Running head: THE HUMAN MEMORY 1 The Human Memory Tracey Percifield American Intercontinental University
Running head: THE HUMAN MEMORY 2 Abstract Unit 4 IPThe human mind is a fascinating instrument that is very complex and even though we know quitea lot about it we still do not know everything. The human memory has three phases of memoryinterpretation; Sensory Memory, Short-Term Memory and Long-Term Memory. Knowing howeach of these memories store information is comparison to c computer. The average adult knowsanywhere between 50,000 to 100, 00 words. The brain is incredible in protecting itself wheninjuries occur at times.
Running head: THE HUMAN MEMORY 3 The Human MemoryThe Father of Psychology begins with Sigmund Freud and his analysis of Psychoanalysis and thetheories he introduced. Freud had many theories that caused controversy throughout his careerbut in today’s society they are accepted and his findings were true then as they are now withoutthe controversy. In the unconscious mind we absorb many things from learning to traumaticevents and information is stored, processed and in some ways affect our lives if we don’t resolvethe issues at hand then we carry them with us and they still may affect us as we grow older (IEP,2010). In 1968 two other Psychologist Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin develop a model of thehuman mind with the understanding how memory storage is taken in and processed and recalledfor later usage. The model is referred to Atkinson-Shiffrin model and is explained as three phasesof sensory, short-term and long-term memories and how some of that information is taken in andprocessed to be recognized as long-term memory (Human-Memory, n.d.). In Sensory Memory is the shortest of intake of memory we have and acts like a bufferbetween our five senses of seeing, hearing, smell, taste and touch. It is the process of looking atsomething and trying to recall exactly what prompt the stimuli that we just experienced. InSensory Memory we either use the information by perception or is retained automatically and itenters our brain or we ignore it unconsciously and it last for a very short time between 200-500milliseconds and it is then gone. Visual stimuli are often referred iconic memory, aural stimuliare known as echoic memory and touch is known as the haptic memory. These are importantbecause they are related to Sensory Memory and smell is more linked to memory than the othersenses are due to the fact that smell is located between the olfactory bulb and the olfactory cortexand because of their location to smell they are closely linked to the hippocampus and the
Running head: THE HUMAN MEMORY 4amygdala which is part of our memory process. Certain smells can be immediately recalled andprocessed and also can be a trigger, example of this is the smell of skunk it has an unusual smellthat you do not forget and as a trigger can give some individuals a instant migraine headache(Human Memory, n.d.). The sensory memory is the key to creating memories for our short-term memory by usingperception and knowing that it is an important thing that we do not ignore so we form a memoryof it. Short-Term Memory is our note pad of information that we take in to be recalled at certaintimes. When we take in information for our short-term up to seven items at once, sometimes lessand we keep this information anywhere from 10 to 1 minute. An example of our short-termmemory is to remember something to ant mathematical equation, to remember something to givean answer to someone that has made a statement to us. The Central Executive is part of thePrefrontal Cortex and plays a role in short-term memory by two ways, the first way it serves as astorage unit where information is kept currant and can be brought up and the main tworeasoning’s behind this the Central Executive controls two neural loops which one is for visualdata located at visual cortex of the brain and the other being language known as phonologicalloop and uses the Broca’s Area of the brain that repeats word sounds. This formulates the notepad of note taking for our short-term memory (Human Memory, n.d.).Information that we need and need to learn whether it is language, career operations or anythingthat is a repetitive action that we must recall, or even memories as we grow from a child into oldage stays with us for life. Long-Term Memory is information that is stored indefinitely and canbe recalled at any time. We do not forget our long-term memory that is the last thing to go whenwe grow old but we lose sensory and short-term memory that is why elderly people can
Running head: THE HUMAN MEMORY 5remember the events of their life and what they did and have all these amazing and fascinatingstories that they recall and sometimes relive that portion or events. Short-term memories can become long term memories by the way of consolidation whichinvolves rehearsals and meaning association. By this definition we have an understanding that itis by remembering a certain thing or multiple things such as an example of learning a newlanguage that it becomes repetition and it becomes a long-term memory. Long-term memoriesare formed by many structured neurons that create strong road like paths that are strengthening,neurologist do not know enough of how it exactly works but within the frontal, prefrontal andparietal lobes are the strongest lobes and hold more information and are more stable verses otherlobes of the brain (Human Memory, n.d.).A diagram of the Human Mind follows this pattern: The explicit memory or also known as (Declarative Memory) is basically our conscious mindthat involves facts and information that we are aware of while our implicit mind or otherwise
Running head: THE HUMAN MEMORY 6known as (Procedural Memory) is our unconscious mind that is where we do things naturallylike breathing we don’t have to think about it we naturally just do it. While the Episodic memoryis part of the long-term memory that is specifically for events, facts, lifelong happenings a part ofthe conscious mind that we are aware of and the Semantic memory even though part of the long-term memory can be categorized by sensory memory but more commonly is the unconsciousmind that is structured in facts more about our surroundings or worldly events, concepts andmeanings (Human Memory, n.d.).
Running head: THE HUMAN MEMORY 7 REFERENCESHuman Memory.(n.d.).Types of memory - the human memory [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://www.human -memory.net/types.htmlIEP.(n.d.).Frued, sigmund [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/freud/