles marine fishes, in particular game fishes such as parrot, they fix sediments and play a role of natural purification of pollutants that would otherwise make their way to the sea and impede the growth of corals. Additionally, they are a habitat for terrestrial species such as crabs and birds and finally they act as wind breaks in the protection against storms. In Portland, the ecological benefits of mangroves are barely recognized resulting in their improper use. Due to the high incidents of poverty, housing requirements and hardships, coupled with poor social and physical infrastructure and a lack of governmental interventions, mangrove systems are rapidly degrading. The combined practices of the poor makes natural rehabilitation a challenge for mangroves. PEPA under the Mangrove Rehabilitation and Endemic Specie Protection Project Programme conducted the following activities to increase mangrove awareness among residents as well as to aid in the rehabilitation of mangrove habitats in Portland. • Erecting of signage at the four mangrove sites mentioned. • Print brochures on mangroves for distribution as part of the resource materials for students. • Conduct clean-ups with participants from the College of Agriculture Science and Education, high schools and community groups. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 19 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 19
  36. 36. • Host Teacher Training Workshops to improve mangrove awareness in schools. • Involve twelve schools in presentations and field excursions to various wetlands across the island. • Install fencing in Turtle Crawl to protect the family of crocodiles living in the Turtle Crawl wetland. • Conduct surveys to determine the status of mangroves in Portland. • Conduct mangrove replanting at Salt Creek. • Host a forum for the collective mitigation approach to mangrove rehabilitation in Portland. Portland Environment Protection Association 20 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 20
  37. 37. Section Two Analysis of Mangrove Survey Conducted December 2008 - January 2009 Portland Environment Protection Association Contractor: Centre For Marine Sciences, University Of The West Indies, Mona pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 21
  38. 38. Introduction The Portland Environmental Protection Association contracted The Centre for Marine Sciences of The University of the West Indies to conduct an Ecological Assessment of selected Mangrove areas of Portland, namely: Salt Creek, Dolphin Bay (Turtle Crawl) and Manchioneal. This evaluation undertook determination of species composition and forest structure, vegetation profiles, faunal observations and recording of physio-chemical parameters. The data presented from these findings should give an idea of the functions and importance of these particular areas in respect to the expected role of the mangrove forest. An identical evaluation technique was used to survey all the mangrove areas. Portland Environment Protection Association 22 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 22
  39. 39. Methodology Mangrove Transects 1. A one hundred (100) meter transect was laid from the tidal (northern) end of the forest, running in a southern direction to the south of the forest. 2. 2 m x 2 m quadrats were used to assess the area of mangrove forest along the length of the transect. Therefore in total for the entire 100 m of transect, 50 quadrats were examined. 3. A YSI Multi-parameter probe was used to collect: Temperature, Salinity and Dissolved Oxygen at the start of each transect and at any other point that water was found present in the forest. 4. Parameters collected in each 2 m x 2m quadrat along the transect include: a. Tree types and numbers. b. Diameter at breast height (DBH) of largest rooted individual in quadrat. c. Canopy percentage cover and the tree type that makes up the canopy. d. Canopy height. e. Red Mangrove prop root percentage cover. f. Black and White Mangrove pnematophores percentage cover. g. Seedling types and numbers. h. Saplings types and numbers. i. Water depth where possible. 5. Area and perimeters of the areas examined were determined using Google Earth Pro. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 23 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 23
  40. 40. pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 24
  41. 41. Figure5-GoogleEarthImageShowingLocationofSurveyedMangroveForests. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 25 Description of Area pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 25
  42. 42. Figure6-GoogleEarthImageShowingAreaSurveyedatSaltCreek. Portland Environment Protection Association 26 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 26
  43. 43. Figure7-GoogleEarthImageShowingTransectLineatSaltCreek. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 27 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 27
  44. 44. Figure8-GoogleEarthImageShowingSurveyedAreaatDolphinBayNorth. Portland Environment Protection Association 28 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 28
  45. 45. Figure9-GoogleEarthImageShowingTransectSurveyedatDolphinBayNorth. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 29 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 29
  46. 46. Figure10-GoogleEarthImageShowingAreaSurveyatDolphinBaySouth. Portland Environment Protection Association 30 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 30
  47. 47. Figure11-GoogleEarthImageShowingSurveyedTransectatDolphinBaySouth. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 31 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 31
  48. 48. Figure12-GoogleEarthImageShowingSurveyedAreaatManchioneal. Portland Environment Protection Association 32 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 32
  49. 49. Figure13-GoogleEarthImageShowingSurveyedTransectatManchioneal. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 33 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 33
  50. 50. Portland Environment Protection Association 34 • Table Showing Data Collected at Dolphin Bay North • Table Showing Data Collected at Dolphin Bay South • Table Showing Data Collected at Mancioneal • Table Showing Fauna Found at Salt Creek • Table Showing Fauna at Dolphin Bay North • Table Showing Fauna at Dolphin Bay South • Table Showing Fauna at Mancioneal • Table Showing Physical and Chemical Parameters at Salt Creek • Table Showing Physical and Chemical Parameters at Dolphin Bay North • Table Showing Physical and Chemical Parameters at Dolphin Bay South • Table Showing Physical and Chemical Parameters at Manchioneal • Graph Showing Tree Distribution and Density at Salt Creek • Graph Showing Tree Distribution and Density at Dolphin Bay North • Graph Showing Tree Distribution and Density at Dolphin Bay South • Graph Showing Tree Distribution and Density at Manchioneal • Graph Showing Seedling Distribution and Density at Salt Creek • Graph Showing Seedling Distribution and Density at Dolphin Bay North • Graph Showing Seedling Distribution and Density at Dolphin Bay South • Graph Showing Seedling Distribution and Density at Manchioneal • Graph Showing Canopy Height and Water Depth at Salt Creek • Graph Showing Canopy Height and Water Depth at Dolphin Bay North • Graph Showing Canopy Height and Water Depth at Dolphin Bay South • Graph Showing Canopy Height and Water Depth at Manchioneal • Graphs Showing Tree Proportional Distribution at All Areas Surveyed: (a) Salt Creek, (b) Dolphin Bay North, (c) Dolphin Bay South, (d) Manchioneal • Graph Showing Proportion of Adult Mangrove and Seedlings at All Areas Surveyed: (a) Salt Creek, (b) Dolphin Bay North, (c) Dolphin Bay South, (d) Manchioneal • Graph Showing Canopy Cover and Prop Root Cover at Salt Creek • Graph Showing Canopy Cover and Prop root Cover at Dolphin Bay North • Graph Showing Canopy Cover and Prop Root Cover at Dolphin Bay South • Graph Showing Canopy Cover and Prop Root Cover at Manchioneal Results - February 2009 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 34
  51. 51. Portland Environment Protection Association 35 Figure14-TableShowingDataCollectedFromSaltCreek. pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 35
  52. 52. Portland Environment Protection Association 36 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 36
  53. 53. Portland Environment Protection Association 37 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 37
  54. 54. Portland Environment Protection Association 38 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 38
  55. 55. Portland Environment Protection Association 39 Figure15-TableShowingDataCollectedatDolphinBayNorth. pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 39
  56. 56. Portland Environment Protection Association 40 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 40
  57. 57. Portland Environment Protection Association 41 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 41
  58. 58. Portland Environment Protection Association 42 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 42
  59. 59. Portland Environment Protection Association 43 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 43
  60. 60. Portland Environment Protection Association 44 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 44
  61. 61. Portland Environment Protection Association 45 Figure16-TableShowingDataCollectedatDolphinBaySouth. pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 45
  62. 62. Portland Environment Protection Association 46 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 46
  63. 63. Portland Environment Protection Association 47 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 47
  64. 64. Portland Environment Protection Association 48 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 48
  65. 65. Portland Environment Protection Association 49 Figure17-TableShowingDataCollectedatManchioneal. pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 49
  66. 66. Portland Environment Protection Association 50 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:48 PM Page 50
  67. 67. Portland Environment Protection Association 51 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 51
  68. 68. Portland Environment Protection Association 52 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 52
  69. 69. Portland Environment Protection Association 53 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 53
  70. 70. Portland Environment Protection Association 54 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact Figure 18 - Table Showing Fauna Found at Salt Creek. Figure 19 - Table Showing Fauna at Dolphin Bay North. Figure 20 - Table Showing Fauna at Dolphin Bay South. pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 54
  71. 71. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 55 Figure 21 - Table Showing Fauna at Manchioneal. Figure 22 - Table Showing Physical and Chemical Parameters at Salt Creek. Figure 23 - Table Showing Physical and Chemical Parameters at Dolphin Bay North. Figure 24 - Table Showing Physical and Chemical Parameters at Dolphin Bay South. Figure 25 - Table Showing Physical and Chemical Parameters at Manchioneal. pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 55
  72. 72. Figure26-GraphShowingTreeDistributionandDensityatSaltCreek. Portland Environment Protection Association 56 Tree Distribution and Density pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 56
  73. 73. Figure27-GraphShowingTreeDistributionandDensityatDolphinBayNorth. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 57   pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 57
  74. 74. Figure28-GraphShowingTreeDistributionandDensityatDolphinBaySouth. Portland Environment Protection Association 58 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 58
  75. 75. Figure29-GraphShowingTreeDistributionandDensityatManchioneal. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 59 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 59
  76. 76. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 55 Figure 21 - Table Showing Fauna at Manchioneal. Figure 22 - Table Showing Physical and Chemical Parameters at Salt Creek. Figure 23 - Table Showing Physical and Chemical Parameters at Dolphin Bay North. Figure 24 - Table Showing Physical and Chemical Parameters at Dolphin Bay South. Figure 25 - Table Showing Physical and Chemical Parameters at Manchioneal. pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 55
  77. 77. Figure26-GraphShowingTreeDistributionandDensityatSaltCreek. Portland Environment Protection Association 56 Tree Distribution and Density pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 56
  78. 78. Figure27-GraphShowingTreeDistributionandDensityatDolphinBayNorth. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 57   pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 57
  79. 79. Figure28-GraphShowingTreeDistributionandDensityatDolphinBaySouth. Portland Environment Protection Association 58 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 58
  80. 80. Figure29-GraphShowingTreeDistributionandDensityatManchioneal. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 59 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 59
  81. 81. Figure30-GraphShowingSeedlingDistributionandDensityatSaltCreek. Portland Environment Protection Association 60 Seedling Distribution and Density pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 60
  82. 82. Figure31-GraphShowingSeedlingDistributionandDensityatDolphinBayNorth. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 61 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 61
  83. 83. Figure32-GraphShowingSeedlingDistributionandDensityatDolphinBaySouth. Portland Environment Protection Association 62 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 62
  84. 84. Figure33-GraphShowingSeedlingDistributionandDensityatManchioneal. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 63 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 63
  85. 85. Canopy Height and Water Depth   Figure34-GraphShowingCanopyHeightandWaterDepthatSaltCreek. Portland Environment Protection Association 64 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 64
  86. 86. Figure35-GraphShowingCanopyHeightandWaterDepthatDolphinBayNorth. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 65 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 65
  87. 87. Figure36-GraphShowingCanopyHeightandWaterDepthatDolphinBaySouth. Portland Environment Protection Association 66 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 66
  88. 88. Figure37-GraphShowingCanopyHeightandWaterDepthatManchioneal. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 67 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 67
  89. 89. Tree Proportion Comparison Figure38-GraphsShowingTreeProportionalDistributionatAllAreasSurveyed: (a)SaltCreek,(b)DolphinBayNorth,(c)DolphinBaySouth,(d)Manchioneal. ab cd Portland Environment Protection Association 68 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 68
  90. 90. Figure39-GraphShowingProportionofAdultMangroveandSeedlingsatAllAreasSurveyed: (a)SaltCreek,(b)DolphinBayNorth,(c)DolphinBaySouth,(d)Manchioneal. Portland Environment Protection Association 69 Proportion of Adult Trees to Seedlingsab cd pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 69
  91. 91. Canopy Cover and Prop Root Cover Figure39-GraphShowingCanopyCoverandPropRootCoveratSaltCreek. Portland Environment Protection Association 70 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 70
  92. 92. Figure40-GraphShowingCanopyCoverandPropRootCoveratDolphinBayNorth. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 71 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 71
  93. 93. Figure41-GraphShowingCanopyCoverandPropRootCoveratDolphinBaySouth. Portland Environment Protection Association 72 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 72
  94. 94. Figure42-GraphShowingCanopyCoverandPropRootCoveratManchioneal. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 73 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 73
  95. 95. Discussion Salt Creek The Salt Creek wetland system is a disturbed mangrove forest located approximately 1.5 km east of Port Antonio at Latitude 18º 11’2.60”N Longitude 76∞26’2.60”W .The mangrove forest occurs along the edge of a moderate to large sized culvert to the west and a smaller channel (man-made) on the eastern side, separated from the ocean by the Port Antonio main road. The Eastern channel emanates into the mangrove/mud flat area is not continuous to the larger culvert. A high (33 ppt.) salinity was recorded on the coastal end of the system, while a salinity of 14 ppt. was recorded along a drainage channel half way along the transect. This study area shows extreme forest fragmentation, invasion of non-mangrove wetland plants and visible solid waste impact. These attributes may be strongly hinged to the human influence and subsequent disturbance. The southern end of the mangrove forest has been removed (historically) and is presently used as housing and farmland. Inhabitants access the area by traversing the culvert as there is no road access present. It is important to note that high amounts of anthropogenic and natural (tree limbs, foliage) debris are found along the entire area. Portland Environment Protection Association 74 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 74
  96. 96. Despite the high levels of human impact and cleared mud flats, there was the presence of a high number of birds observed on the survey date. Moderate amounts of crabs were observed in the mud and canopy and large amounts of snail shells were observed along the waterways. There is a high level of silty, riverine sediment, occurring especially along the exposed eastern channel and mud flat, making the sediment quite soft and causing moderate sinking upon contact. The influence of the channels flows easily towards the coast resulting in very little detrital / anoxic material (dark-brown/black) settled on the forest floor, therefore the forest floor shows a consistent light brown colour. The visible outflows of fresh water could also be responsible for the small amounts of mangrove seedlings being present in the wetland. Only red mangrove seeds were seen along the sample areas, despite white mangrove trees being observed along the periphery of the sample area. White Mangrove seeds would be very unlikely to successfully germinate and establish in this area due to the constant tidal and riverine influence observed. The forest shows less than 10% mangroves and numerous gaps. There is some evidence that the gaps in the forest were areas of high salinity, showing dwarfed Red Mangrove trees and the presence of new Red Mangrove growth. Red Mangroves occur along the entire length of the sample area, however, the dominance of the mangrove disappears closer to the Eastern channel. The Golden Leather Fern dominates the areas closest to the smaller channel, having a reduction in canopy cover and salinity moving south. This invasive plant is accompanied by numerous wetland runners (mangrove rubber vine, coin vine) and true terrestrial plants (Blue Mahoe, coconut and grasses). The low occurrence of mangrove seedlings and high levels of human impact observed is an indication that if this wetland forest is left in its current ecological state, then the wetland would have little potential of surviving and persisting as a mangrove forest. However, the dominance of the mangrove fern could be limited by the high salinities and high water/tidal levels experienced at the northern end of the forest. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 75 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 75
  97. 97. Dolphin Bay North This mangrove forest found at latitude N 18º 10’ 28.2”, longitude W 76º 25’ 09.9” at the south end of the Dolphin Bay, is the largest mangrove forest on the Portland coastline combined with the Dolphin Bay South area, having an area of 94,604.41 m 2 . This is an estuarine system, fresh water influences provided by three moderately sized (10-20 ft.) culverts and streams crossing the Port Antonio to Drapers main road. The salinity measured on assessment date using a YSI multiprobe was 16 parts per thousand (ppt.), indicating a 50% mixture of fresh and sea water inputs. This wetland is a mixture of wetland and terrestrial plant species and varying soil types from coarse sand, peat and (loam), gently sloping from the coastline showing high amounts of sea-grass (Thallasia and Syringodium), to the wetlandís southern boundary being delimited by the main road. This mangrove forest shows domination by Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) and Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove) and small amounts of Avicennia germinans (black mangrove). A White Mangrove tree attaining a height of 33 ft. was the tallest tree found along transect. The presence of some terrestrial plant species in the interior of the forest was accounted for by patches of coarse sand/loam elevated from the sea level and apparent constant fresh water inputs. Red and White Mangroves proceed past the main road only at the largest culvert at the eastern end of the wetland. This wetland system appears to be a productive parent stand of mangrove forest in the area with high amounts of propagules and seedlings and a relatively shallow and low energy bay and riverine / storm outflows providing out-movement of propagules. Portland Environment Protection Association 76 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 76
  98. 98. This mangrove forest shows great scope for continuity with high recruitment of the two major mangrove species and fresh water inputs. However, there is evidence that the invasion of the Golden Back Fern could threaten the genuine / native mangrove forest area. This invasive swamp plant was observed to take root in areas of White Mangrove breathing roots and dominating the drainage channels adjacent to the main road. Dolphin Bay North mangroves boasts a high amount of endemic and resident avi - fauna (approximately 10 different species observed), small amounts of bivalves encrusting on the roots, large amounts of riverine snails and a range of crabs found in the mud and trees. The area is also reputed to provide habitat for the American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus), evidence for this provided by confirmed sightings (PEPA) and scoured mud areas within the mangrove/swamp interface. However, no crocodiles were observed on the survey date. Dolphin Bay South This study area is located at Latitude 18º 10’22.26”N Longitude 76∞25’8.15”W, south of the Dolphin Bay to Drapers/San San main road. The portion of the mangrove forest is connected to the larger portion of the Dolphin Bay mangrove forest (Dolphin Bay North), collectively having an area of 3,110,000 m 2 . The substrate of this mangrove forest is extremely soft, consisting predominantly of detrital matter, no pebbles or gravel was observed within the sample area.The area appears to have an equal magnitude of riverine and coastal influences, with the edges of the sample area (quadrat 1) being at sea level and approximately 20m from the Bay. Small adjacent streams/drainage channels were also observed in the area. The salinity of the area upon sampling date was 14 ppt. indicating an approximate mix of 40:60 fresh to sea water ratio. These brackish/estuarine conditions are often optimal for mangrove tree growth. The area is consequently a true mangrove forest, showing an overwhelming proportion of Red and White Mangrove to other species, two ferns being found along the transect. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 77 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 77
  99. 99. The forest canopy cover was also observed to be quite uniform, having an average tree height of 12 m and mid to high canopy cover along the transect. There were no significant gaps in the forest, as it transitioned from a Red to White zone around quadrats 30-32. The tree with the highest diameter at breast height was a Red Mangrove found in the Dolphin Bay forest. The mangrove forest at Dolphin Bay South may be characterized as a parent forest, having relatively large amounts of Red and White Mangrove trees and seedlings per unit area. An adult to parent tree comparison shows a 77% seedling presence in the area. This figure is a strong indication that the forest has a very high regeneration capability. This is further supported by the fact that no Mangrove Ferns were observed in any quadrats, being the main invaders of disturbed mangrove forests. The Dolphin Bay mangrove forest showed the highest number of birds on the survey date. The drainage channels on the edge of the forest are also reputed to show regular sightings of the American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus). Manchioneal The mangrove forest in Manchioneal located between Latitude 18º 10’53.61”N and Longitude 76 16’41.82”W and is strongly influenced by a relatively large riverine system. The salinity at the date of the survey was less than 1 ppt. confirming the significant fresh water conditions present at this location. In addition, there were no encrusting organisms on the prop roots at the tidal zone. The absence of oysters on coastal prop roots usually indicates a consistent fresh water input, which is not favourable to marine bivalves’ persistence. Portland Environment Protection Association 78 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 78
  100. 100. This area may be categorized as a disturbed transitional mangrove forest, having significantly more non - mangrove trees and approximately 10% mangrove species (Red and White) occurring along the 50 quadrats. No Black Mangroves were identified in the area. The soil occurring in this area being moderately soft and compact sandy loam substrate with some amount of pebbles, disallowing rapid sinking when stepped on. Substrate of this nature may be attributed to a soil consisting of predominantly hard geologic materials (from rivers and coral reefs) and a lower percentage of detritus matter (leaf litter and faunal organics), which would be more characteristic of an undisturbed mangrove forest. The area has a relatively large population of the invasive Mangrove Fern / Golden Leather Fern (Acrostichum aureum), having more than 100(%) rooted individuals along the transect line. This represents more plants per unit area than all mangrove species combined. The Mangrove Fern shows a high level of invasion in the Manchioneal forest being found in over sixty percent (60%) of quadrats examined. The low salinity occurring in the forest is apparently a limiting factor to mangrove growth and more favorable to the Mangrove Fern and other species such as coconut (Cocos nucifera), Noni (Morinda citrifolia), Dalbergia and Malvaviscus sp. The tallest individual within the sample area was a Red Mangrove, attaining a height of 9 m. Red Mangroves only occurred for just more than half of the 100 m sample area, disappearing at quadrat 32 onwards. Thereafter, the area shows small amounts of White Mangroves and is clearly dominated by the Mangrove Fern. It is noteworthy that this point of transition shows a relatively low canopy cover as compared to the coastal sections of the forest dominated by the Red Mangrove. This reduction in canopy cover is synonymous with the invasion of the Mangrove Fern, occupying these areas with a lower canopy cover and therefore greater light exposure. The regenerative ability of this forest is very low. This is apparent from the extremely low seedling to adult percentage (88% adults), with less than 20 mangrove seedlings found along the entire sample area. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 79 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 79
  101. 101. Conclusions • Portland mangroves are dominated by Red and White Mangroves. • Small amounts of Black Mangroves occur in Dolphin Bay only. • The highest biodiversity of Avi-fauna was found in the largest mangrove forest (Dolphin Bay). • The Golden Leather Fern is a major invader of disturbed mangrove forests in Portland. • Low canopy cover/ forest disturbance is a stimulus for Mangrove Fern invasion. • The Mangrove Rubber Vine (Rhabdadenia biflora) is common in disturbed mangrove forests in Portland. • The Dolphin Bay mangrove forest is a parent forest which has the highest regeneration capability and seedling production/germination success. Portland Environment Protection Association 80 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 80
  102. 102. Glossary Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 81 Absorption: The uptake of water , other fluids, or dissolved chemicals by a cell or an organism (as tree roots absorb dissolved nutrients in soil.) Aerobic: Life or processes that require, or are not destroyed by, the presence of oxygen. (See: anaerobic.) Agricultural Pollution: Farming wastes, including runoff and leaching of pesticides and fertilizers; erosion and dust from plowing; improper disposal of animal manure and carcasses; crop residues, and debris. Algae: Simple rootless plants that grow in sunlit waters in proportion to the amount of available nutrients. They can affect water quality adversely by lowering the dissolved oxygen in the water. They are food for fish and small aquatic animals. Alluvial: Relating to and/or sand deposited by flowing water. Anthropogenic: Involving the impact of man or nature; induced or altered by the presence and activities of man Bacteria: (Singular: bacterium) Microscopic living organisms that can aid in pollution control by metabolizing organic matter in sewage, oil spills or other pollutants. However, bacteria in soil, water or air can also cause human, animal and plant health problems. pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 81
  103. 103. Biodiversity: Refers to the variety and variability among living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they occur. Diversity can be defined as the number of different items and their relative frequencies. For biological diversity, these items are organized at many levels, ranging from complete ecosystems to the biochemical structures that are the molecular basis of heredity. Thus, the term encompasses different ecosystems, species, and genes. Biotic Community: A naturally occurring assemblage of plants and animals that live in the same environment and are mutually sustaining and interdependent. (See: biome). Blackwater: Water that contains animal, human, or food waste. Brackish: Mixed fresh and salt water. breaking down organic matter. Carrying Capacity: (1) In recreation management, the amount of use a recreation area can sustain without loss of quality. (2) In wildlife management, the maximum number of animals an area can support during a given period. Catalyst: A substance that changes the speed or yield of a chemical reaction without being consumed or chemically changed by the chemical reaction. Characteristic: Any one of the four categories used in defining hazardous waste: ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity. Cleanup: Actions taken to deal with a release or threat of release of a hazardous substance that could affect humans and/or the environment. The term “cleanup” is sometimes used interchangeably with the terms remedial action, removal action, response action, or corrective action. Portland Environment Protection Association 82 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 82
  104. 104. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 83 Coastal Zone: Lands and waters adjacent to the coast that exert an influence on the uses of the sea and its ecology, or whose uses and ecology are affected by the sea. Community: In ecology, an assemblage of populations of different species within a specified location in space and time. Sometimes, a particular subgrouping may be specified, such as the fish community in a lake or the soil arthropod community in a forest. Concentration: The relative amount of a substance mixed with another substance. An example is five ppm of carbon monoxide in air or 1 mg/l of iron in water. Conservation: Preserving and renewing, when possible, human and natural resources. The use, protection, and improvement of natural resources according to principles that will ensure their highest economic or social benefits. Contaminant: Any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter that has an adverse effect on air, water, or soil. Contamination: Introduction into water, air, and soil of microorganisms, chemicals, toxic substances, wastes, or wastewater in a concentration that makes the medium unfit for its next intended use.Also applies to surfaces of objects, buildings, and various household and agricultural use products. pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 83
  105. 105. Decomposition: The breakdown of matter by bacteria and fungi, changing the chemical makeup and physical appearance of materials. Degradation: Generally refers to the destruction or decomposition of material through the corrosive effects of chemicals, oxidation, heat, ultraviolet exposure, abrasion, etc. Discharge: Flow of surface water in a stream or canal or the outflow of ground water from a flowing artesian well, ditch, or spring. Can also apply to discharge of liquid effluent from a facility or to chemical emissions into the air through designated venting mechanisms. Disposables: Consumer products, other items, and packaging used once or a few times and discarded. Disposal: Final placement or destruction of toxic, radioactive, or other wastes; surplus or banned pesticides or other chemicals; polluted soils; and drums containing hazardous materials from removal actions or accidental releases. Disposal may be accomplished through use of approved secure landfills, surface impoundments, land farming, deep-well injection, ocean dumping, or incineration. Drainage: Improving the productivity of agricultural land by removing excess water from the soil by such means as ditches or subsurface drainage tiles. Dump: A site used to dispose of solid waste without environmental controls. Ecological/Environmental Sustainability: Maintenance of ecosystem components and functions for future generations. Portland Environment Protection Association 84 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:52 PM Page 84
  106. 106. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 85 Ecological Impact: The effect that a man-caused or natural activity has on living organisms and their non- living (abiotic) environment. Ecology: The relationship of living things to one another and their environment, or the study of such relationships. Ecosystem: The interacting system of a biological community and its non-living environmental surroundings. Ecosystem Structure: Attributes related to the instantaneous physical state of an ecosystem; examples include species population density, species richness or evenness, and standing crop biomass. Endangered Species: Animals, birds, fish, plants, or other living organisms threatened with extinction by anthropogenic (man-caused) or other natural changes in their environment. Requirements for declaring a species endangered are contained in the Endangered Species Act. Environment: The sum of all external conditions affecting the life, development and survival of an organism. Environmental Indicator: A measurement, statistic or value that provides a proximate gauge or evidence of the effects of environmental management programs or of the state or condition of the environment. pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:53 PM Page 85
  107. 107. Environmental Sustainability: Long-term maintenance of ecosystem components and functions for future generations. Erosion: The wearing away of land surface by wind or water, intensified by land-clearing practices related to farming, residential or industrial development, road building, or logging. Estuary: Region of interaction between rivers and near-shore ocean waters, where tidal action and river flow mix fresh and salt water. Such areas include bays, mouths of rivers, salt marshes, and lagoons. These brackish water ecosystems shelter and feed marine life, birds, and wildlife. Exotic Species: A species that is not indigenous to a region. Fecal Coliform Bacteria: Bacteria found in the intestinal tracts of mammals. Their presence in water or sludge is an indicator of pollution and possible contamination by pathogens. Feedlot: A confined area for the controlled feeding of animals. Tends to concentrate large amounts of animal waste that cannot be absorbed by the soil and, hence, may be carried to nearby streams or lakes by rainfall runoff. Food Chain: A sequence of organisms, each of which uses the next, lower member of the sequence as a food source. Food Web: The feeding relationships by which energy and nutrients are transferred from one species to another Fresh Water: Water that generally contains less than 1,000 milligrams-per-liter of dissolved solids. Portland Environment Protection Association 86 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:53 PM Page 86
  108. 108. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 87 Commercial/Game Fish: Species like trout, salmon, or bass, caught for sport. Many of them show more sensitivity to environmental change than “rough” fish. Garbage: Animal and vegetable waste resulting from the handling, storage, sale, preparation, cooking, and serving of foods Habitat: The place where a population (e.g. human, animal, plant, micro-organism) lives and its surroundings, both living and non-living. Household Waste (Domestic Waste): Solid waste, composed of garbage and rubbish, which normally originates in a private home or apartment house. Domestic waste may contain a significant amount of toxic or hazardous waste. Hydrology: The science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water. Indicator: In biology, any biological entity or processes, or community whose characteristics show the presence of specific environmental conditions. (2) In chemistry, a substance that shows a visible change, usually of color, at a desired point in a chemical reaction. (3) A device that indicates the result of a measurement; e.g. a pressure gauge or a moveable scale. pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:53 PM Page 87
  109. 109. Landscape: The traits, patterns, and structure of a specific geographic area, including its biological composition, its physical environment, and its anthropogenic or social patterns. An area where interacting ecosystems are grouped and repeated in similar form. Leaching/seepage: The process by which soluble constituents are dissolved and filtered through the soil by a percolating fluid. (See: leachate). Marsh: A type of wetland that does not accumulate appreciable peat deposits and is dominated by herbaceous vegetation. Marshes may be either fresh or saltwater, tidal or non-tidal. (See: wetlands). Mangroves: (1) A member of a number of genera and species of low trees and shrubs which grow and spread quickly on tidal mud in tropical areas so that their dense root systems are covered by salt or brackish water at each tide and effectively bind the mud. The roots under the mud have air supplies by aerial roots which rise above the surface. (2) A plant community dominated by such trees and shrubs. Mangrove Swamp: the association of low trees and shrubs covered by the collective term MANGROVE, growing with members of families in tidal mud in DELTAS, ESTUARIES and along the coasts in TROPICAL regions. Nutrient: Any substance assimilated by living things that promotes growth. The term is generally applied to nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater, but is also applied to other essential and trace elements. Nutrient Pollution: Contamination of water resources by excessive inputs of nutrients. In surface waters, excess algal production is a major concern. Portland Environment Protection Association 88 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:53 PM Page 88
  110. 110. Organism: Any form of animal or plant life. Outfall: The place where effluent is discharged into receiving waters. pH: An expression of the intensity of the basic or acid condition of a liquid; may range from 0 to 14, where 0 is the most acid and 7 is neutral. Photosynthesis: The manufacture by plants of carbohydrates and oxygen from carbon dioxide mediated by chlorophyll in the presence of sunlight. Plankton: Tiny plants and animals that live in water. Pollutant: Generally, any substance introduced into the environment that adversely affects the usefulness of a resource or the health of humans, animals, or ecosystems. Pollution: Generally, the presence of a substance in the environment that because of its chemical composition or quantity prevents the functioning of natural processes and produces undesirable environmental and health effects. Under the Clean Water Act, for example, the term has been defined as the man-made or man-induced alteration of the physical, biological, chemical, and radiological integrity of water and other media. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 89 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:53 PM Page 89
  111. 111. Population: A group of interbreeding organisms occupying a particular space; the number of humans or other living creatures in a designated area. Release: Any spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, discharging, injecting, escaping, leaching, dumping, or disposing into the environment of a hazardous or toxic chemical or extremely hazardous substance. Risk: A measure of the probability that damage to life, health, property, and/or the environment will occur as a result of a given hazard. River Basin: The land area drained by a river and its tributaries. Salinity: The percentage of salt in water. Sanitation: Control of physical factors in the human environment that could harm development, health, or survival. Sanitary Convenience: Water closet or urinal that facilitates the excretion and containment of human waste. Sediment: Topsoil, sand, and minerals washed from the land into water, usually after rain or snow melt. Sedimentation: Letting solids settle out of wastewater by gravity during treatment. Sediments: Soil, sand, and minerals washed from land into water, usually after rain. They pile up in reservoirs, rivers and harbors, destroying fish and wildlife habitat, and clouding the water so that sunlight cannot reach aquatic plants. Careless farming, mining, and building activities will expose sediment materials, allowing them to wash off the land after rainfall. Portland Environment Protection Association 90 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:53 PM Page 90
  112. 112. Silt: Sedimentary materials composed of fine or intermediate-sized mineral particles Solid Waste: Non-liquid, non-soluble materials ranging from municipal garbage to industrial wastes that contain complex and sometimes hazardous substances. Solid wastes also include sewage sludge, agricultural refuse, demolition wastes, and mining residues. Technically, solid waste also refers to liquids and gases in containers. Solid Waste Disposal: The final placement of refuse that is not salvaged or recycled. Species: (1) A reproductively isolated aggregate of interbreeding organisms having common attributes and usually designated by a common name. (2) An organism belonging to belonging to such a category Stabilization: Conversion of the active organic matter in sludge into inert, harmless material. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation: Vegetation that lives at or below the water surface; an important habitat for young fish and other aquatic organisms. Swamp: A type of wetland dominated by woody vegetation but without appreciable peat deposits. Swamps may be fresh or salt water and tidal or non-tidal. Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 91 pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:57 PM Page 91
  113. 113. Tidal Marsh: Low, flat marshlands traversed by channels and tidal hollows, subject to tidal inundation; normally, the only vegetation present is salt-tolerant bushes and grasses. (See: wetlands). Waste: (1) Unwanted materials left over from a manufacturing process. (2) Refuse from places of human or animal habitation. Watershed: The land area that drains into a stream; the watershed for a major river may. Watershed Area: A topographic area within a line drawn connecting the highest points uphill of a drinking waterintake into which overland flow drains. Wetlands: An area that is saturated by surface or ground water with vegetation adapted for life under those soil conditions, as swamps, bogs, fens, marshes, and estuaries. Portland Environment Protection Association 92 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:57 PM Page 92
  114. 114. Appendix - Flora Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 93 Scientific Name Commom Name Rhizophora mangle Red Mangrove Acroshchum aureum Mangrove Leather Fern/Mangrove Fern Rhabadenia biflora Mangrove Rubber Vine Dalbergia ecastaphyllum Coinvine Vigna luteola Hairypod cowpea Arundo Giant Reed, Spanish Cane Panicrum Piscidia piscipula Jamaica Dogwood Waltheria Sleepy morning Laguncularia racemosa White mangrove Avicennia germinans Black Mangrove Morinda citrifolia Noni Thespesia sp. Mahoe rose Hibiscus elatus Blue Mahoe Prunus dulcis Almond Chrysopogon zizanioides Vetiver grass Cocos nucifera Coconut Dalbergia brownie Brown’s Indian rosewood Fimbristylis complanta Slender Fimbristylis, Low Fimbristylis pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:57 PM Page 93
  115. 115. Appendix - Fauna Portland Environment Protection Association 94 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact Scientific Name Commom Name Goniopsis Mangrove Root Crab Balanus Barnacle Anolis Green Lizard Aratus pisonii Mangrove Tree Crab Uca Fiddler Crab Butorides virescens Green Heron Nesopsar nigerrimus Cling Cling Columba leucocephala Baldplate (White Crowned Pigeon) Nycticorax violaceus Yellow Crowned Night Heron Dendroica phatra Ants Picker (Arrow Headed Warbler) Terrestrial Crab Trochilus polytmus Red Billed Streamer Tail Hummingbird Ardea herodias Great Blue Heron Setophaga ruticilla American Redstart Coereba flaveola Bananaquit Icterus leucopteryx Jamaican Oriole Unidentified Snail Callinectes sapidus Blue Crab Termites Long Jaw Fish Spiders Egretta thula Snowy Egret pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:57 PM Page 94
  116. 116. Bird Pictures All information was taken from: Birds Of Jamaica and the West Indies - G. Michael Flieg and Allan Sander Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 95 The male Greater Antillean Grackle has a long tail held in a V-section, and its black plumage reflects bluish. Both sexes have a yellow eye, but the female is smaller and duller than the male. It is endemic and common in the lowlands of the Greater Antilles and Cayman Islands, though the Cayman Brac population is extinct. In Hispaniola it occurs in the highlands. A common species of urban areas, as well as farmland. Feeds principally on insects, but also on food scraps, which boldly taken from human habitations. Greater Antillean Grackle - Quiscalus niger (25-30 cm) The White-crowned Pegeon is a common permanent resident of the West Indies. It moves freely among the islands where it prefers wooded areas at lower elevations. A very distinctive bird in flight, as the conspicuous white crown contrasts with the dark grey body, though in young birds and females the crown is rather greyer or browner. The hindneck is iridescent, but this is difficult to see in any but good light. Arboreal, it nests in mangroves, feeds on fruit and flowers, and on some islands it undergoes altitudinal migration. White-crowned Pigeon - Columbia leucocephala (29-40 cm) pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:57 PM Page 95
  117. 117. One of the most abundant species of the West Indies, rare only on Cuba. Its plumage varies from island to island, being entirely black in St. Vincent and Grenada. A white supercilium is the diagnostic feature in most plumages, but look also for yellow on the under-parts, a white wing-patch and sharp, downcurved bill. Frequents all habitats from lowlands to mountains. It punctures the bases of flowers to obtain nectar, and also feeds on fruit and insects. Acrobatic, sociable and noisy. Common in urban areas. Bananaquit - Coereba flaveola (10-12 cm) The Arrow-headed Warbler is endemic to Jamaica. The head and back are white, finely streaked with black, and this pattern is alos continuous over the face, breast and remaining underparts. The undertail-coverts are buffy; also streaked with black. The eye is brown surrounded by a white eye-ring, and there are two white wing-bars. Constantly flicks its tail downward. Feeds at all levels of humid forest, where it gleans insects from leaves. Not found in the dry lowlands or on cultivated land. Similar to Black and White Warbler, but doesn’t flick its tail. Arrow-headed Warbler - Dendroica phaetra (13 cm) Bahamas race (above) • St. Lucian race (above right) • Grenadian race (right) Portland Environment Protection Association 96 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:58 PM Page 96
  118. 118. Generally a fairly common winter visitor to the West Indies. There are also recent nesting records from Cuba. The male has black upper-parts, with orange patches at the base of the flight and tail feathers; the female is greenish-grey, with the orange replaced by yellow. A very active warbler that constantly displays its colours by fanning tail and flicking wings. In the West Indies it frequents mangroves and lowland forest. Feeds on insects, berries and seeds, usually on the forest floor or mid-level, but sometimes snatches insects from the air. Very curious, and responsive to pishing. American Redstart - Setophaga ruticilla (13 cm) A beautiful species which can well be described as ‘dainty’. Its breeding plumage is bright white and very conspicious. Legs are black, feet bright yellow. The bill is black and appears pencil thin, tapering to a fine point. Snowy Egret is common in the West Indies, but patchily so in the Lesser Antilles. An active feeder. Though sometimes confused with the immature Little Blue Heron, that species is a deliberate feeder, and has greenish legs and a thicker bill; immature Little Blue Herons have no head plumes. Snowy Egret - Egretta thula (51-71 cm) Portland Environment Protection Association Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact 97 Male (top) • Female (bottom) pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:58 PM Page 97
  119. 119. The Yellow-crowned Night Heron is a medium-sized but rather chuncky grey heron. The adult is dark grey with black and yellowish-white head markings. The immature resembles the young black-crcowned Night heron but is light grey with finer specks. In flight the legs of this species extend well beyond the tail. Solitary and nocturnal, it feeds on hard-shelled invertebrates for the most part. Feeds and breeds in a variety of habitats, though preferring saltwater areas. Yellow-crowned Night Heron - Nyctanassa violacea (56-71 cm) The most common bird in Jamaica, ranging from arid lowlands to the mountains, and the most spectacular hummingbird of the West Indies. The male has a red, black-tipped bill, and long tail-streamers, which due to their shape produce a hum in flight. When perched these streamers are usually crossed. The body is iridescent green, the wings brown and the tail black; a black crown and ear-tufts are evident. The female is green above and white below, with no streamers. feeds o nectar and small insects. Endemic to Jamaica, being absent only from the extreme east, where it overlaps with Black-billed Streamertail. Red-billed Streamertail - Trochilus polytmus (22-25 cm) Male (above) Female (inset) Portland Environment Protection Association 98 Portland Mangrove Ecology: Status and Anthropogenic Impact pepa_report_back.qxd 7/29/09 4:58 PM Page 98

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