** (Italics for original department)**Departments merged March 1st 2003 At the time expected to be the 2nd largest Cabinet level Dept. Currently the third largest in terms of employment.The Federal Protective ServiceAnimal and Plant Health Inspection Service (part)(Agriculture)Strategic National Stockpile and the National Disaster Medical System (HHS)Nuclear Incident Response Team (Energy)Domestic Emergency Support Teams(Justice)CBRN Countermeasures Programs (Energy)Environmental Measurements Laboratory (Energy)National BW Defense Analysis Center (Defense)Plum Island Animal Disease Center (Agriculture)Federal Computer Incident Response Center (GSA)National Communications System (Defense)National Infrastructure Protection Center (FBI)Energy Security and Assurance Program (Energy)http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/history/editorial_0133.shtm
$45.8 Billion of discretionary budget for these directives.Border and Transportation Security 68%Protection of Infrastructure 13%Emergency Preparedness 7%Companies still have room to grow in areas where the DHS spends the most money which include management support, facilities management, construction, engineering consulting, IT integration, and guard services. Products and Services Relevant to the MarketBorder and Transportation Security: security programs designed to fully integrate homeland security measures into existing domestic transportation systems that promote the efficient and reliable flow of people, goods, and services across borders, while preventing terrorists from using transportation as weapons, or as a means of delivery of harmful goods. Detection and security services.Intelligence and Warning: Intelligence programs and warning systems that can detect terrorist activity before it takes place which include strategies to identify, collect, analyze, and distribute source intelligence information or the resultant warnings from intelligence analysis. Domestic Counterterrorism: incorporates federal funding for any law enforcement programs (including state, local, or regional) that investigate and prosecute criminal activity to prevent terrorist activity within the United States. It includes all homeland security programs that identify, halt, prevent, and prosecute terrorists in the United States.Protecting Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets: Programs that improve protection of the individual pieces and the interconnecting systems that make up our critical infrastructure; funding for programs associated with the physical or cyber security of federal assets. This mission area also includes programs designed to protect America’s key assets, which are those unique facilities, sites, and structures whose disruption or destruction could have significant consequences. Defending Against Catastrophic Threats: homeland security programs that involve protecting against, detecting, deterring, or mitigating the terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction, including understanding terrorists’ efforts to gain access to the expertise, technology, and materials needed to build chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) weapons. In addition, this mission area includes funding for efforts or planning to decontaminate buildings, facilities, or geographic areas after a catastrophic event. Emergency Preparedness and Response: programs that prepare to minimize the damage and recover from any future terrorist attacks that may occur despite our best efforts at prevention. This area includes programs that help to plan, equip, train, and practice the needed skills of the varied and necessary first responder units, including such groups as police officers, firefighters, emergency medical providers, public works personnel, and emergency management officials.Http://homelandsecuritynewswire.com/robust-homeland-security-market-2010
9/11/2001 Responsible for a huge spike in Homeland security activity. 100% increase in both Employment and Budget over the two following years. Has been constantly increaseing ever since.DHS http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/budget/OPM http://www.opm.gov/feddata/HistoricalTables/ExecutiveBranchSince1940.asp
In 2001, defense spending on homeland security was $56B (0.55% of nominal GDP) and over a five year period, rose to $99.5B in 2005 (0.80% of GDP) Over the same five year period, private sector security related labor inputs increased from $26.5B to $28.7B and security related capital inputs rose from $9.4B to $16.6BSpending profile does not directly match assumed activities of DHS as border and transportation security and protection of critical infrastructure account for the most DHS spending (65%)while intelligence and warning constitute the least spending (1%) because such expenditures are not directly linked to DHS ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________In Maryland, particularly in the immediate aftermath of 9/11, defense contracts flooded into the state and kept the state economy going despite 2 million jobs being lost throughout the rest of the country. The Baltimore Sun, November 2, 2003Marketplace forecasts for the global homeland security industry anticipate business will grow from approximately $40 billion in 2004, to nearly $180 billion by 2015. Extra NotesUS companies benefit the most from potential revenues in the security services sectorAbout 70% of private revenue comes from federal, state, and local fundingPrivate sector industries seeking products from security firms (and make up the other 30% in revenue) include:Financial institutionsTransportation Healthcare Communications Energy 2005: DHS awards over $600M in 2 year contracts to Boeing, Magal Security Systems, Oracle, IPIX, and International Microwave Corp Maryland, among other states, continues to seek out private companies to secure its ports. From 2005 through January 2007, government awarded more than $600M in contracts to Boeing, Magal Security Systems, Oracle, IPIX, and International Microwave Corp (a subsidiary of L-3 Communications) to help protect airports, borders, and ports; the majority of the money went to companies that specialize in access control and surveillance. The government does not have active product research and development so this is viewed as the best allocation of resources. “States such as Maryland are soliciting private companies to secure and operate their ports. New York is offering hundreds of thousands of dollars to companies that can safeguard public water supplies.”
*= Pre-Department of Homeland Security years. Numbers from an aggregate of the agencies that would be eventually combined to create the DHSLarge Spike in Employment in MD and VA after 9-11-2001FEMA 2005-2007 Maryland drop in employment caused by the restructuring of FEMA 2005-2007http://www.fedscope.opm.gov/employment.asp
2002-2010 totals from DHS employment in MD and commuters from MD to D.C.Does not encompass effects of any federal procurement.
FY 2010Of these top ten, Lockheed Martin is the only contractor headquartered in Maryland (Bethesda). But, many of these companies have branches in Maryland.General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems, Science Applications International Corporation, Booz Allen Hamilton, Computer Sciences Corporation are all headquartered in the Virginia suburbs of Washington, DC. However some have labs in Maryland or employ Maryland residents.Which of these companies have branches in Maryland/Employing Marylanders?Lockheed(Bethesda Headquarters)Science Applications International Corporation (Locations: Abingdon, Annapolis, Annapolis Junction, Bethesda, APG, Baltimore, Beltsville, Bowie, Burtonsville, California, Camp Springs, Clinton, College Park, Columbia, Dickerson, Edgewood, Elkridge, Fort Detrick, Ft. Meade, Frederick, Gaithersburg, Germantown, Greenbelt, Indian Head, La Plata, Landover, Lanham, Lexington Park, Linthicum, Patuxent River, Rising Sun, Rockville, Seabrook, Silver Spring, St. Inigoes), General Dynamics (Annapolis Junction), Booz Allen Hamilton (Aberdeen, Annapolis Junction, Baltimore, Frederick, Hanover, Lexington Park, Linthicum, Rockville), L-3 Communications (Easton, Hanover, Linthicum Heights, Millersville), Computer Sciences Corporation (locations in Northern Va. ; possibly employ MD’ers) Boeing(locations in Annapolis junction, and Northern Va. ; possibly employ MD’ers)
http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/RS21270.pdf more info in charts on DHS
Maryland is one of only a few states the netted positive growth in the IT field in 2009, as well. From Nov. 2008 to Nov. 2009 Maryland had the highest growth rate of any state in computing services employment, at 7.2%, showing Maryland is fast become a more tech-centered economy. Cyber Security is seeing constant growth within DHS’s National Cyber Security Division. Maryland is more ready than any that is prepared to meet this new demand as it continues to grow. IDG News
The Baltimore- Washington corridor is an obvious cyber security centerAs of 2010, Maryland ranked fourth highest for government procurement money related to cyber security research and production. Maryland is clearly a leader in cyber security innovation and its prime geographical location facilitates the acquisition of DHS contracts from both the military installations in the state and in DC. Maryland ranks highly nationwide in terms of innovation in cyber security companies• 1st in federal research and development obligations on a per capita basis• 2nd in the Milken Institute’s 2008 State Technology and Science Index• 2nd in Federal R&D investment ($12.2 billion)• 2nd in R&D intensity– the ratio of R&D expenditures to gross domesticproduct by state• 3rd highest score in the 2008 State New Economy Index (ITIF 2008)• 7th highest number of computer systems design jobs (57,400) and engineeringservices jobs (32,000)Since Maryland’s power grid is separate from New York’s, it provides a secure location for back-office operations along with easy transportation access to the global markets and a fiber-rich, reliable telecommunications network. http://www.umbc.edu/cyber/documents/DBED_CyberMaryland_1.10_001.pdf
Aberdeen Proving Ground houses the Army’s Communication and Electronics Command (CECOM) and its substantial engineering and research capabilities, which moved here from New Jersey. The U.S. Navy houses the Fleet Cyber Command at Fort Meade.Research from INPUT, a market research firm, estimates the federal IT market alonewas $81 billion in 2008, with projected growth to $98 billion in 2013. The demand forinformation security products and services by the federal government–including civilian,defense and intelligence communities–demand forinformation security will increase from $7.9 billion in 2009 to $11.7 billionin 2014.These military posts play a crucial role in defending homeland security and the increasing reliance on information means these installations are primary users of cyber-security. The state is home to 12 major military installations and four smaller “niche” facilities establishing national security; designing aircraft and energetic systems; testing ordnance weapons, combat vehicles, aircraft, avionics systems;performing biomedical research; providing medical care to the armed forces; and facilitating global telecommunications.Top Maryland Defense IT ContractorsBoeingBooz Allen Hamilton.CACI InternationalComputer Sciences CorporationGeneral Dynamics CorporationHoneywell InternationalIBML3 CommunicationsLockheed Martin CorporationMITRENorthrop Grumman CorporationSAIC
Badolato April 2011 Slideshow
Keeping U.S. Intelligence Effective: The Need for a Revolution in Intelligence Affairs
Intelligence & 9/11• 9/11 perceived as an intelligence failure• Many studies, government reports, books, and articles published concerning the need for intelligence reform – “Connecting the dots”• Many reform initiatives have not produced the desired results
• My research experience – 2000-2005: National Intelligence Council (NIC) Project – 2003-2004: Future of the Internet Project – 2005: Landscapes Project – 2005-2006: Future of Intelligence Analysis Project – 2005-2010: IC Centers of Academic Excellence• Ideal vantage point for thinking about the kinds of problems facing the U.S. intelligence enterprise• Heard the term “RIA” mentioned during a meeting
Revolutions• Periodically occur in all areas of human endeavor when conditions change so significantly that traditional methods of doing business are rendered obsolete• Examples – Information Revolution – The Revolution in Military Affairs – Biotechnical Revolution – An Islamist Revolution?• Revolutions are important! – New winners and losers
Recognizing Revolutions• Four questions (from Eliot Cohen, “A Revolution in Warfare,” Foreign Affairs (March/April 1996) 1) Will emerging developments in military affairs change the appearance of combat? 2) Will these developments change the structure of armies? 3) Will they lead to the rise of new military elites? 4) Will they alter countries’ power positions?• To the extent answers are “yes,” a Revolution in Military Affairs was occurring.
Cohen’s Conclusion“Reflection on each of these *four questions+ suggests that this is the eve of a far-reaching change in warfare whose outlines are only dimly visible but real nonetheless. (emphasis added)” - Eliot Cohen, “A Revolution in Warfare,” Foreign Affairs 75/2 (March/April 1996).
Testing for an RIA• Four questions (adapted from Cohen’s RMA questions) 1. Will developments in the intelligence enterprise change how intelligence is developed and used (process)? 2. Will developments change the structure of the U.S. intelligence community (structure)? 3. Will developments lead to the rise of new elites in the intelligence community (skill sets)? 4. Will developments significantly effect the national security of countries that fail to embrace them (effect)?
Structure COLD WAR TODAY•Single major threat •Many threats•Threats are states •Threats are states, nonstate actors, global trends…•Emphasis on learning secrets •Emphasis on solving mysteries and learning secrets•Emphasis on technical means •Emphasis on human intelligence•Most information classified •Open source revolution•Greatest danger is large scale •Greatest danger is small scalenuclear attack attack by terrorists with WMDs•Intelligence used for national •Intelligence used for national,security regional & global security
Process COLD WAR TODAY•Most $$ to technical collection More $$ to human collectionagencies•Nature of threat gave most $$ Nature of threat requires moreto DoD $$ to non-DoD agencies•Each agency had clear mission New missions don’t fit old structure•Need for information security Need for extensive knowledgefostered stovepiping sharing
Skill Sets COLD WAR TODAY•Knowledge is power: keep it to •Knowledge sharing is poweryourself•Technology the concern of •Everyone must understandwell-defined organizations and certain technologies, both topersonnel analyze issues and to conduct day-to-day operations
An RIA is Needed• The answer to all four questions is “yes.” An RIA appears to be needed (but is not yet occurring) – The intelligence process should change. – The organizational structure to support the process should change. – Future elites in the intelligence community should possess new skills. – Failure to adapt will have serious consequences.
Mapping the RIA• Thomas Kuhn and The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (first edition by University of Chicago Press, 1962) – Paradigms and paradigm shifts• Must first map the current or “traditional” intelligence paradigm – Solving puzzles using secret information • Puzzles have answers (as opposed to mysteries) – All raw intelligence obtained through SIGINT, GEOINT, MASINT, HUMINT, and OSINT
Intelligence Requirements in Today’s Security Environment• North Korea• Iran, China, and other functioning states• Pakistan, Afghanistan, Congo, Somalia, & other failing or failed states• Al Qaeda and other transnational terrorist groups• HIV/AIDS, Avian Flu, SARS and other Infectious Diseases• Biopathogens
A New Intelligence Paradigm• New paradigm must include the old one. Both must function without creating “destructive interference.”• New paradigm must solve puzzles, mysteries, and “adaptive interpretations.”• Adaptive interpretations apply to transnational issues/threats – SIGINT, GEOINT, MASINT, HUMINT, and OSINT not sufficient – need new category of “trusted” information as well as classified and open source information – Transnational threats require transnational solutions
Conclusions• Many intelligence reforms have not met expectations because they clash with the traditional paradigm. – Bureaucratic inertia & immersion in traditional paradigm – Competing needs, such as information sharing vs. security concerns• The traditional paradigm remains necessary, but it is not sufficient to keep U.S. intelligence effective.• A Revolution in Intelligence Affairs is needed. – Actors that embrace the RIA will gain advantages over those that continue with traditional practices• Information flows and new collection methods are at the heart of the RIA. Analytic techniques must change accordingly.
Public Health andHomeland SecurityBadolato Distinguished Speakers Series Towson University April 29, 2011
Public Health Today Population Based Care• Violence Prevention • Terrorism• MRSA – Chemical• Smallpox – Biological – Nuclear• Chagus Disease – Radiological Dispersion• West Nile Virus• Pandemic/Avian Flu• Obesity• Disaster Preparedness• Health Disparities http://www.whatispublichealth.org/impact/today.html
Public Health• Public health assessments• Information sharing• Triage priorities from a public health perspective• Casualty distribution – knowledge of resources, development of procedures• Disaster preparedness- public motivation(Landesman et al., 2003, p. 4)
Federal Legislation• Homeland Security Act of 2002 – Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5 • National • Government & Private Sectors • Crisis and consequence • DHS Secretary to manage incidents • Rubin & Harrald (2006) – National Response Plan – National Incident Management System
Shared Responsibility• National Culture of Preparedness(Pres. George W. Bush, 5 OCT 2007)• National Strategy for Homeland Security – All levels of government – Private sector – Communities – All citizens
Community Preparedness Activities• Citizen Corps – The mission of Citizen Corps is to harness the power of every individual through education, training, and volunteer service to make communities safer, stronger, and better prepared to respond to the threats of terrorism, crime, public health issues, and disasters of all kinds. http://www.citizencorps.gov/about/• Medical Reserve Corps – The mission of the MRC is to engage volunteers to strengthen public health, emergency response and community resiliency. http://www.medicalreservecorps.gov/About• National Disaster Medical System – It is the mission of the National Disaster Medical System to temporarily supplement Federal, Tribal, State and Local capabilities by funding, organizing, training, equipping, deploying and sustaining a specialized and focused range of public health and medical capabilities. http://www.phe.gov/preparedness/responders/ndms/Pages/default.aspx
Towson University’s MRC Baltimore County Health Department 10th Medical Regiment (Military- Maryland Defense based MRC) Towson University Force
Towson University – Thinking Outside• Students, faculty, staff, community• Partner agencies• Education and drills• Student education – Integrated Homeland Security Management • Off campus student projects – College of Health Professions • Department of Nursing: On and off campus activities
TU, Students, and Community• Student Projects with IHSM 633 (Disaster Response and Community Health) – Disaster plan in Dunbar High School* – Disaster plan in a church in northern Japan* – Disaster notification plan in a community – Education for rural older adults in W. VA. – Disaster preparedness for an at-risk population in West Baltimore – Disaster plan for the Baltimore City Public Safety Center – Disaster education at Johns Hopkins Hospital* – Disaster preparedness at a senior center on Long Island *Places where disasters occurred after our planning.
TU, Students, and Community• Projects within the Department of Nursing’s Graduate Program – Disaster education with the Bykota Senior Center – Disaster education with the Our Lady of Grace Parish’s Youth Theater Group – Disaster education in a local elementary school in Baltimore City
Emergency Preparedness Drill Thanks to Dr. Agley for the graphics!
Tornado on CampusSituation: Tornado on York Rd from I-695 to Baltimore City. Campus affected, multiplecasualties, local authorities overwhelmed, MDDF deployed in Burdick Hall. Dr. Alves, ED Physician & Dr. Ogle, Nursing Faculty
MDDF, Best Ambulance, Nursing Students Some numbers: •1000 people •Close to 400 Nursing students •Faculty •Nursing •Health Science •Education •Community partners •Military partners •State agencies •Children from 11 different school districts •Students from campus •Seniors from Bykota Senior CenterPublic Health Planning, Preparedness, Education
Simulation to Real Time Public Health Issue: Flu!
References• Rubin, C. B., & Harrald, J. R. (2006). National response plan, the national incident management system, and the federal response plan. In D. G. Kamien (Ed.). The McGraw-Hill homeland security handbook (pp. 677-688). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.• Landesman, L. Y., Malilay, J., Bissel, R. J., et al.,Becker, S. M., Roberts, L., & Ascher, M. S. (2003). Roles and responsibilities of public health in disaster preparedness and response. In L. F. Novick, J. S. Marr (Eds.). Public health issues in disaster preparedness: Focus on bioterrorism (pp. 1-56). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.• Homeland Security Council. (2007). National strategy for homeland security. Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/nat_strat_homelandsecurity_2007.pdf
The Economics ofHomeland Security Daraius Irani
The Department of Homeland Security The Department of Homeland Security
The Department of Homeland Security The Department of Homeland Security Sept. 11th, 2001 Terrorist attacks against the U.S. at the World Trade2002 Center and the Pentagon Nov. 25th, 2002 President Bush signs the Homeland Security Act creating the DHS. The department will come to employ more than 190,000 people2003 March 1st, 2003 22 existing agencies from other cabinet level departments are merged together form the first DHS 2003 Creation of The Bureau of Customs and Border Protection focus on security at and between the ports-of-entry along the border 2003 Formation of The Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement. Presently employs more than 20,000 people and is the 2nd largest investigative agency in the Federal Government DHS.gov
Original Agencies Many existing agencies were merged to form the DHS The largest of which are:• The U.S. Customs Service • Office for Domestic (Treasury) Preparedness (Justice)• The Immigration and • The Federal Emergency Naturalization Service (Justice) Management Agency (FEMA)• The Transportation Security • National Domestic Administration Preparedness Office (FBI) (Transportation) • U.S. Coast Guard• Federal Law Enforcement (Transportation) Training Center (Treasury) • U.S. Secret Service (Treasury) DHS.gov
DHS Directives• Border and Transportation Security• Protection of Critical Infrastructure• Emergency Preparedness and Response• Domestic Counterterrorism• Intelligence and Warning• Defense Against Catastrophic Threats 2010 Budget Distribution Intel. Border and Protection Emerg Dom Transportation Security of Infra. Prep. Count.0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% FAS.org
DHS Employment and Budget 200 60National Employment (Thousands) 180 160 50 Billions of Dollars 140 40 120 100 30 80 60 20 40 10 20 0 0 2001 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 National Employment in Thousands by DHS Billion of budget $ OPM and DHS
Before and After DHS Formation Spending on % of nominal Private sector Private sectorYear Homeland Security GDP labor inputs capital inputs2001 $56 Billion 0.55 $26.5B $9.4B2005 $99.5 Billion 0.80 $28.7B $16.6 B Federal Reserve Bank of New York
Industry Growth as a Result of DHS• Chemical, biological, and radiological detection• Border, rail, seaport, industrial, and nuclear plant security• Computer and human resources experts• Boat manufacturers for the Coast Guard• Information and integrated technology companies• Management consulting firms USA Today
THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AND MARYLAND
DHS Employment 20,000 4,500 18,000 4,000 16,000 3,500 MD and VA Levels 14,000 3,000D.C. Levels 12,000 2,500 10,000 2,000 8,000 6,000 1,500 4,000 1,000 2,000 500 0 0 DC Virginia Maryland OPM Employment Cubes
RESI Analysis of DHS Impacts on Maryland 2002-2010Employment Direct Indirect Induced Total 1,481 684 4,480 6,645Labor Income Direct Indirect Induced Total $35,602,852 $31,937,779 $184,041,219 $251,581,852Value Added to GDP Total $340,800,185
Maryland Procurement from DHSProcurement Contracts in 2009:• $14,559,856,536 (U.S. total)• $1,674,925,917 (Maryland total)• 12% (Maryland share of U.S. total)Salaries and Wages in 2008:• $12,333,918,562 (U.S. total)• $255,569,717 (Maryland total)• 2.1% (Maryland share of U.S. total) ChooseMaryland.org
Top 10 FY2010 DHS ContractorsRank Vendor Name Dollars Obligated 1 International Business Systems (IBM) $557,280,986 2 Lockheed Martin Corporation $427,791,355 3 Unisys Corporation $400,757,376 4 Science Applications International $347,251,403 Corporation 5 Bollinger Shipyards Lockport, LLC $322,491,842 6 Computer Sciences Corporation $311,479,779 7 General Dynamics Advanced Information $311,304,859 Systems 8 Booz Allen Hamilton Inc. $244,373,784 9 L-3 Communications Corporation $236,877,693 10 The Boeing Company $207,544,578 Government Security News 2011
Maryland Higher EducationMulti-year awards ranging between $10 million to $18 million• Behavioral and sociological aspects of terrorism at the University of Maryland• High consequence event preparedness and response at Johns Hopkins FAS.org
Information Technology in Maryland• From 2009-2014 government spending is expected to grow: 3.5% per year in general IT 8.1% a year in cyber security• IT Employment Growth (2001-2008) - Maryland: +3.3% - National Average: -17.1%• Computing Services in Maryland +7.2% employment increase in mid-recession 2009 - Highest growth rate in the nation Maryland Department of Business & Economic Development
Cyber Security and Maryland UMBC Maryland Department of Business & Economic Developmen
Federal Cyber Security Employment In MarylandMilitary Installation =1000 employees Maryland Department of Business & Economic Development