Toronto Region - Polymers and Plastics Innovation Snapshot March 2011


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An overview of the Toronto Region's plastics and polymers industry and research assets.

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Toronto Region - Polymers and Plastics Innovation Snapshot March 2011

  1. 1. March 2011Innovation SnapshotPolymers and plastics for advanced manufacturing applications“One of the things about plastic is that [it] has always Canadian Industry at a Glancebeen a democratizing material. It has made it possible The Canadian industry is made of nearly 3,000to manufacture more cheaply things that otherwise companies with over 100,000 workers and $33 billion inwould be too expensive for millions of people to have.”1 revenue (in 2008). Top destinations for CanadianJeffrey Meikle, Professor, Art History and American Studies, products include the US, China and UK. However, the USUniversity of Texas is Canada‟s largest trading partner and accounted for 90% of exports and 72% of imports in 2008. Canada is also the top export and import market for the US.Introduction Canadian companies are known for superior products inAlthough the plastics industry is over 100 years old, it is machinery, molds and synthetic resins (Figure 1). It isconsidered relatively modern compared to other materials. estimated that Canada consumes enough resins toThe birth of plastics started with chemically modified produce 2% of the world‟s plastic products.natural materials such as rubber, nitrocellulose, andcollagen. Mass production of synthetic plastics began in The Canadian industry grew during and after the first oilthe 1930s with the full automation of injection molding crisis in the 1970s because Canada was considered aprocesses. secure supply of synthetic resins for the US. Plastics have traditionally outpaced the total economy and otherThe industry‟s growth in the 1990s was driven by the manufacturing sectors in Canada in terms of compoundincreasing use of polymers as replacement for traditional annual average growth in output.materials. Polymer parts and products are typicallycheaper to produce because of high-throughput The Canadian industry is a sophisticated network of resinprocesses, manufacturability and the cost-to-performance suppliers, compounders, processors, recyclers,ratio. Resins and polymers, that are essential to the equipment, machinery manufacturers, and mold and diemanufacture of plastics, are derived from crude oil and Breakdown by Type of Establishment in Canada are packaging, makers. Canada‟s major end-use marketsnatural gas and are therefore a by-product of the oil automotive, and construction.3,4industry.2 Figure 1: Breakdown by Type of Establishment in Canada Did you know… Synthetic resins  The first semi-synthetic plastic “Celluloid” was 5% Moulds made in 1869 as a substitute for billiard balls. 15%  Plastic products consume 4% of all crude oil and Machinery natural gas (Canadian Plastics Industry 3% Association). Plastic products 77% Source: TRRA analysis based on Industry Canada, 2008 Toronto Region | 1
  2. 2. Industry Distribution Regional Distribution of Plastics BusinessesThe Canadian industry is concentrated in four provinces: Figure 2: Regional Distribution in Canada 2975 businesses of Plastics Businesses 2975 businesses in CanadaOntario, Québec, Alberta and British Columbia. Alberta isthe largest Canadian producer of petrochemicals, whileOntario is home to the highest concentration (48%) of all Prairiesplastics businesses (Figure 2). Ontario is home to more Atlantic 9% Rest of Ontariothan 77% of Canada‟s plastics machinery establishments 4% 25%and 71% of its mold makers.3 British ColumbiaPlastics Industry in the Toronto Region 7%Ontario is the top Canadian exporter of plastic products, Toronto Regionwith the states of Michigan, Ohio, New York, Illinois and 23% QuébecIndiana as the top export destinations (Figure 3). Ontario 32%has gained an international reputation for high-qualitymachinery and mold manufacturing. Southern Ontariocompanies are amongst the top in North America in sales Sources: Canadian Plastics SectorIndustry Canada and Source: TRRA analysis based on Council (2006), Industry Canadain many plastics-related categories, including mold Canadian Plastics Sector Council datamaking, pipe, profile and tubing extruders (Table 1).5,623% (694) of all Canadian companies are located in the Figure 3: Total Exports in Plastic Product Product Mfg. Total Exports in Plastic Mfg. (NAICS 3261) - Distribution by ProvinceRegion. These companies employ one-third of Canada‟s (NAICS 3261) – Distribution by Province on Industry Canada, Trade Data Online Source: TRRA Analysis basedplastics labour force (Figure 4). 71% of Toronto Regioncompanies are plastics processors. Plastics machinery $12,000,000,000and equipment is the next largest segment with 15% of allcompanies involved in related activities.3,7 $8,000,000,000Toronto Region companies benefit from synergies thathave developed between mold makers, equipment $4,000,000,000manufacturers, and plastics processors. The plasticsindustry is closely connected to other sectors in „Canada‟s $0manufacturing heartland‟ and is an important part of the 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009automotive, construction and medical supply chain. Ontario Quebec Rest of CanadaThe Toronto Region is a hub of industrial activity and is Source: TRRA analysis based on Industry Canada, Trade Date Onlinehome to headquarters of industry-leading companiesincluding Husky Injection Molding, Royal Group Inc., MoldMasters, ABC Group Inc., Magna International, and the Figure 4: Labour Force (by NAICS (by NAICS code) Labour Force code)Woodbridge Group. The following are examples of Source: TRRA Analysis based on Statistics Canada, 2006 censusToronto Region‟s internationally recognized companies. 0 40000 80000 120000 160000 CanadaHusky Injection Molding (Bolton, Ontario) was createdin 1953 by Robert Schad and started as a small machine Toronto Regionshop operation in a Toronto garage. Husky began mass Rest of Ontarioproduction of high-speed injection molding machines in Quebec1961 and has evolved into the largest brand namesupplier of injection molding equipment and services to British Columbiathe plastics industry. The company posted an estimated Alberta$1 billion in revenue in 2009 and targets consumer Other provinceselectronics, medical, and packaging industries. 3252 Resin, synthetic rubber, and artificial and synthetic fibres and filaments manufacturingHusky is a technology-oriented company with over 900 3261 Plastic product manufacturingpatents under its name and substantial know-how kept as 3262 Rubber product manufacturingtrade secret. It has pioneered many innovations inpolyethylene terephthalate (PET) packaging and has 50% Source: TRRA analysis based on Statistics Canada, 2006 censusof the market share. Much of its R&D work is conducted inthe Advanced Manufacturing Centre in Bolton.8 Toronto Region | 2
  3. 3. Mold-Masters Ltd. (Georgetown, Ontario) is a Magna International (Aurora, Ontario) is the largestmultinational and leading supplier of advanced hot runner North American automotive parts supplier with $23.7technology, temperature controllers and systems. The billion in sales in 2008. The company began as one personcompany was founded by husband and wife Jobst and tool-and-die shop in 1957 and established itself in theWaltraud Gellert in Toronto in 1963. 1960s through contracts with Ford and GM. Magna entered the auto plastics sector in 1979 with the development of theAs the first company to exclusively focus on the single belt pulley system. Magna is now involved in themanufacture of hot-runner technology, Mold-Masters has engineering and manufacture of various automotiveled technological innovation in the field since the early systems such as interior/exterior, metal body and chassis,1960s. It introduced the first copper-alloy system in 1965 as well as electronic and powertrain modules.and now has more 1,600 patents pending or granted. Infact, the strength of Mold-Master‟s IP makes it one of the In the summer 2010, Magna created the $7.2 milliontop ten technology companies in the heavy industrial Magna-NRC (Natural Research Council Canada)equipment sector.9,10 Composite Center of Excellence in Concord, Ontario for the development of lightweight thermoplastic automotive parts. Magna has posted a number of innovations in plastics processing including multi-shot technology, print mold design, and reinforced reaction injection molding (RRIM) urethane technology.11,12Table 1: Top North American Pipe, Profile & Tubing Extruders Rank Company Location 2008 Sales, US$ millions 1 JM Eagle Los Angeles, CA 1,600.00 2 Royal Group Inc. Woodbridge, ON 915.00Top North American Mold Makers Rank Company Location 2008 Sales, US$ millions 1 Husky Injection Molding Bolton, ON 121.00 2 Wentworth Burlington, ON 67.00 3 Proper Mold & Engineering Inc. Warren, MI 55.00 4 H.S, Die & Engineering Inc. Grand Rapids, MI 54.00 5 Hi-Tech Mold & Engineering Inc. Rochester Hills, MI 54.00 6 Concours Mold Inc. Lakeshore, ON 51.00 7 Active Burgess Mould & Design Windsor, ON 50.00 8 Triangle, Tool Corp. Milwaukee, WI 48.50 9 Reko International Group Inc. Oldcastle, ON 46.50 10 Omega Tool Corp. Oldcastle, ON 45.00Source: www.plasticsnews.comToronto Region | 3
  4. 4. Figure 5: Points of Innovation in the Plastics Industry Source: TRRA analysis“The characteristics of the new polymer materials industry The Canadian Plastics Sector Council proposed aare well adapted to Canada’s industrial strengths. Our Technology Roadmap to 2016. It envisions four keypast success leaves Canada with globally competitive components in Canada‟s future plastics industry:13mold makers, machinery manufacturers and engineeringand design capabilities. Competitive threats from large, 1) A shift from the concept of mass production to massemerging industrial economies are largely based on the customization, which combines the benefits of manufacturing processes with the ability to produceold mass production model.” customized goods for customers.Plastics Technology Roadmap, Canadian Plastics Sector Council (2007) 2) Hybrid polymer-based materials. Polymers, the building blocks of plastics, have enormous flexibility in terms ofInnovation in the Plastics Industry design and processing. The combination of polymersThere are opportunities for innovation along the entire and novel additives or reinforcing agents, can give riseplastics value chain, from basic materials, resins and to plastics with novel properties: self-healing, heatadditives to packaging, materials handling and mold resistance, electrical conductivity, temperatureproduction (Figure 5). indicators, traceability.The drivers for innovation in the Canadian industry include: 3) Bioplastics. Low-cost and low-impact renewableglobalization and foreign competition, weakened domestic materials derived from renewable and auto industries, a high Canadian dollar,concerns over recycling and sustainability, and search for 4) An industry in which plastics function as high-valuepetroleum substitutes. products and not commodities.Figure 6: Related Research Institutes in the Toronto RegionSource: TRRA analysis Toronto Region | 4
  5. 5. Polymer-related R&DOverview of R&D Expertise in the Toronto Total NSERC Funding in Canada 1999-2009:Region $121.4 million for 2615 projectsIn addition to the strong industrial base, the Toronto Figure 7a: Polymer-related R&DRegion is an active hub of polymer and plastics-related Total NSERC Funding in Canada 1999-2009: $121.4 million for 2615 projectsresearch activities. There are 100 researchers engaged inrelated research at approximately 30 institutes and Britishcenters in the Region (Figure 6). Columbia Québec 10% 29% AlbertaFunding 8% Distribution of CFI Funding for Plastics and Polymers Projects by Region (1999-2009) Total CFI Funding in Canada: $97,469,339Nearly $219 million was invested in polymer-related R&D Otherin the physical sciences and advanced manufacturing 10%across Canada (1999-2009). The Toronto Region Rest of Ontario Toronto Regionreceived 29% of NSERC (Natural Sciences and 14% 29%Engineering Research Council of Canada) and 46% of theCFI (Canada Foundation for Innovation) funds (Figure 7aand 7b). Figure 7b: Distribution of CFI Funding for Plastics andCFI funding is used for research infrastructure related to Polymers Projects by Region (1999-2009)plastics and polymer projects. Examples of funded Total CFI Funding in Canada: $97,469,339centers include University of Toronto‟s Center forNanostructured Polymeric and Inorganic Materials and the Toronto RegionCenter for Characterization of Polymers and Cellular Rest of Canada 46%Polymeric Composites at the University of Ontario 37%Institute of Technology in Oshawa. Three Toronto Regionuniversities, Waterloo University, McMaster and Universityof Toronto, accounted for 26% (or $31.7 million) of allNSERC funds.14,15 Rest of Ontario 17%PublicationsThe Toronto Region is one of the top North American Source: TRRA analysis based on NSERC and CFI data, 2010regions in the number of scientific publications related tothe field of polymers and plastics. It was ranked fifth inNorth America in plastics resins, which involves researchon both conventional (petrochemicals) and renewable Figure 8: Top Publishing Global Regions on Plasticsources (plants) between 1999 and 2009. It was also Processing and their Citation Impact (1999-2009) their Citation Top Publishing Global Regions on Plastic Processing andranked number six in polymer composites and hybrids, Impact (1999-2009)which includes the study of traditional polymer composites 70 8.5 9.7 10.0 60(e.g. fiber-reinforced) as well as systems with novel 7.9 8.0 Number of Publications 50 7.0additives (e.g. nanoparticles). 40 6.0 6.0 4.9 30 5.0 4.3 4.0 20The Toronto Region is exceptionally strong in R&D related 10 1.4 1.6 2.0to plastics processing – research related to the 0 0.0manufacture of plastics and plastic products including ) ) on ) ) ) K y) na io ea an c . . r. . (U (. . be an ar gi hi or ap bo nt Re ue es ge m (C K (J Ar O er a (Q id hextrusion, injection molding and in-mold decorating ou o ar a (G ut br nt nn ub e m zh So ro am ill n A ui uk ng he v To l( & G er C Ts au ou ac(Figure 8). The Region placed second worldwide in the n & ch d, or & G A Se or ga ou rb o xf a ky B ae Br ,O l& Tonumber of scientific publications and the research is of D o, on g, a rt re nd in po t ns on Lo ,Ohighest impact (second overall in citation impact or La M Num ber of Publications iro st ve Ea Citation Im pact Acitations per publication).16 Source: TRRA Analysis based on ISI Web of Knowledge, 2010 Toronto Region | 5
  6. 6. Experts Robert Pelton, Professor of Chemical Engineering at McMaster University andThe Toronto Region is home to thirteen Canada Research Canada Research Chair in InterfacialChairs (CRC) and two NSERC Industrial Chairs in the Technologies (Tier 1), leads one of thearea of polymers and plastics, including CRC in Advanced world‟s most prolific academic researchPolymer Materials, CRC in Smart and Functional groups in the area of polymer-paperPolymers, CRC in Polymer Science and Engineering, and making. He conducts industrially-relevantCRC in Soft Matter Physics. 14,17 research and frequently collaborates with private partners including BASF Canada, Vale Inco, and Domtar.The following are select experts who are internationalleaders in their respective fields with extensive history of His expertise lies in microgels, colloids, adhesion science,industry collaboration: interfacial engineering of paper-based materials, and paper surface chemistry and bioactivity. He has authored Mitch Winnik, Professor of Chemistry at over 200 publications and patents in polymers and the University of Toronto and Director of papermaking processes. Dr. Pelton is the director of the the Centre for Nanostructured Polymer SENTINEL Network, a Canadian Network for the and Inorganic Materials, has produced development and use of bioactive paper.20 polymer research of the highest industrial impact. His work has been recognized as Amar Mohanty, Professor and Ontario making top technical contributions to the Premiers Research Chair in Biomaterialscoating and paint industries and he is, in fact, one of the and Transportation at the University ofmost highly-cited researchers over the last 20 years. Guelph, is a passionate advocate of a provincial bioeconomy – an economy inDr, Winnik is the author of over 400 technical papers which plant materials, not petroleum, formand holder of 12 patents. His expertise is in the formation the basis for resins, polymers and fibersof films from latex dispersion, the basis for coating for plastics.technologies. He is also a pioneer in the application offluorescence spectroscopy to polymer systems. Much of With 13 US patents and more than 350 publications, hehis research is conducted in collaboration with industrial has established himself as a leading expert in the field ofpartners (e.g. Dow Chemicals, DuPont, 3M, Eastman biobased materials, biofuels and biorefinery. He servesKodak).18,19 on a number of editorial boards of leading publications, including the International Journal of Plastics Technology Global leadership in the area of foamed and is the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Biobased plastics is provided by Dr. Chul Park, a Materials and Bioenergy. His research interests are Professor of Mechanical and Industrial biobased materials including green natural fiber Engineering Department at the University composites, bioplastics, and renewable biodegradable of Toronto. He is the holder of the polymers and sustainable packaging.22 Canada Research Chair (Tier 1) in Advanced Polymer ProcessingTechnologies and the Director of Toronto‟s MicrocellularPlastics Manufacturing Lab.Dr. Park‟s research revolves around novel microcellularprocessing technologies, computational modeling andmeasurement of thermophysical and rheologicalproperties. He has an extensive portfolio of projectscarried out with the private sector in the area ofmicrocellular processing, inert gas-injection processing,rotational foam molding, and wood-fiber composites.He is also leading the Consortium for Cellular andMicrocellular Plastics (CCMCP), a network supportedby over 20 industry members.21 Toronto Region | 6
  7. 7. Projects $5.9 million from the Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation, $5.9 million from universities and $5.9 millionThe Toronto Region is home to large-scale from 12 private partners, the objective is to have every carmultidisciplinary projects that push the innovation frontier in Ontario with a green interior, made entirely fromin the plastics industry thus providing the private sector composites of agricultural crops such as corn and wheat.with the opportunity to tap into the expertise and advancedequipment of Toronto Region universities (Figure 9). The project brings together 16 researchers whose expertise spans across the entire value chain: raw plantOntario BioAuto Council (Guelph, Ontario) materials and crop genetics at the University of Guelph,Within the Council the emphasis is on biomaterials, processing and separation of biological feedstock at theincluding flexible foams for automotive interiors and wood University of Toronto, engineering composite resins andfiber composites for automotive and construction sectors. polymers at the University of Waterloo and integration ofWith an estimated $6 million in funding since 2006, the bio-based components into cars at the University ofCouncil connects Ontario‟s industries that would be Windsor. Industrial partners include Ford, Chrysler,considered major stakeholders in a bio-based economy: DuPont, Magna, Arkema, and the Ontario Wheat Board.25agriculture and forestry sectors, chemical and plasticsproducers, and advanced manufacturing. Intelligent Food Packaging (Guelph, Ontario) The goal of Professor Loong-Tak Lim‟s research is toThe Council oversees applications from Ontario for-profit fabricate “intelligent” food packaging by using electrospunventures for biomaterials commercialization or market- nanofibers from biodegradable sources as the basis forready products and processes. It partners with companies packaging materials to extend the shelf life of liquids. He ison projects of up to $2 million. The Council received $2.5 working with DuPont‟s Kingston R&D center. As anmillion from the Ontario government to fund three Toronto Assistant Professor in the Department of Food Science atRegion companies involved in the manufacture of green the University of Guelph, his expertise is in activeauto parts from crops: Canadian General-Tower Ltd., the packaging, encapsulation, electrospinning, biodegradableWoodbridge Group, and GreenCore Composites.23,24 polymers, and edible films.26Ontario BioCar Initiative (Guelph, Ontario)This initiative represents a multi-university project led bythe University of Guelph with the involvement of theautomotive and agricultural industries. Equipped withFigure 9: Examples of Ontario BioAuto Council-funded ProjectsSource: TRRA analysis Toronto Region | 7
  8. 8. NSERC Network for Innovative Plastic Materialsand Manufacturing Processes (NIPMMP) Did you know…(Toronto, Ontario)  Production of well-known plastics (polyethylene,With $5 million over five years (2010-2014) from polystyrene) grew in the 1940s to fuel theNSERC, the Network for Innovative Plastic Materials war effort.and Manufacturing Processes (NIPMMP) brings together  World‟s first: Ford introduced wheat straw-23 professors from 11 Canadian universities, as well as reinforced plastic interior storage bins in the 201020 Canadian industrial partners and the NRC-Industrial Ford Flex based on a part produced through theMaterials Institute. Ontario BioCar Initiative.Under the leadership of Toronto professor Park Chul,  Intelligent packaging will be one of the fastest-the vision for the Network is to develop innovative growing segments in the plastics industry with anmanufacturing technologies for value-added plastics estimated market of US$590 million by 2013.across four themes: biomaterials, lightweight hybrid (Source:, micro- and nano-structured polymericmaterials and microcellular foams.The objective of the Network is to position Canada as aleader in innovative polymer materials and technologies Referencesand at the same time produce plastics that combine 1. Plastic News, „Leo Baekeland‟s Marvelous Material: Plastics Newssuperior properties (high strength, lightweight, low Opinion‟, Celebrating a Century of Plastics: 1907-2007 [web document] (2010) <>,density) with the functionality of traditional plastics for a accessed 10 May 2010.range of end-markets: automotive, aerospace, biomedical, 2. Kathleen Masterson/NPR, „The History of Plastic: From Billiards toconstruction, packaging and electronics industries.27 Bibs‟, Special Series: Plastic Peril? The Science Behind Everyday Plastics [web page] (22 Dec. 2009)Conclusion <>, accessed 10 May 2010.The Toronto Region has gained an international 3. Industry Canada, „Canadian Plastic Products Industry‟, Plastics [webreputation for high-quality plastics machinery and mold page] (Jan. 2010) < It is home to corporate headquarters of nsf/eng/pl01383.html>, accessed 18 Feb. 2010.industry-leading companies that benefit from linkages with 4. Government of Canada Invest in Canada, „The Case for theother sectors in the region (automotive, construction). The Canadian Plastics Industry‟, Plastics [web page] (2010)emphasis on green energy in Ontario and the passage of <>,the Green Energy Act, which sets local content accessed 2 March 2010.requirements, will provide the plastics industry with 5. Plastics News, Rankings/Lists [web page] (2010)opportunities to diversify and to supply the growing clean < >, accessed 2technology industry with plastic parts and components. March 2010. 6. TRRA Analysis based on Industry Canada, Trade Data Online (TDO)An estimated 100 experts in the Toronto Region conduct [web database] <>, accessed 2 March 2008.highly-regarded plastics R&D at nearly 30 relatedresearch institutes. The research in plastics processing is 7. TRRA Analysis based on Industry Canada, „Canadian Company Capabilities (CCC)‟, [web database] < recognized and is of the highest impact. rec. nsf/eng/home>, accessed Dec. 2008.The universities in the region are increasingly connecting 8. Husky Injection Molding Systems, [web page] (2010with private partners to work on high value-added plastics <>, accessed 11 March 2010.for advanced applications. The government is supporting 9. Mold-Masters Limited, [web page] (2010)large-scale projects in innovative plastics. <>, accessed 11 March 2010. 10. The Patent Board™, „Patent Scorecard™ 2010‟, [web page] (2010) <>, accessed 11 March 2010. 11. Michael Lauzon, „Magna Setting up R&D Centre for Lightweight Automotive‟, Plastics News [web page] (28 Dec. 2009) <>, accessed 2 June 2010. 12. Magna International Inc., [web page] (2010) <>, accessed 11 March 2010. 13. Canadian Plastics Industry Association, A Technology Roadmap for the Plastics Industry (Prism Economics and Analysis, 2007). Toronto Region | 8
  9. 9. 14. Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Copyright „Awards Search Engine‟, [web page] (3 March 2010) < >, All information in this publication is protected by copyright, accessed 4 June 2010. pursuant to Canadian copyright laws, international15. Canada Foundation for Innovation, [web page] (2010) conventions, and other copyright laws. All rights reserved. <>, accessed 23 April 2010. Any reproduction, modification, publication, transmission,16. Thomson Reuters, ISI Web of KnowledgeSM [web page] (2010) transfer, sale, distribution, display or exploitation of the <>, accessed 16 March 2010. information, in any form or by any means, or its storage in17. Government of Canada, Canada Research Chairs [web page] (2010) a retrieval system, whether in whole or in part, without the <>, accessed express written permission of the Toronto Region 23 April 2010. Research Alliance is prohibited.18. M. A. Winnik Research Group, [web page] (31 Oct. 2008) <>, accessed 18 Disclaimer Feb. 2010.19. Thomson ISI, „ISI Highly Cited Researchers‟, ISI Web of KnowledgeSM While efforts have been made to verify the accuracy of the [web page] (2008) <>, accessed 18 Feb. information contained in this publication, neither the 2010. authors nor TRRA make any representations or warranty,20. Robert Pelton‟s Interfacial Technologies Group, [web page] (2007) express or implied, including without limitations, as to the <>, accessed 2 June 2010. quality and merchantability and fitness for use of any21. Microcellular Plastics Manufacturing Laboratory, [web page] (2009) material contained in this document. The information is <>, accessed 19 provided “As Is” and TRRA cannot warrant that any of the Feb. 2010. materials posted will be accurate and up to date at any22. University of Guelph, „Welcome to Amar Mohanty‟s Website‟, [web particular point in time. page] (2010) Proprietary information of others is used by permission <>, and may be have further use restricted as noted. accessed 3 Nov. 2010. References to any items supplied or manufactured by a23. Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation, „Investing in Greener Car third party does not constitute endorsement by TRRA of Parts‟, News Release [web page] (22 Jan. 2009) <>, those items. References or links to websites belonging to accessed 10 March 2010. entities other than TRRA are provided for informational24. Ontario BioAuto Council, [web page] (2010) purposes and do not constitute either implied or expressed <>, accessed 10 March 2010. endorsement by TRRA of the materials posted on those25. Ontario BioCar Initiative, [web page] (2010) websites. <>, accessed 3 Nov. 2010.26. Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation, „Coming Soon to Your Grocery Store. Intelligent Food Packaging‟, Success Stories [web page] (2010) < ack.asp>, accessed 9 March 2010.27. Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, „NSERC Network for Innovative Plastic Materials and Manufacturing Processes (NIPMMP)‟, Strategic Networks [web document] (2010) < Reseaux/NIPMMP-NIPMMP_eng.asp>, accessed 31 March 2010. Toronto Region Research Alliance 101 College Street, Suite HL 30 Toronto, ON M5G 1L7 Tel 416 673 6670 Fax 416 673 6671 Email Visit us at Follow us @torontoresearch © 2011 Toronto Region Research Alliance Toronto Region | 9