SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 20
Download to read offline
Superconducting Magnetic
Energy Storage
Presented by-
Tanvir Ahmed Toshon
Outline
• Superconductivity
• Introduction
• History
• Components
• Operating Principle
• Applications & Market
Superconductivity
• Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical
resistance and expulsion of magnetic fields occurring in certain
materials when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
• Discovered by Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes on April 8, 1911
in Leiden, South Holland.
• It is characterized by the
Meissner effect.
• Typically two types:
 Type I
 Type II
What is SMES?
• SMES is an energy storage system that stores energy in the form
of dc electricity by passing current through the superconductor
and stores the energy in the form of a dc magnetic field.
• The conductor for carrying the current operates at cryogenic
temperatures where it becomes superconductor and thus has
virtually no resistive losses as it produces the magnetic field.
• The magnetic field is created by flow of direct current through
the coil.
• In this state the current in a coil can flow for infinite time. This
can also be seen from the time constant of a coil τ = L/R,
where R goes to zero and τ then goes to infinity.
Historical Review of SMES
• 1969: First concept was proposed by Ferrierin in
France.
• 1971: Research performed in University of Wisconsin
in the US.
• This research led to construction of the first SMES
device.
• High temperature superconductors (HTS) appeared
commercially in late 90s.
• 1997: first significant size HTS-SMES was developed
by American Superconductors. Then it was
connected to a scaled grid in Germany.
Components of SMES system
• Superconducting coil
with the magnet
• The power conditioning
system (PCS)
• The cryogenic system
• The control unit
Superconducting Coil
• Main part of a SMES system
• Most superconducting coils are wound using conductors which are
comprised of many fine filaments of a niobium-titanium (NbTi) alloy
embedded in a copper matrix.
• The Size of the coil
depends upon the
energy storage
requirement and coil
geometry.
• Typically 2 type:
 LTS
 HTS
Power Conditioning System
• Interface between the superconducting magnet and AC power system.
• Three configurations available:
 Thyristor based PCS.
 Voltage source converter based PCS.
 Current source converter based PCS .
Cryogenic Unit
• The superconducting SMES coil must be maintained at a temperature sufficiently low to maintain a
superconducting state in the wires.
• Commercial SMES today this temperature is about 4.5 K (-269°C, or -452°F) (for LTS)
• Reaching and maintaining this temperature is accomplished by a special cryogenic refrigerator that uses
helium as the coolant or liquid nitrogen in case of HTS.
• The refrigerator consists of one or more compressors for gaseous helium and a vacuum enclosure called a
“cold-box”, which receives the compressed, ambient-temperature helium gas and produces liquid
helium/nitrogen for cooling the coil .
• Since it affect the overall efficiency and cost of SMES system, the loss components such as cold to warm
current leads, ac current, conduction and radiation etc. should be minimized to achieve a higher efficient
and less costly SMES system.
Control system
• Establishes a link between power demands from the grid and power
flow to and from the SMES coil.
• Receives dispatch signals from the power grid and status of the coil.
• Maintains system safety and sends system status information to the
operator.
• Modern systems are tied to the internet to provide remote observation
and control.
SMES system grid connected
configuration
Controller
Coil Protection
Cryogenic
System
VCoil
ICoil
Dewar
Power Conversion System
CSI
or
VSI + dc-dc chopper
Transformer Bypass
Switch Coil
AC
Line
Operating Principle
• The operation of SMES is based on the fact the a current will continue to flow
in a superconductor even after the voltage across it has been removed.
• A superconducting coil that is cooled below its critical superconducting
temperature has negligible (zero) resistance. Thus the current will continue to
flow in it.
• The stored energy is inductive: 𝐸 =
1
2
𝐿𝐼2
• The coil carries a current at any state of charge
• Charging Phase: Since the current flows only in one direction, the PCS must
produce a positive voltage across the coil to store energy. This increases the
current.
• Discharging Phase: the PCS are adjusted to make the system look like a load
across the coil by producing a negative voltage causing the coil to discharge.
Applications of SMES
• System stability: SMES can reduce low frequency
oscillations to enhance transmission capacity and
boost voltage stability.
• Power quality: SMES systems can offer energy for
flexible AC transmission (FACTS).
Application of SMES
• Paper industry
• Motor vehicle assembly
• Petrochemical Refineries
• Chemical & pharmaceutical Companies
Advantages of SMES
• SMES systems have the ability of fast response
• They can switch from charge to discharge state (vice
versa) within seconds.
• The absence of moving parts and high cycling
efficiency are some additional advantages
• It can be deployed in places where other
technologies such as pumped hydro or compressed
air are not feasible
Common Challenges
• Main drawback of the SMES technology is the need of large
amount power to keep the coil at low temperature, combined
with the high overall cost for the employment of such unit.
• To achieve commercially useful levels of storage, around
1 GW.h (3.6 TJ) a SMES installation would need a loop of
around 100 miles (160 km).
• Another problem is the infrastructure required for an
installation. Until room temperature superconductors are
found, the 100 mile (160 km) loop of wire would have to be
contained within a vacuum flask of Helium/liquid nitrogen. This
in turn would require stable support, most commonly
envisioned by burying the installation.
Comparison with other Technologies
Market Analysis
• It has been estimated that, the total cost to the US businesses of the lost
productivity is a staggering $15-30 billion per year.
• It is estimated that, over 100 MW of SMES units are now operation in
worldwide.
• The global market for SMES is projected to reach US$64 million by 2020.
• At the larger scale, the projected development of a 100 MWh load leveling
system could be implemented during 2020-30.
• The cost of storage system is in the range of $85-125K per MJ while the cost of
power conversion system is in the range of $150-$250 per KW.
References
• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superconductivity
• http://www.climatetechwiki.org/technology/jiqweb-ee
• http://www.library.utoronto.ca/iip/journal/MAIN4/cowles.htm
• http://paginas.fe.up.pt/~ee04109/Documentos%20e%20imagens/36%20-
%20An%20Overview%20of%20SMES%20Applications%20in%20Power.pdf
• http://www.superpower-inc.com/content/superconducting-magnetic-energy-
storage-smes
• http://vtb.engr.sc.edu/vtbwebsite/downloads/publications/IEEE%20Sustainabl
e%20energy-published%20paper.pdf
• http://www.slideshare.net/biswajitcet13/superconductivity-
15348460?related=1
• https://www.chuden.co.jp/english/corporate/press2007/0615_1.html
• http://www.slideshare.net/GlobalIndustryAnalystsInc/superconducting-
magnetic-energy-storage-smes-systems-a-global-strategic-business-report
Questions??

More Related Content

What's hot

Energy storage Technologies & Innovation
Energy storage Technologies & InnovationEnergy storage Technologies & Innovation
Energy storage Technologies & InnovationMostafa Ahmed Zein
 
Electric Energy Storage Systems
Electric Energy Storage SystemsElectric Energy Storage Systems
Electric Energy Storage SystemsHussein Kassem
 
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed air energy storageCompressed air energy storage
Compressed air energy storageAng Sovann
 
Flywheel Energy Storage System
Flywheel Energy Storage SystemFlywheel Energy Storage System
Flywheel Energy Storage SystemSeminar Links
 
Energy storage introduction
Energy storage introductionEnergy storage introduction
Energy storage introductionDr. Shagufta K
 
Unit iii solar energy storage and applications
Unit iii solar energy storage and applicationsUnit iii solar energy storage and applications
Unit iii solar energy storage and applicationsDr SOUNDIRARAJ N
 
Thermoelectric Generation
Thermoelectric GenerationThermoelectric Generation
Thermoelectric GenerationAhMed ReZq
 
Thermo electric generator
Thermo electric generatorThermo electric generator
Thermo electric generatorsometech
 
Solar power plants for generation of electricity
Solar power plants for generation of electricitySolar power plants for generation of electricity
Solar power plants for generation of electricityAnmol Gupta
 
Solar energy storage and its applications ii
Solar energy storage and its applications iiSolar energy storage and its applications ii
Solar energy storage and its applications iiSARAN RAJ I
 
THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS SEMINAR IEEE
THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS SEMINAR IEEETHERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS SEMINAR IEEE
THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS SEMINAR IEEEjiyadh.k. sabeer
 
Photovoltaic Power Conversion systems
Photovoltaic Power Conversion systems	Photovoltaic Power Conversion systems
Photovoltaic Power Conversion systems Niraj Solanki
 
An introduction to energy storage technologies
An introduction to energy storage technologies An introduction to energy storage technologies
An introduction to energy storage technologies Abhinav Bhaskar
 
Solar PV Cells, Module and Array
Solar PV Cells, Module and ArraySolar PV Cells, Module and Array
Solar PV Cells, Module and ArrayDr Naim R Kidwai
 

What's hot (20)

Solar energy storage
Solar energy storageSolar energy storage
Solar energy storage
 
Energy storage Technologies & Innovation
Energy storage Technologies & InnovationEnergy storage Technologies & Innovation
Energy storage Technologies & Innovation
 
Electric Energy Storage Systems
Electric Energy Storage SystemsElectric Energy Storage Systems
Electric Energy Storage Systems
 
Presentation on solar cell
Presentation on solar cellPresentation on solar cell
Presentation on solar cell
 
Supercapacitors ppt hhd
Supercapacitors ppt hhdSupercapacitors ppt hhd
Supercapacitors ppt hhd
 
Photovoltaic cell
Photovoltaic cellPhotovoltaic cell
Photovoltaic cell
 
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed air energy storageCompressed air energy storage
Compressed air energy storage
 
Flywheel Energy Storage System
Flywheel Energy Storage SystemFlywheel Energy Storage System
Flywheel Energy Storage System
 
Energy storage introduction
Energy storage introductionEnergy storage introduction
Energy storage introduction
 
Unit iii solar energy storage and applications
Unit iii solar energy storage and applicationsUnit iii solar energy storage and applications
Unit iii solar energy storage and applications
 
Thermoelectric Generation
Thermoelectric GenerationThermoelectric Generation
Thermoelectric Generation
 
Thermo electric generator
Thermo electric generatorThermo electric generator
Thermo electric generator
 
Solar power plants for generation of electricity
Solar power plants for generation of electricitySolar power plants for generation of electricity
Solar power plants for generation of electricity
 
Solar energy storage and its applications ii
Solar energy storage and its applications iiSolar energy storage and its applications ii
Solar energy storage and its applications ii
 
THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS SEMINAR IEEE
THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS SEMINAR IEEETHERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS SEMINAR IEEE
THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS SEMINAR IEEE
 
Photovoltaic Power Conversion systems
Photovoltaic Power Conversion systems	Photovoltaic Power Conversion systems
Photovoltaic Power Conversion systems
 
Solar cell
Solar cellSolar cell
Solar cell
 
Energy Storage
Energy StorageEnergy Storage
Energy Storage
 
An introduction to energy storage technologies
An introduction to energy storage technologies An introduction to energy storage technologies
An introduction to energy storage technologies
 
Solar PV Cells, Module and Array
Solar PV Cells, Module and ArraySolar PV Cells, Module and Array
Solar PV Cells, Module and Array
 

Similar to Superconducting magnetic energy storage

SUPERCONDUCTIVITY IN ELECTRIC POWER SECTOR
SUPERCONDUCTIVITY   IN ELECTRIC  POWER   SECTORSUPERCONDUCTIVITY   IN ELECTRIC  POWER   SECTOR
SUPERCONDUCTIVITY IN ELECTRIC POWER SECTORMS RANJAN MANAS
 
introduction on high voltage engineering
introduction on high voltage engineeringintroduction on high voltage engineering
introduction on high voltage engineeringjesusgarland
 
#Building wiring system#presentation#Wire is a single electrical conductor, w...
#Building wiring system#presentation#Wire is a single electrical conductor, w...#Building wiring system#presentation#Wire is a single electrical conductor, w...
#Building wiring system#presentation#Wire is a single electrical conductor, w...Bint Shameem
 
Equipment and Stability Constraints : System Operation
Equipment and Stability Constraints : System OperationEquipment and Stability Constraints : System Operation
Equipment and Stability Constraints : System OperationRidwanul Hoque
 
PPT_1_Electrical services_By group no. 1.pptx
PPT_1_Electrical services_By group no. 1.pptxPPT_1_Electrical services_By group no. 1.pptx
PPT_1_Electrical services_By group no. 1.pptxayazkhan261
 
PPT_1_Electrical services_By group no. 1.pptx
PPT_1_Electrical services_By group no. 1.pptxPPT_1_Electrical services_By group no. 1.pptx
PPT_1_Electrical services_By group no. 1.pptxayazkhan261
 
05caf8ab-1319-4fd0-bfef-6d433d79583a-.pptx
05caf8ab-1319-4fd0-bfef-6d433d79583a-.pptx05caf8ab-1319-4fd0-bfef-6d433d79583a-.pptx
05caf8ab-1319-4fd0-bfef-6d433d79583a-.pptxAYISHAJ2
 
Power system 2(High Voltage DC,Cables and Different types cable,Transmission)
Power system 2(High Voltage DC,Cables and Different types cable,Transmission)Power system 2(High Voltage DC,Cables and Different types cable,Transmission)
Power system 2(High Voltage DC,Cables and Different types cable,Transmission)UthsoNandy
 
Power factor corrector
Power factor correctorPower factor corrector
Power factor correctorJoeChueng
 
Vocational training at mejia thermal power plant
Vocational training at mejia thermal power plantVocational training at mejia thermal power plant
Vocational training at mejia thermal power plantNipak Banerjee
 
Energy storage system
Energy storage systemEnergy storage system
Energy storage systemmikkumar5
 
Project-Induction.pptx
Project-Induction.pptxProject-Induction.pptx
Project-Induction.pptxjaegar .
 
Power Distribution System by NDMC in New Delhi
Power Distribution System by NDMC in New DelhiPower Distribution System by NDMC in New Delhi
Power Distribution System by NDMC in New DelhiHarshit Pant
 

Similar to Superconducting magnetic energy storage (20)

SUPERCONDUCTIVITY IN ELECTRIC POWER SECTOR
SUPERCONDUCTIVITY   IN ELECTRIC  POWER   SECTORSUPERCONDUCTIVITY   IN ELECTRIC  POWER   SECTOR
SUPERCONDUCTIVITY IN ELECTRIC POWER SECTOR
 
Physical structure and characteristics of energy storage systems
Physical structure and characteristics of energy storage systemsPhysical structure and characteristics of energy storage systems
Physical structure and characteristics of energy storage systems
 
introduction on high voltage engineering
introduction on high voltage engineeringintroduction on high voltage engineering
introduction on high voltage engineering
 
#Building wiring system#presentation#Wire is a single electrical conductor, w...
#Building wiring system#presentation#Wire is a single electrical conductor, w...#Building wiring system#presentation#Wire is a single electrical conductor, w...
#Building wiring system#presentation#Wire is a single electrical conductor, w...
 
Equipment and Stability Constraints : System Operation
Equipment and Stability Constraints : System OperationEquipment and Stability Constraints : System Operation
Equipment and Stability Constraints : System Operation
 
Storage In Smart Grids
Storage In Smart GridsStorage In Smart Grids
Storage In Smart Grids
 
Supercup Degree
Supercup DegreeSupercup Degree
Supercup Degree
 
Supercup Degree
Supercup DegreeSupercup Degree
Supercup Degree
 
PPT_1_Electrical services_By group no. 1.pptx
PPT_1_Electrical services_By group no. 1.pptxPPT_1_Electrical services_By group no. 1.pptx
PPT_1_Electrical services_By group no. 1.pptx
 
PPT_1_Electrical services_By group no. 1.pptx
PPT_1_Electrical services_By group no. 1.pptxPPT_1_Electrical services_By group no. 1.pptx
PPT_1_Electrical services_By group no. 1.pptx
 
Electrical fundamental course
Electrical fundamental courseElectrical fundamental course
Electrical fundamental course
 
05caf8ab-1319-4fd0-bfef-6d433d79583a-.pptx
05caf8ab-1319-4fd0-bfef-6d433d79583a-.pptx05caf8ab-1319-4fd0-bfef-6d433d79583a-.pptx
05caf8ab-1319-4fd0-bfef-6d433d79583a-.pptx
 
Phase 4
Phase 4Phase 4
Phase 4
 
Power system 2(High Voltage DC,Cables and Different types cable,Transmission)
Power system 2(High Voltage DC,Cables and Different types cable,Transmission)Power system 2(High Voltage DC,Cables and Different types cable,Transmission)
Power system 2(High Voltage DC,Cables and Different types cable,Transmission)
 
Power factor corrector
Power factor correctorPower factor corrector
Power factor corrector
 
Vocational training at mejia thermal power plant
Vocational training at mejia thermal power plantVocational training at mejia thermal power plant
Vocational training at mejia thermal power plant
 
Energy storage system
Energy storage systemEnergy storage system
Energy storage system
 
Devices part 2
Devices part 2Devices part 2
Devices part 2
 
Project-Induction.pptx
Project-Induction.pptxProject-Induction.pptx
Project-Induction.pptx
 
Power Distribution System by NDMC in New Delhi
Power Distribution System by NDMC in New DelhiPower Distribution System by NDMC in New Delhi
Power Distribution System by NDMC in New Delhi
 

Recently uploaded

Virtual memory management in Operating System
Virtual memory management in Operating SystemVirtual memory management in Operating System
Virtual memory management in Operating SystemRashmi Bhat
 
Cost estimation approach: FP to COCOMO scenario based question
Cost estimation approach: FP to COCOMO scenario based questionCost estimation approach: FP to COCOMO scenario based question
Cost estimation approach: FP to COCOMO scenario based questionSneha Padhiar
 
Curve setting (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptx
Curve setting (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptxCurve setting (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptx
Curve setting (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptxRomil Mishra
 
Input Output Management in Operating System
Input Output Management in Operating SystemInput Output Management in Operating System
Input Output Management in Operating SystemRashmi Bhat
 
Research Methodology for Engineering pdf
Research Methodology for Engineering pdfResearch Methodology for Engineering pdf
Research Methodology for Engineering pdfCaalaaAbdulkerim
 
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________Romil Mishra
 
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdf
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdfImmutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdf
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdfDrew Moseley
 
22CYT12 & Chemistry for Computer Systems_Unit-II-Corrosion & its Control Meth...
22CYT12 & Chemistry for Computer Systems_Unit-II-Corrosion & its Control Meth...22CYT12 & Chemistry for Computer Systems_Unit-II-Corrosion & its Control Meth...
22CYT12 & Chemistry for Computer Systems_Unit-II-Corrosion & its Control Meth...KrishnaveniKrishnara1
 
A brief look at visionOS - How to develop app on Apple's Vision Pro
A brief look at visionOS - How to develop app on Apple's Vision ProA brief look at visionOS - How to develop app on Apple's Vision Pro
A brief look at visionOS - How to develop app on Apple's Vision ProRay Yuan Liu
 
Novel 3D-Printed Soft Linear and Bending Actuators
Novel 3D-Printed Soft Linear and Bending ActuatorsNovel 3D-Printed Soft Linear and Bending Actuators
Novel 3D-Printed Soft Linear and Bending ActuatorsResearcher Researcher
 
Forming section troubleshooting checklist for improving wire life (1).ppt
Forming section troubleshooting checklist for improving wire life (1).pptForming section troubleshooting checklist for improving wire life (1).ppt
Forming section troubleshooting checklist for improving wire life (1).pptNoman khan
 
Substation Automation SCADA and Gateway Solutions by BRH
Substation Automation SCADA and Gateway Solutions by BRHSubstation Automation SCADA and Gateway Solutions by BRH
Substation Automation SCADA and Gateway Solutions by BRHbirinder2
 
SOFTWARE ESTIMATION COCOMO AND FP CALCULATION
SOFTWARE ESTIMATION COCOMO AND FP CALCULATIONSOFTWARE ESTIMATION COCOMO AND FP CALCULATION
SOFTWARE ESTIMATION COCOMO AND FP CALCULATIONSneha Padhiar
 
"Exploring the Essential Functions and Design Considerations of Spillways in ...
"Exploring the Essential Functions and Design Considerations of Spillways in ..."Exploring the Essential Functions and Design Considerations of Spillways in ...
"Exploring the Essential Functions and Design Considerations of Spillways in ...Erbil Polytechnic University
 
Analysis and Evaluation of Dal Lake Biomass for Conversion to Fuel/Green fert...
Analysis and Evaluation of Dal Lake Biomass for Conversion to Fuel/Green fert...Analysis and Evaluation of Dal Lake Biomass for Conversion to Fuel/Green fert...
Analysis and Evaluation of Dal Lake Biomass for Conversion to Fuel/Green fert...arifengg7
 
AntColonyOptimizationManetNetworkAODV.pptx
AntColonyOptimizationManetNetworkAODV.pptxAntColonyOptimizationManetNetworkAODV.pptx
AntColonyOptimizationManetNetworkAODV.pptxLina Kadam
 
Secure Key Crypto - Tech Paper JET Tech Labs
Secure Key Crypto - Tech Paper JET Tech LabsSecure Key Crypto - Tech Paper JET Tech Labs
Secure Key Crypto - Tech Paper JET Tech Labsamber724300
 
STATE TRANSITION DIAGRAM in psoc subject
STATE TRANSITION DIAGRAM in psoc subjectSTATE TRANSITION DIAGRAM in psoc subject
STATE TRANSITION DIAGRAM in psoc subjectGayathriM270621
 
FUNCTIONAL AND NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT
FUNCTIONAL AND NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTFUNCTIONAL AND NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT
FUNCTIONAL AND NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTSneha Padhiar
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Virtual memory management in Operating System
Virtual memory management in Operating SystemVirtual memory management in Operating System
Virtual memory management in Operating System
 
Cost estimation approach: FP to COCOMO scenario based question
Cost estimation approach: FP to COCOMO scenario based questionCost estimation approach: FP to COCOMO scenario based question
Cost estimation approach: FP to COCOMO scenario based question
 
Curve setting (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptx
Curve setting (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptxCurve setting (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptx
Curve setting (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptx
 
Input Output Management in Operating System
Input Output Management in Operating SystemInput Output Management in Operating System
Input Output Management in Operating System
 
Research Methodology for Engineering pdf
Research Methodology for Engineering pdfResearch Methodology for Engineering pdf
Research Methodology for Engineering pdf
 
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________
 
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdf
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdfImmutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdf
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdf
 
22CYT12 & Chemistry for Computer Systems_Unit-II-Corrosion & its Control Meth...
22CYT12 & Chemistry for Computer Systems_Unit-II-Corrosion & its Control Meth...22CYT12 & Chemistry for Computer Systems_Unit-II-Corrosion & its Control Meth...
22CYT12 & Chemistry for Computer Systems_Unit-II-Corrosion & its Control Meth...
 
A brief look at visionOS - How to develop app on Apple's Vision Pro
A brief look at visionOS - How to develop app on Apple's Vision ProA brief look at visionOS - How to develop app on Apple's Vision Pro
A brief look at visionOS - How to develop app on Apple's Vision Pro
 
Novel 3D-Printed Soft Linear and Bending Actuators
Novel 3D-Printed Soft Linear and Bending ActuatorsNovel 3D-Printed Soft Linear and Bending Actuators
Novel 3D-Printed Soft Linear and Bending Actuators
 
Forming section troubleshooting checklist for improving wire life (1).ppt
Forming section troubleshooting checklist for improving wire life (1).pptForming section troubleshooting checklist for improving wire life (1).ppt
Forming section troubleshooting checklist for improving wire life (1).ppt
 
Substation Automation SCADA and Gateway Solutions by BRH
Substation Automation SCADA and Gateway Solutions by BRHSubstation Automation SCADA and Gateway Solutions by BRH
Substation Automation SCADA and Gateway Solutions by BRH
 
Versatile Engineering Construction Firms
Versatile Engineering Construction FirmsVersatile Engineering Construction Firms
Versatile Engineering Construction Firms
 
SOFTWARE ESTIMATION COCOMO AND FP CALCULATION
SOFTWARE ESTIMATION COCOMO AND FP CALCULATIONSOFTWARE ESTIMATION COCOMO AND FP CALCULATION
SOFTWARE ESTIMATION COCOMO AND FP CALCULATION
 
"Exploring the Essential Functions and Design Considerations of Spillways in ...
"Exploring the Essential Functions and Design Considerations of Spillways in ..."Exploring the Essential Functions and Design Considerations of Spillways in ...
"Exploring the Essential Functions and Design Considerations of Spillways in ...
 
Analysis and Evaluation of Dal Lake Biomass for Conversion to Fuel/Green fert...
Analysis and Evaluation of Dal Lake Biomass for Conversion to Fuel/Green fert...Analysis and Evaluation of Dal Lake Biomass for Conversion to Fuel/Green fert...
Analysis and Evaluation of Dal Lake Biomass for Conversion to Fuel/Green fert...
 
AntColonyOptimizationManetNetworkAODV.pptx
AntColonyOptimizationManetNetworkAODV.pptxAntColonyOptimizationManetNetworkAODV.pptx
AntColonyOptimizationManetNetworkAODV.pptx
 
Secure Key Crypto - Tech Paper JET Tech Labs
Secure Key Crypto - Tech Paper JET Tech LabsSecure Key Crypto - Tech Paper JET Tech Labs
Secure Key Crypto - Tech Paper JET Tech Labs
 
STATE TRANSITION DIAGRAM in psoc subject
STATE TRANSITION DIAGRAM in psoc subjectSTATE TRANSITION DIAGRAM in psoc subject
STATE TRANSITION DIAGRAM in psoc subject
 
FUNCTIONAL AND NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT
FUNCTIONAL AND NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTFUNCTIONAL AND NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT
FUNCTIONAL AND NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT
 

Superconducting magnetic energy storage

  • 2. Outline • Superconductivity • Introduction • History • Components • Operating Principle • Applications & Market
  • 3. Superconductivity • Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic fields occurring in certain materials when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature. • Discovered by Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes on April 8, 1911 in Leiden, South Holland. • It is characterized by the Meissner effect. • Typically two types:  Type I  Type II
  • 4. What is SMES? • SMES is an energy storage system that stores energy in the form of dc electricity by passing current through the superconductor and stores the energy in the form of a dc magnetic field. • The conductor for carrying the current operates at cryogenic temperatures where it becomes superconductor and thus has virtually no resistive losses as it produces the magnetic field. • The magnetic field is created by flow of direct current through the coil. • In this state the current in a coil can flow for infinite time. This can also be seen from the time constant of a coil τ = L/R, where R goes to zero and τ then goes to infinity.
  • 5. Historical Review of SMES • 1969: First concept was proposed by Ferrierin in France. • 1971: Research performed in University of Wisconsin in the US. • This research led to construction of the first SMES device. • High temperature superconductors (HTS) appeared commercially in late 90s. • 1997: first significant size HTS-SMES was developed by American Superconductors. Then it was connected to a scaled grid in Germany.
  • 6. Components of SMES system • Superconducting coil with the magnet • The power conditioning system (PCS) • The cryogenic system • The control unit
  • 7. Superconducting Coil • Main part of a SMES system • Most superconducting coils are wound using conductors which are comprised of many fine filaments of a niobium-titanium (NbTi) alloy embedded in a copper matrix. • The Size of the coil depends upon the energy storage requirement and coil geometry. • Typically 2 type:  LTS  HTS
  • 8. Power Conditioning System • Interface between the superconducting magnet and AC power system. • Three configurations available:  Thyristor based PCS.  Voltage source converter based PCS.  Current source converter based PCS .
  • 9. Cryogenic Unit • The superconducting SMES coil must be maintained at a temperature sufficiently low to maintain a superconducting state in the wires. • Commercial SMES today this temperature is about 4.5 K (-269°C, or -452°F) (for LTS) • Reaching and maintaining this temperature is accomplished by a special cryogenic refrigerator that uses helium as the coolant or liquid nitrogen in case of HTS. • The refrigerator consists of one or more compressors for gaseous helium and a vacuum enclosure called a “cold-box”, which receives the compressed, ambient-temperature helium gas and produces liquid helium/nitrogen for cooling the coil . • Since it affect the overall efficiency and cost of SMES system, the loss components such as cold to warm current leads, ac current, conduction and radiation etc. should be minimized to achieve a higher efficient and less costly SMES system.
  • 10. Control system • Establishes a link between power demands from the grid and power flow to and from the SMES coil. • Receives dispatch signals from the power grid and status of the coil. • Maintains system safety and sends system status information to the operator. • Modern systems are tied to the internet to provide remote observation and control.
  • 11. SMES system grid connected configuration Controller Coil Protection Cryogenic System VCoil ICoil Dewar Power Conversion System CSI or VSI + dc-dc chopper Transformer Bypass Switch Coil AC Line
  • 12. Operating Principle • The operation of SMES is based on the fact the a current will continue to flow in a superconductor even after the voltage across it has been removed. • A superconducting coil that is cooled below its critical superconducting temperature has negligible (zero) resistance. Thus the current will continue to flow in it. • The stored energy is inductive: 𝐸 = 1 2 𝐿𝐼2 • The coil carries a current at any state of charge • Charging Phase: Since the current flows only in one direction, the PCS must produce a positive voltage across the coil to store energy. This increases the current. • Discharging Phase: the PCS are adjusted to make the system look like a load across the coil by producing a negative voltage causing the coil to discharge.
  • 13. Applications of SMES • System stability: SMES can reduce low frequency oscillations to enhance transmission capacity and boost voltage stability. • Power quality: SMES systems can offer energy for flexible AC transmission (FACTS).
  • 14. Application of SMES • Paper industry • Motor vehicle assembly • Petrochemical Refineries • Chemical & pharmaceutical Companies
  • 15. Advantages of SMES • SMES systems have the ability of fast response • They can switch from charge to discharge state (vice versa) within seconds. • The absence of moving parts and high cycling efficiency are some additional advantages • It can be deployed in places where other technologies such as pumped hydro or compressed air are not feasible
  • 16. Common Challenges • Main drawback of the SMES technology is the need of large amount power to keep the coil at low temperature, combined with the high overall cost for the employment of such unit. • To achieve commercially useful levels of storage, around 1 GW.h (3.6 TJ) a SMES installation would need a loop of around 100 miles (160 km). • Another problem is the infrastructure required for an installation. Until room temperature superconductors are found, the 100 mile (160 km) loop of wire would have to be contained within a vacuum flask of Helium/liquid nitrogen. This in turn would require stable support, most commonly envisioned by burying the installation.
  • 17. Comparison with other Technologies
  • 18. Market Analysis • It has been estimated that, the total cost to the US businesses of the lost productivity is a staggering $15-30 billion per year. • It is estimated that, over 100 MW of SMES units are now operation in worldwide. • The global market for SMES is projected to reach US$64 million by 2020. • At the larger scale, the projected development of a 100 MWh load leveling system could be implemented during 2020-30. • The cost of storage system is in the range of $85-125K per MJ while the cost of power conversion system is in the range of $150-$250 per KW.
  • 19. References • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superconductivity • http://www.climatetechwiki.org/technology/jiqweb-ee • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/iip/journal/MAIN4/cowles.htm • http://paginas.fe.up.pt/~ee04109/Documentos%20e%20imagens/36%20- %20An%20Overview%20of%20SMES%20Applications%20in%20Power.pdf • http://www.superpower-inc.com/content/superconducting-magnetic-energy- storage-smes • http://vtb.engr.sc.edu/vtbwebsite/downloads/publications/IEEE%20Sustainabl e%20energy-published%20paper.pdf • http://www.slideshare.net/biswajitcet13/superconductivity- 15348460?related=1 • https://www.chuden.co.jp/english/corporate/press2007/0615_1.html • http://www.slideshare.net/GlobalIndustryAnalystsInc/superconducting- magnetic-energy-storage-smes-systems-a-global-strategic-business-report