Running head: THE MIGRATION OF CULTURES 1 The Migration of Cultures Tracey Percifield, Penny Rogers, Cheryl Halford, Nate Conley and Amber Wirth American Intercontinental University
Running head: THE MIGRATION OF CULTURES 2 AbstractIn knowing how people of the past decades lived we must examine the past and study manythings they left behind. By understanding how they lived and what impact they had as theymigrated to the New World, it is then we understand how they lived and understand what theenvironment was like. Looking at the impact that immigrants had and brought to the New Worldwe see what cultures and food dishes they brought to our civilization.
Running head: THE MIGRATION OF CULTURES 3 The Migration of CulturesBy 1830 the United States consisted of 2.3 million out of 12.8 million were of African descentand upon them settling after being brought here from Africa they brought many traditions andimpacted the culture today. When they came to the United States they brought scientific andtechnological systems from the West and Central Africa as well as many food dishes such as;gumbo and rice, millet, sorghum, watermelon and black-eyed peas. They also brought traditionwith them regarding funerals, celebration festivals, arts, music, dugout canoes, the banjo andlanguage which also had an effect on the European culture as welland this is known asAfricanism (Nps.gov, n.d.).Africanism is directly related to African American and Creolization which asks the questionwhen you stop and give to the American or European culture. They point out that the Africanculture has direct impact on Africa, African-American, Creolization, African-Jamaican andEuropean cultures and when examine the roots trace back to Africa.However, there has beensome controversial stating that African roots to America were long lost in slavery as somebelieve but state the only strong culture they have still impacted are Latin America and theCaribbean (Nps.gov, n.d.). Many have traced the routes and the trade market to see what role the traits of Africa has onthe world where the settled or were forced to settle as slaves. They asked former slaves back in1930 mainly from Georgia to give data of their life to try and preserve and understand what theywent through so they didn’t lose tradition and history but to show what changes were made andwhat traditions they were allowed to keep when resorted as slaves. Below is the map in whichthe Africans experience trade and slavery throughout the global world (Nps.gov, n.d.).
Running head: THE MIGRATION OF CULTURES 4 Here we see how immigration, trade took place and by looking at the map and routes then wecan see how easy it was for people to end up in the New World or the United States (Nps.gov,n.d.).
Running head: THE MIGRATION OF CULTURES 5In the western world dominance took tradition and culture to China and India and as one scholarmade statement to be that Confucian tradition would continue to be the sources of value system,and modernization for material gains.China and India view the modernity as not having anytraditions or values the only thing they have is powerful utility (Norbu, 1996).The Europeans given their vast of conquering techniques and invading came upon India andChina and instilled their beliefs on the people that inhabited these countries. The Spaniards wonthe trade right of China and India; these countries did not care to trade with Europeans becausethey did not care for their merchandise. They were however, concerned with the trade ofAmerican Silver from the Spaniards in exchange for their fine silk (Butler, 2007). China and Africa often did many trades; China was interested in their ivory medicine, spices,exotic wood and exotic wildlife. It was written the Emperor of China was very fond of the exoticanimals and kept many things from India such as; lions, tigers, rhinoceros and even a giraffe anda few other exotic animals to his collection.The most effects that India and China had with thewestern civilization was the race to find routes to Africa and Asia amongst the sea to trade forgold and silver to ensure their power and voyages, but India and China did not sustain to thepower of the Europeans as Africa did (Hays, 2008). Syncretism is sharing and molding one’s culture into another. Europe was the center of allthat was going on in Africa, the Americas, China and India. They blended their cultures togetherhoping to get a better outcome. Europe invaded their own culture by going outside the socialcircuit. (Sayre, 2010) Below are some of the cultural factors that caused differences in Europeand the different countries. Europe had a soft spot for silks and spices and started looking elsewhere to trade. Europealso empowered itself intellectually, lined themselves with many military personnel, they
Running head: THE MIGRATION OF CULTURES 6controlled the finances and trading markets. Separation became evident when some of thecivilizations could not keep up with the trending markets. (Sayre, 2010) In the nineteenth century, Europe dominated and brought Christianity into the mix andinventive thinkers changed scientific discoveries and theories to cause self-serving arguments.(World-history, 2011) In China and Japan they were controlled by the host, unlike Indonesia andIndia. Christianity was pushed in the civilizations and changes came about in the text andrecords. (AIU, 2011) Japan did expansive networking by trading throughout Asia. During this time, Europeanscontinued to trade by sea in India thus leaving Japan alone. Differences continued to grow whenthe civilizations found their niche’ and starting doing things on their own. Africans and theAmericas became part of a new concept called slavery, which resulted in another culture change,therefore causing diversity, hatred and upset civilizations creating animosity. Those not of theslavery concept had much to gain and prospered from the agriculture and trading. (AIU, 2011) As you can see, all civilizations have different cultures and ways of life but most worktogether toward the same outcome and others take advantage of the weakness of other culturesand expound on them for monetary reasons. With finances and trade come more change andmore differences.Many legacies are still around today that are a result of the early encounters between the NativeAmericans and Africans. Because of these encounters the Native Americans adopted andintegrated many of the African cultures and traditions into their own tribes. The Africanlanguage can still be recognized in many modern day settings. Architecture, food, and music allresonate with the legacies from these early encounters. Not only are these legacies still aninfluence in the Native American communities but in American society as well (AUK, n.d.).
Running head: THE MIGRATION OF CULTURES 7 While the early encounters between Native Americans and Africans were anything butpositive, it was worse between India and China and Westerners. Native Americans and Africansencounters resulted in cultural changes while India, China, and Westerners encounters were notas eager for these changes to occur. This is largely due to the fact that they don’t trust oneanother. Both India and China believe that their beliefs, cultures, and way of life should be keptas it is and has resulted in the smallest amount of cultural change (AUK, n.d.).Because of these early encounters, and the integration of the different tribes and societies,cultures and traditions have also been integrated in today’s way of life. In the United Statesalone, many different cultures can be found in one city. People from all walks of life havelearned to live together and accept each other for who they are and often join in on the differenttraditions each nationality enjoys (AUK, n.d.). Cultural syncretism is the intermingling of cultural tradition (Sayre, 2010). Syncretism hasplayed a role when it comes to the negotiation of identities and hegemonies in situations such asconquest, trade, migration, religious dissemination and intermarriage. There is so much diversityinsociety and it exists from beliefs, to ethnicities, to practices. In the New World the Amerindiancivilization controlled their way of life. They controlled their own belief system, socialhierarchy, and traditions.After the New World was discovered the slave trade took off in theAmericas, certain beliefs and religions came along with the people when they came forcing thereligious culture on those already there. Religions such as Candomble, Voodoo and Santeriacame to be with the influence of Roman Catholicism. However, if syncretism not occurred in theAmericas the independent high level of freedom would not be the same as it is today (Sayre,2010).
Running head: THE MIGRATION OF CULTURES 8 One aspect that would have changed is the political syncretism. Had syncretism not occurredin the Americas, the United States government would not be a solid whole unit. Instead it wouldbe divided up into sections, such as how it was when things were segregated there would be adifferent section would govern certain people of certain races. For example, in the nineteenthcentury Indian Americans along with African-Americans could not vote or get involved inpolitical issues. The Americas would not be considered a free nation as it is today. Slavery wouldstill exist, along with the mistreatment of minorities as common and fair behavior (Muraga,2011). Cultural entertainment would have also been affected. The Americas have a known history ofdiverse entertainment styles. However, many of these styles have integrated in the Americanculture through other countries. If not for syncretism America would not have the diverse rangeof music and entertainment that is so broad and diverse today.The partial integration of religious practices would not be so free and impartial. The constitutionallows the right for a person to serve or worship the god of their choice. Christianity hasdominated many societies in the Americas. In South America the Spanish colonization and itsRoman Catholic Churchs proselytizing of animistic South America. Religious syncretism therewould be a conflict of religious practice in societies causing a conflict of interest (ReligiousSyncretism, 1994). When the belief system of one culture doesn’t mesh together with another itcauses syncretism to become impossible. However, they can absorb and take into their culturecertain aspects and elements from other outside sources. If syncretism had not occurred in theAmericas the political and religion aspect may have evolved much differently than what appearstoday.
Running head: THE MIGRATION OF CULTURES 9Cultural syncretism means “the combination of different forms of belief or practice (Lindenfeld,2006).”The main focus if cultural syncretism had happened in China and India are the changes inreligion, work culture, and discipline. Syncretism would have resulted in China and India wouldhave smaller communities resulting in them being deeply religious, they do not work, and againstmodernization and trade (Suresh, 2010).China is not really religious in the first place. It would not have been successful for the culturalsyncretism for China simply because of China not being really religious. China would havebecome well known and may have had multiple issues on who believed what if they werehardcore religious.China celebrates multiple different religions. A few of those religions are Confucianism, Daoism(Taoism), Buddhism, Islam and Christianity (Whyte, 2011). According to the Cha-cha website, itsays that China only has an income of $1,000 a year (Cha-cha, 2009). One thousand dollars ayear is not very much at all. The Chinese would not be able not to work with cultural syncretismsince they barely make any money as it is.Modernization and trade is a must for China. Trade helps increase social and the economicdevelopment of China (China). The amount of China’s trade is increasing every year. Theproducts in America are mainly made in China.Religion is extremely important in India. India believed in Hinduism and Buddhism. Eighty-twopercent of India’s religion is Hinduism (Asian, 2010). Religion is so important to the Indians thatit is part of every aspect of life (Asian, 2010). Since cultural syncretism would have meant Indiabeing very religious would have worked perfectly for India with little to no change.
Running head: THE MIGRATION OF CULTURES 10 The second important aspect of cultural syncretism in India is the wanting of not to work.India’s average income for a year is around $500. The amount of money is so bad that childrenhave to leave school and help out in the fields and chores at home (Cha-cha, 2011). The incomefor India is already so low and they depend on their money through working in the fields, thechances of not working at all does not work for them. India’s modernization and trade is continually increasing. The U.S.-India bilateralmerchandise trade in 2008 reached nearly $50 billion. The main things that are exported to theU.S. are aircraft part, cotton, advanced machinery, and computer hardware. The software sectoris increasing and will modernize India’s economy (U.S). In conclusion, overall China and India would not be able to handle cultural syncretism ifit would have happened. The only way they would have had a chance if force is by trade.
Running head: THE MIGRATION OF CULTURES 11 REFERENCESAsian Info.(2010). India’s Religion and Philosophy. Retrieved on November 26, 2011 from:http://www.asianinfo.org/asianinfor/india/religion.htmAIU Online, (2011) Media Content: Cross-Cultural Contact. (Unit 3 Course Materials) Prentice-Hall and Pearson EducationAUK (n.d.). Legacy: West & the World. Chapter 9: Imperialism, Colonialism, & Resistance in the 19th Century. Retrieved from http://www.markville.ss.yrdsb.edu.on.ca/history/west/ch9imperialism.pdfChris Butler. (2007). [Web log message]. Retrieved from h t t p : / / w w w . f l o w o f h i s t o r y. c o m / u n i t s / w e s t / 1 2 / F C 8 1China. (2005). United Nations Development Programmer. Retrieved on November 26, 2011Dawa Norbu. (1996). [Web log message]. Retrieved fromhttp://ignca.nic.in/ls_03021.htmHistory World, (2011) Europe. Retrieved November 24, 2011 fromhttp://history- world.org/europe,%20scientific%20superiority.htmJ e f f r e y H a ys . ( 2 0 0 8 ) . [ W e b l o g m e s s a g e ] . R e t r i e v e d f r o mhttp://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=45&catid=2&subcatid=90Lindenfeld, David. (2006). Syncretism. World History Connected. Retrieved on November 25,2011 from:http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/whc/4.1/lindenfeld.htmlMuraga, T, (2011 May 17). Syncretism in America, Retrieved fromhttp://www.associatedcontent.com/article/7818988/syncretism_in_america.html?cat=37Nps.gov. (n.d.). [Web log message]. Retrieved fromh t t p : / / w w w . n p s . g o v / h i s t o r y/ c r d i / p u b l i c a t i o n s / A f r i c a n i s m s - C h a p t e r 1 . p d fReligious Syncretism, (1994). Retrieved from http://www.class.uidaho.edu/ngier/syncretism.htmSayre, H.M. (2010) Discovering the Humanities: The Age of Encounter, pg. 252-282. Prentice-Hall and Pearson EducationSuresh.(2010). History and Culture of India.Syncretism.New-age-center. Retrieved on November25, 2011 from:http://www.new-age-center.com/article/history-and-culture-of-india.
Running head: THE MIGRATION OF CULTURES 12U.S. Department of State. (2011). Background note: India. Retrieved on November 26, 2011from:http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3454.htmWhyte, Bob. (2011). Religion in China.Society for Anglo-Chinese Understanding. Retrieved onNovember 25, 2011 from:http://www.sacu.org/religion.html