Helen O'Connor - Proteins, Carbs & GI. What's the latest?


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Helen O'Connor - Proteins, Carbs & GI. What's the latest?

  1. 1. 22/04/13  1  Protein, Carbs & GIWhat’s the Latest?Dr Helen O’Connor APD1Senior Lecturer NutritionUniversity of SydneyOverviewScientific Evidence for Higher Protein Diets›  What is a higher protein diet?›  How much protein do we need?›  Weight management-  Lighter and leaner-  Metabolic health-  Nutrient density-  Appetite & eating behaviourCarbs – The Good, The Bad & Secrets to Success›  Evidence for low GI carbs›  Secrets to Success2What is a Higher Protein Diet?Nutrient Guidelines1 Paleo2 Hi-Protein3Protein (%E) 15-25 34 25-35Fat (%E) 20-35 21 10-30Carb (%E) 45-65 45 35-6531NHMRC; 2Eaton & Kroner 1985; 3Wycherley et al 2012How Much Protein Do We Need?›  Evidence of a ‘set point’ requirement for protein›  Different requirement across species›  Eating continues until protein requirement is reached›  Known as ‘Protein Leverage Hypothesis’Case Example›  Energy Needs 10,700 kJ/day›  Estimated protein requirement (1500 kJ/day)›  Remainder from carbs and fat (9,200 kJ/day)›  You keep eating until protein intake is satisfied4Excess CHO/Fatconsumed to meetProtein targetEaten quota of CHO + Fat but stilleating to get Protein requirementEaten quota of kJ but still short of proteinProtein Leverage Hypothesis5Range of possible diet rails to meet protein targetMore energy consumed tomeet Protein targetLess energyto meet proteintarget6High Protein Diets & Weight LossWycherley et al 2012
  2. 2. 22/04/13  2  High Protein Diets & Fat Loss7Wycherley et al 2012High Protein Diets & Lean Mass8Wycherley et al 2012Case Study: Pete9›  52 yrs old, overweight›  Metabolic syndrome›  Office worker, gym 3/wkProtein close to exercise is beneficial for hypertrophy inyoung menCribb & Hayes Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006Protein WindowProtein aroundthe time oftrainingimproves gainsin lean massTiming of Protein IntakeCribb & Hayes Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006Timing right alsotranslated intoimprovedstrength gainsCase Study: Samantha12›  21 y; few kg overweight›  Feels fatter than she really is›  Low iron & tired›  Training every day›  Frustrated with weight lossWeight Gain in Young Women› Moving away from home› Busy with work and/or study› Eating out and alcohol› Limited shopping/cooking skills› Budget constraints› Decline in physical activity› Cohabitation (friends or partner)› Marriage & pregnancy› Limited research on young women Ball et al 2002
  3. 3. 22/04/13  3  Weight Gain Greatest in Young Women13http://www.alswh.org.au/Young Women(n=5770)Mid-age Women(n=8942)Older Women(n=6777)649(95% CI: 620-678)492(95% CI: 467-516)162(95% CI: 185-140)Australian Longitudinal Study of Women’s HealthWeight Gain (g/year) 1996-2003Popkin 2010 – review 1990-2000Risks of Weight Gain in Young Women› Weight Tracks Upward- Negative physical & mental health› Reproductive Health- Infertility- Obstetric complications- Epigenetic effects for off spring› Family & Future Health- Women decide family meals- Modelling health behaviour important- Vicious cycle for future generations14Macronutrients Study Diets & ExerciseNutrient HP Diet HC DietEnergy (kJ) 5615 5602Protein (g) 107 (32% of E) 67 (20% of E)Carbohydrate (g) 138 (41% of E) 191 (58% of E)Sugars (g) 73 83GI/GL 46/61 52/93Dietary fibre (g) 23 24Total fat (g) 38 (25% of E) 32 (21% of E)Saturated fat (g) 11 10Cholesterol (mg) 298 8730 min accumulated physical activity daily (activity diary)Weight Loss16P=0.06P=0.16Iron Deficiency in Overweight/ObeseYoung Women171.  Ahmed et al 20082.  Fayet & Samman 20074. Manuscript under reviewPossiblyhigherprevalence inyoungerwomen?Micronutrients - Study DietsNutrient EAR/AI HP Diet HC DietThiamin (mg) 0.9 1.6 1.8Riboflavin (mg) 0.9 2.5 2.5Niacin Equiv (mg) 11 47 32Vitamin C (mg) 30 156 160Total Folate (µg) 320 332 355Vitamin A Equiv (µg) 500 1058 1307Sodium (mg) 460-920 2186 1940Potassium (mg) 2800 3554 3096Magnesium (mg) 255 318 268Calcium (mg) 840 908 877Phosphorus (mg) 580 1725 1282Iron (mg) 8.0 12.2 9.9Zinc (mg) 6.5 11.7 7.6Red meat4 times aweek onlynutrientstill short(70%) ofthe RDI.MoreHaemeiron thanHC
  4. 4. 22/04/13  4  Nutrient Density of Higher Protein Diet19Bioavailability isImportantIron Stores Maintained Better on HP Diet20-­‐10  -­‐5  0  5  10  15  20  0   6   12  Ferri%n  (µgL-­‐1)  Time  (months)  Self esteem also increased more on HP dietToo Tired to Lose Weight?21Food, Mood & Mind StudyHunger & Desire to Eat220123456Baseline 3  months 6  months 12  monthsHunger  VAS  ScoreHigher  Protein  Diet  (n=21) Higher  Carbohydrate  Diet  (n=15)p =0.525 p =0.070p =0.227p =0.9740123456Baseline 3  months 6  months 12  monthsDesire  to  Eat  VAS  ScoreHigher  Protein  Diet  (n=21) Higher  Carbohydrate  Diet  (n=15)p =0.316 p =0.059p =0.184p =0.939Repeated Measures ANOVA:Diet: 0.184; Diet*Time: 0.229; Time: 0.459Repeated Measures ANOVA:Diet: 0.138; Diet*Time: 0.337; Time: 0.203VAS: Hunger extremely hungry not at all hungryDesire extremely strong not at all strongHunger & Desire to Eat Lower on HP DietDiogenes Weight Maintenance23LP-HGI &ControlMost WeightRegainHP or LGIalonemoderatebenefit0.93 kg lessgain in HP &0.95 kg lessin low GIHP-LGIbestLarsen et al 2010Case Study: Robyn24•  36 y; training for a marathon•  Following paleo diet•  Tired & not getting resultsRomjin et al 1984Robyn is Training LOWLOW carbs = SLOW timesDelayed RecoveryRobyn needs carbs to getsome quality ‘train high’
  5. 5. 22/04/13  5  Train Low in Well TrainedYeo et al 2008; JAP 105 (5); 1462-1470Low unableto maintainintensityduring HIITdespitefinancialincentivesMarathon Des Sables -Toughest Footrace on Earth26Paleo Runner: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2eFQs7bu-P8&noredirect=1Stage Tom Wyles(Paleo)Mr Inexperienced#(Carbs)1 235 302*2 185 473 207 404 99 365 62 28Finish 118 46* Finished 96th but incurred 1 h penalty for not filling out form correctlyafter medical treatment for sore feet#Mr Inexperienced advised by Dr Greg Cox Sports Dietitian AISSecrets to Success› Fresh produce› Varied diet (healthyeatingquiz.com.au)› Higher protein, moderate carb intake› Low GI carbs for health & weight loss› Nutritional balance› Iron is limiting nutrient – leads to tiredness› Tired clients train poorly and lower diet compliance› Top gear training needs ‘right carbs’27‘When the training gets tough, the tough eat enough carbs’Professor Louise Burke, AISLibby Trickett 2009OlympianFreestyle & FlyQuestions28