Intl502.cyberspace, cyber warfare

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Intl502.cyberspace, cyber warfare

  1. 1. WK 5: SPACE AND CYBERSPACE COLLECTIONTracey PercifieldINTL502 B004 Sum 1208/01/2012 Space and CyberspaceThe Soviet Union and the United States were in the race to put the first satellites into orbit, makethe first rockets that could enter into outer space and put the first man on the moon. At the end ofthe War World II a German Rocket Scientist named Wernher von Braun and his group ofresearchers surrendered to the United States and claimed asylum and became citizens (NASA,2007). A Jet Propulsion Laboratory opened in Pasadena, California where they begin to work.They created the first Space Craft, “Bumper WAC” which launched on 24 February 1949 andreached an altitude of two hundred forty-four feet before crashing back to earth. On 4 October1957, the Soviet’s successfully launched a satellite called Sputnik I into space that orbited earthand on 3 November 1957 the Soviet’s launch Sputnik II, (a larger scale of Sputnik I) in whichthey loaded onto the satellite craft the first passenger of space; Laika, a dog that was successfullyorbit the earth (NASA, 2007).Explorer I was successfully launched on 31 January 1958 and usedbatteries which ended its life on 23 May 1958 and floated around until it started to fall back toearth. On 31 March 1970 re-entered earth and burned up into the atmosphere. The United StatesNavy was successful on 17 March 1958 in launching Vanguard I into space and still remains theoldest man-made object in space history today (NASA, 2007).Satellite, by all definitions is anything that is in space and orbits, so therefore, anything orbitingaround a stationary planet is considered a satellite. In aerospace and space exploration a satelliteis a mad-made object that is put up into space to orbit any celestial body. Satellites break downinto categories for the information gathering and provide detail imaging and signal relays. Thebiggest satellite that everyone uses, civilian and military are the NAVSTAR GPS Satellite. Thissatellite is capable of multi-tasking (US Naval Observation, 2012). It sends and relays signalswith data capabilities of either Standard Positioning Service (SPS) or Precise Positioning Service(PPS), the unique thing about this satellite, is that it was created by the Department of Defenseand is a military satellite; however, civilians use this satellite more than military does. Thedifference between SPS and PPS is the codes, the codes are distinguished from military orgovernment use verses general codes or SPS that everyone else in the world uses (US NavalObservation, 2012).Cyberspace, or the new frontier to terrorist and the circuit of crime, the criminal’s choice ofweapon. Every day millions of individuals all over the world send and receive all different typesof information. In this information individuals do not realize what they are sending contains insome forms their identity, their personal information and if they understood how sensitive of anarea, maybe they wouldn’t play the internet games. Games can be a hosting site for sucking upyour information, it is a place that is manipulative if you know the language and 1
  2. 2. WK 5: SPACE AND CYBERSPACE COLLECTIONknowprogrammable software and how it all relates to cyberspace or the internet than you canmanipulate other software and write programmable viruses or worms. Viruses, Worms andTrojan Horses are all different and many people do not understand the difference, let alone whatthey actually do and are capable of. Viruses are spread through executable files or programs andattach themselves until you give the human action of opening the attached virus and running it,most do this and have no idea they have just infected their computer in some way and havepassed it onto other computers waiting and sitting there for you to open the email, or click on alink (Symantec, 2009). A Worm is much like a virus, except with one exception; it doesn’t needyou to transport it. A Worm can transport itself through programs and replicates itself, forinstance, it can attach and send out emails through your whole and complete email address bookand once it does this it spreads itself and replicates itself more through an entire network till itreaches servers causing many problems (Symantec, 2009). Finally, Trojan Horsesdo notreproduce and spread, however, they mimic a program and as the old mythical Trojan Horse,they make you believe they are friendly and authentic, however, they are not. Instead, once openthey can destroy some of your information or put icons or send out your personal informationback to a host or for criminals to gain access to it. There is a blended blend of Viruses andWorms which are high tech and create a hole in defense systems and many other systems(Symantec, 2009).Understanding the boundaries of the wide world global technology of Cyberspace, understandingthe three most horrible viruses will give you an understanding of Cyber Warfare and the nextgeneration of Cyber Weaponry.The International Telecommunication Union is part of the United Nations and located in Geneva,Switzerland and is responsible for all communication and information technologies and serves asa buffer between member state countries which consists of one hundred ninety three countrymember states. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) shares ideas in knowledgeand technology in fields of; aeronautical and maritime navigation, radio astronomy, satellite-based meteorology,broadband Internet, latest-generation wireless technologies, convergence infixed-mobile phone, internet access, data, voice, TV broadcasting, next-generation networks andprobably the most important is, terrorism that results from Cyberspace in regards to viruses,worms, and breaches in security. ITU also helps member states understand the process of CyberTerrorism, Cyber Espionage and Cyber Crime in the Virtual World of Cyberspace. The diagrambelow shows the course of Cyber Terrorism and how it works and how it is transmitted: 2
  3. 3. WK 5: SPACE AND CYBERSPACE COLLECTION(Gercke, 2011). Understanding how Cyber Terrorism and Cyber Crime occurs helps tounderstand the viruses and worms that look for loop holes within programs or weaknesses andinfiltrate through firewalls and other helper programs and/or software and attaches itself to themain program. When these viruses and/or worms attach itself it can do several damaging things.If you look by incident reporting and we take the three viruses; Stuxnet, Duqu and Flame and weexamine by incidents and the effects they had on breaches with securities and infiltratingprogrammable systems we can determine the impact they have had and the issues and problemsthat they have caused (Gercke, 2011).Stuxnet was discovered in June of 2010 and attacks theMicrosoft Windows program and targeted Siemens Industrial software programs. It was one ofthe first Malware that specifically spies and subverts industrial systems and also, included aprogrammable logic controller or what is known as a “rootkit”, meaning that this sophisticatedworm mimics the program and seeks out to copy information going virtually undetected fromadministrators. The next worm to be discovered was Duqu discovered on 1 September 2011 andwas believed to be written or designed by the same author/or authors that created Stuxnet and isclosely related to its function, however, the difference lies in, when it spies and steals theinformation it is used in future attacks not present functions and Duqu has unknown capabilitiesand unknown use and is still being investigated (Symantec, 2011). The next incident occurs withthe Flame Virus, discovered on May 2012, it is the most highly sophisticated and stealth modeinvader which attacked Iran and other Middle East countries defense programs. This is thebiggest breach in all security at this given time, unlike the two worms, Stuxnet and Duqu, thisvirus was almost not discovered and is referred to as Cyber Weapon and is classified asterrorism. It has been thought to been in existence and out in the field working for at least twoyears if not more. This virus has the capability and steals information of data files, conversations,key code passes, visual data and plans, stored files, addresses, contact information and muchmore. The capabilities that “Flame” demonstrates pose threats now and as they do of futurethreats. Since, it is not known how much information it has stolen and where and to whom it has 3
  4. 4. WK 5: SPACE AND CYBERSPACE COLLECTIONgone to, leaves extreme concerns of how this information will be used and what it will be usedfor. The question is asked, should you be concerned and afraid of this virus? The answer is yes,if it infiltrates more government bases then governments will lose classified information, if itinfiltrates corporations they will risk losing intellectual property and finally, in the private sector,individuals information will be stolen and used and play a part in the Cyber-Espionage (ITU,2012). As technology advances we rely on electronic applications and programs to run our needsof transferring information by internet or the virtual word through Cyberspace, we rely on it torun interlinking systems that support our global government data bases, interlinks that supportservers and information through the International Telecommunication Union in a wide andvarious technologies, and we rely on it to support our countries energy, water, and our dailylives. We rely on this capability to sustain life that provides our basic and advanced functionneeds. The question is then asked, what happens when our intelligence information has beencompromised, breached and our National Defense is weakened and how do we fight back andcounteract this terrorism and espionage? The answer is a complex one involving laws to redefinecomputer and information terrorism and espionage via each country and then redefining law ortreaties to establish upholding for punishment globally. As of now, not all countries recognize orsee it as terrorism and/or espionage for Cyber Crime and do not support it, however, some ofthese countries systems and defense data bases have been the ones that have been affected by thethree viruses and it’s only at that time do they have a concern and then blame goes out. This iswhy ITU a subdivision of the UN, has raised the concern that measures must now be takenandput into place to counteract this issue so that it is recognized by everyone to ensureIntelligence Information will be safe. In addition to this countries and governments must useprograms that ensure the safety of information and allows administrators the right to monitorwithin the program itself. More programs and/or software should have built in security instead ofrelying on security programs and/or software to just do the job of protecting the information. Allorganizations that hold treaties with each other that form any kind of reliance must have anunderstanding of itself and other country states to defeat this war of Cyberspace. If this doesn’thappen then the future holds many problems and will create more issues which will result in thenext World War but on a new frontier in the virtual world, Cyberspace and the War onIntelligence Information (Kamal, 2005).Satellites and Cyberspace play a huge role in our future, as technology advances, so do we.Whatever someone makes someone out there is finding a way to counterattack it. It is our jobs,our mission to understand from many fields and to grow upon the technology that develops. It isimportant that we consider options such as the DI2E and other possibilities, our future willdepend on this.Gercke, M., . International Telecommunication Union. United Nations. UNDERSTANDINGCYBERCRIME:A GUIDE FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. Geneva, Switzerland: UnitedNations, 2011. Web. <http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/cyb/cybersecurity/docs/ITU_Guide_A5_14092011_rev.pdf>. 4
  5. 5. WK 5: SPACE AND CYBERSPACE COLLECTIONKamal, Ahmad. The Law of Cyber-Space an Invotation to the Table of Negotiations. 1. 1.Geneva 10, Switerland: United Nations Institute for Training and Research, 2005. 1-269.<http://www.un.int/kamal/thelawofcyberspace/The Law of Cyber-Space.pdf>.NASA, . "The Early Satellites." Space Science and Technology. NASA US Government, 22November 2007. Web. 2 Aug 2012. <http://www.nasa.gov/missions/science/f-satellites.html>.Symantec, . "What is the difference between viruses, worms, and Trojans?." . SymantecCorporation, 10 January 2009. Web. 2 Aug 2012.<http://www.symantec.com/business/support/index?page=content&id=TECH98539>.US Naval Observation, . "USNO NAVSTAR Global Positiong System." NAVSTAR GPSOperations. US Navy; Department of Defense, 2012. Web. 2 Aug 2012.<http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/gpsinfo.html>. 5

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