Cleantech Playground (Amsterdam)


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Cleantech Playground (Amsterdam)

  1. 1. cleantech playground A CLEANTECH UTILITY IN AMSTERDAM NORTH FEBRUARY 2013metaboliclab
  2. 2. This document is CC-BY-SA-NC 2013 Metabolic LabYou are free: • to Share: to copy, distribute and transmit the work.Under the following conditions: • Attribution: You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). • Non Commercial: You may not use this work for commercial purposes. • No Derivative Works: You may not alter, transform, or build upon this work.With the understanding that: • Waiver: Any of the above conditions can be waived if you get per- mission from the copyright holder. • Public Domain: Where the work or any of its elements is in the pub- lic domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license. • Other Rights: In no way are any of the following rights affected by the license: • Your fair dealing or fair use rights, or other applicable copyright exceptions and limitations; • The author’s moral rights; • Rights other persons may have either in the work itself or in how the work is used, such as publicity or privacy rights. Version 2.1 - February 11, 2013 ISBN: 978 - 90 - 5059 - 501 - 8Notice — For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. InnovatieNetwerk Report Number: 13.2.312 2 / 146
  3. 3. Reading GuideThis report consists of the following main sections: The Executive Summary describes the main fea- The Vision and Deployment Plans describe how tures of the modeled “test case” that we used to the final system for each of the sites should work• An Executive Summary examine the feasibility of the technical designs for and how much it will cost. The Deployment Plans• A Process Description both the de Ceuvel and Schoonschip communi- detail which steps need to be taken over three• A Vision and Deployment Plan for each of ties. phases to achieve this end vision. the two urban developments (de Ceuvel and Schoonschip) The Process Description provides a quick snap- The Appendices contain additional information on• Appendices with additional data shot of the steps we took to achieve these final the site, rules and regulations, assumptions about designs. site resource demand, and the initial scenarios we developed as part of the design process. 4 / 146
  4. 4. IndexFOREWORD6 SCHOONSCHIP: VISION 60 urban plan 62 costs and time line 64INTRODUCTION 9 final material flows 66EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 14 SCHOONSCHIP: DEPLOYMENT PLAN 68 de ceuvel 16 phase I: house construction 70 schoonschip 18 phase II: capacity expansion 82 phase III: ugrades experimentation 93PROCESS STRATEGY 20 design process 22 system goals 24 NEXT STEPS 94 ctp toolkit 28 APPENDICES98DE CEUVEL: VISION30 appendix a: site details 100 urban plan 32 appendix b: regulations 10 costs and time line 34 appendix c: baseline demand 112 final material flows 36 appendix d: initial concept designs 118 DE CEUVEL: DEPLOYMENT PLAN 38 phase I: boat retrofits 40 COLOFON 142 phase II: on-site construction 48 phase III : upgrades experimentation 58
  5. 5. Voorwoord InnovatieNetwerkEen van de grote uitdagingen op het gebied van duur- ren van energie, bijvoorbeeld door faciliteiten te delen,zaamheid is het sluiten van kringlopen. Met name in zoals wasmachines die worden gevoed met warm ineen stedelijke context is dit een hardnekkig probleem. plaats van koud water. Ook de verantwoordelijkheidGemeenten zamelen gescheiden afvalstromen in, par- voor de eigen voedselvoorziening vraagt om een conti-ticulieren kiezen steeds vaker voor het opwekken van nue inspanning van bewoners en gebruikers.eigen zonne-energie en stadslandbouwprojecten zijner in overvloed, maar we kunnen nog lang niet spreken De eerste locatie in Amsterdam-Noord – kantorenparkvan gesloten nutriëntenkringlopen en onafhankelijk- De Ceuvel – wordt in 2013 ingericht, hopelijk snelheid van fossiele energie. Kunnen we kringlopen gevolgd door de drijvende woonwijk Schoonschip.beter sluitend krijgen als we de stad gaan zien als een Beide locaties kunnen uitgroeien tot een ‘speeltuin’natuurlijk ecosysteem? voor schone technologie en kunnen gaan dienen als een blauwdruk voor nieuwe stedelijke ontwikkeling,Deze vraag staat centraal in het rapport ‘Cleantech gebaseerd op de ecosysteemgedachte. Zij kunnenPlayground’, waarbij voor twee locaties in Amsterdam- daarmee een inspiratiebron vormen voor stedebouw-Noord een plan is gemaakt om voedselproductie, kundigen, architecten en stadslandbouwprojecten dieafvalwaterzuivering en energieopwekking te combi- hun initiatief op een hoger en duurzamer plan willenneren. De ene locatie betreft een drijvende woonwijk tillen.(Schoonschip) en de andere – naastgelegen – locatieeen tijdelijk kantorenpark (De Ceuvel). Door op een Ger Vosslimme manier verschillende technologieën samen te InnovatieNetwerkvoegen heeft het bedrijf Metabolic Lab een ontwerpgemaakt dat kringlopen vergaand sluitend maakt. Detoekomstige gebruikers en bewoners van de tweelocaties zijn vanaf het begin intensief bij het ontwerpbetrokken, omdat kringlopen alleen sluitend te krijgenzijn als bewoners en gebruikers zelf willen investerenin duurzame technologie en als ze bereid zijn om hunleefstijl aan te passen. Onafhankelijkheid van fossieleenergie begint immers bij het zoveel mogelijk bespa- 6 / 146
  6. 6. InnovationNetwork ForewordOne of the major challenges in the field of sustainable that can take hot instead of cold water as inputs. On-development is the closing of cycles. Especially in site food production will require continued effort andurban contexts, linear material flows remain a per- maintenance from both residents and users.sistent problem. Municipalities collect segregatedwaste streams, individuals are increasingly opting to The first location, the office park de Ceuvel, will begingenerate their own solar energy, and urban agriculture construction in 2013, hopefully soon to be followedprojects abound, but we still cannot point to examples by the floating residential community Schoonschip.of successfully closed nutrient cycles or true indepen- Both locations can become a “playground” for cleandence from fossil energy. Can we be more successful technology and serve as a blueprint for new urbanat closing cycles if we start to see cities as natural development, modeled after natural ecosystems. Theyecosystems? can thus serve as a source of inspiration for urban planners, architects, and urban agriculture projectsThis question is central to the ‘Cleantech Playground’ that wish to raise the ambition and sustainability ofreport, which describes a plan made for two locations their Amsterdam North that combines food production,sanitation, and energy systems. One of the sites is a Ger Vosfloating residential development (Schoonschip) and Innovation Networkthe other, next door, an office park on a temporarydevelopment site (de Ceuvel). By cleverly combiningdifferent technologies, Metabolic Lab designed asystem that closes material cycles on both sites. Thefuture users and residents of both developments wereintensively involved in the design process. Their invol-vement was essential as it is these users who will needto invest in the sustainable technologies and be willingto adjust their lifestyles. Achieving independence fromfossil energy starts by achieving maximum energysavings, such as those that can be gained through theuse of shared facilities, like using washing machines
  7. 7. “By following the recommended phasing plan and achiev- ing the technological and social targets outlined in the Cleantech Playground plan, de Ceuvel and Schoonschip can become among the most socially and ecologically sus- tainable developments in the world.“8 / 146
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION the cleantech playgroundThe Cleantech Playground (CTP) is a planned cleantech have many areas open for public visits where these technologies The de Ceuvel project was initiated by spacematter andutility and demonstration ground that will be integrated will be on display for all to see and understand. Smeelearchitectuur, and the concept for the site was developedthroughout two adjacent sites in North Amsterdam: a by spacematter. De Ceuvel is a 10-year temporary developmentland-based office and commercial park, de Ceuvel, and a Construction on the de Ceuvel site will begin in spring of 2013. that will feature beatifully retrofitted houseboats placed on thewater-based residential community, Schoonschip. It will The Schoonschip community does not yet have its site secured, land and surrounded by a “forbidden garden” of soil-cleaningcombine urban agriculture, small-scale renewable energy but hopes to win a tender procedure held by the municipality of plants. The architectural plan for both sites has been developedtechnologies, biological water purification systems, urban Amsterdam for a property directly adjacent to de Ceuvel. by spacematter and the phytoremediation plan for the defood production, and several other components of a healthy Ceuvel site is being developed by Delva Landscape Architectsurban metabolism to: in collaboration with the University of Ghent in Belgium. The PROJECT BACKGROUND overall feasibility study for both projects was conducted by›› produce food spacematter (design) and Duurzaam Drijvend Wonen (financ-›› purify water Schoonschip and de Ceuvel are two separate community devel- es).›› generate energy opment projects that were initiated by different, but overlapping›› treat organic waste groups of citizens. Sustainability has been a key objective of In September 2012, Metabolic Lab received financial support›› support cleantech RD, and both projects since their inception, with both groups requiring from InnovatieNetwerk, a program of the Dutch ministry of›› provide education and inspiration for those wishing to all members to sign a manifesto committing them to sustainable economic affairs, to help translate the projects’ high sustainabil- adopt decentralized and renewable technologies living and practices. ity ambitions into a concrete, implementable technical design with a workable business case. The design process involvedThis report presents Metabolic Lab’s recommendations for how Schoonschip was the initiative of Marjan de Blok who was in- close collaboration with the existing development team as wellto achieve these goals in a financially, socially, and technologi- spired by the Gewoonboot, a largely autarkic houseboat docked as regular feedback from both the Schoonschip and de Ceuvelcally feasible manner. By following the recommended phasing in Amsterdam North, to imagine the possibility of a sustainable communities and other relevant stakeholders. Metabolic Labplan and achieving the targets outlined here, de Ceuvel and floating community in her home city. She soon found a group of worked closely with these groups to develop a technologicalSchoonschip can become among the most socially and ecologi- citizens inspired by the same vision, and formed a foundation to plan that was consistent with the broader vision behind bothcally sustainable developments in the world. oversee the process. This now close-knit community has been developments. working towards securing a site for the execution of the planOur recommendations also include ways to make the system since 2009, with many of the community’s members taking lead-measurable and transparent; a network of sensors installed ing roles in pushing the project forward (among them, boardthroughout both sites will monitor the system’s performance, members Sjoerd Dijkstra, Thomas Sykora, and Marnix van derdisplay this information for the community, and provide insights Pool).for continued development. In particular, the de Ceuvel site will
  9. 9. PROJECT OUTCOMES trees that will guide users through the suitable technologi- At the end of all three deployment phases, both sites should be cal options we have identified for the site. fully self-sufficient in renewable energy, water management,This document summarizes the work done by the Metabolic organic waste processing, and a large part of food production.Lab team since phase two of both projects began in September ›› A financial modeling tool that will allow users to see the2012. Though this was officially a conceptual design and feasibil- cost and earnings profile of any selected technological mix, BLUEPRINT FOR SUSTAINABLE CITIESity study for the technological aspects of the plan, our goal from including upfront investment, overall costs, and paybackthe start was to ensure that the design we developed would lead times. Besides aiming to exceed the targets currently set by state-of-to a socially, technologically, and financially realistic plan within the-art ecovillages, the drive behind the CTP is to fundamentallythe contexts’ of both Schoonschip and de Ceuvel. ›› A phasing and deployment plan recommending when shift the pattern of urbanization by providing a reusable blue- investments should be made in order to keep the project print for development. A large part of this is the goal of makingFrom early on in the process, we knew that a single, inflexible de- financially feasible while still reaching the highest sustain- these systems transparent and educational for visitors who wishsign would not constitute a realistic solution for these sites. Both ability targets. to see the functioning of the system.communities are diverse in terms of their financial means anddesired levels of hands-on involvement. Moreover, due to the ›› Recommendations for creating specific management Cities are currently consumers. They are drainage points fornature of both projects, there remain many unknown variables structures within both communities to handle do-it- resources; river deltas of food, fuels, metals, minerals, and otherin how the development process will unfold. One of the clearest yourself (DIY) constructions and shared oversight respon- valuable materials. Despite their enormous social, cultural, andexamples of this uncertainty is the fact that the de Ceuvel site sibilities, such as system maintenance, which will continue economic value, the primary physical output of cities is waste.will be populated with upcycled houseboats, most of which throughout the lifetime of both developments. A majority of the materials that enter are destined to becomestill need to be acquired. Properly retrofitting these houseboats pollutants of some kind.will require a plan that is specifically adapted to the quality and Taken together, these elements result in a flexible toolkit oftypology of each boat. Meanwhile, the Schoonschip community technologies than can be selected by individual home or office As urbanization continues at a fast clip, we believe it is essentialhas diverse income levels and housing preferences, which can- owners based on their specific requirments, financial situations, to alter this pattern of lineral material flows by making citiesnot be optimally served with a single design. To handle these and market prices for technologies at the time of construction. producers in their own right. This shift requires the adoption ofunknown variables, we have developed an overall technological new technologies, new infrastructural patterns, and changes inframework and toolkit that includes the following elements: TEST SCENARIOS the mindsets of individuals and communities.›› Performance targets: A set of performance targets for To make our recommendations concrete, this document pres- URBAN ECOSYSTEM each major aspect of site construction (on the level of indi- ents a worked out test case for each site to demonstrate that vidual buildings as well as the level of each neighborhood the toolkit yields options that are feasible even for the lowest The Cleantech Playground can be seen as an urban ecosystem as a whole). possible range of financial flexibility. embedded into the fabric of the city. All ecosystems are made up of a complex web of actors: plants that harvest sunlight as›› Fixed and flexible elements: a mix of fixed technological We summarize the general plan, the anticipated system perfor- fuel, herbivores that consume the plants, carnivores and omni- recommendations and flexible elements that can be se- mance, and estimated costs for each site. For both Schoonschip vores that consume each other, and detritivores that break down lected by users depending on their specific preferences and and de Ceuvel, we have described the final vision of how the wastes, bringing nutrients back into a state that can be used as financial means (similar to buying a computer or car and communities will function and relate to the suggested technolo- food by other living creatures in the system. being able to choose preferred options and add-ons). gies. We have also included a more detailed deployment plan for how new technologies can be adopted over time by the users Natural systems are not perfect, but they are much more ef-›› A technology selection tool consisting of a set of decision of both areas. ficient than most current urban and industrial human systems. 10 / 146
  10. 10. DIY wind turbine - approx 1kW - uses inexpensive and available materialsIntegrated collector system with PV- cold water cools the panels, increasing efficiency DIY photovoltaic cells and producing warm water. hydroponic systems and roof gardens dual flush toilet to heat exchanger Jetty contains piping, cables, and water filtration Electricity storage possibilities Electric vehicles small scale DIY digester systems - peak load balancing - produces biogas - consistent demand - harvests nutrients and heat Battery bank storage - inexpensive - uses reclaimed batteries Grid connection - cost savings - ensures reliability internal grey water to biofilter treatment
  11. 11. Above are photos of members of the Schoonschip community taken throughout the fall and winter of 2012/13 by Marnix van der Pool, one ofthe community members. This close-knit group is highly committed to achieving a vision of sustainable living. 12 / 146
  12. 12. Ecosystems are made up of diverse, complementary players, PROJECT TARGETS viable within the short- to mid-term, and to be user-friendlyconsuming and producing materials and energy in short cycles. enough that they represent a realistic alternative to theThey are also quite resilient to abrupt changes, like storms and We believe that the Cleantech Playground will be a success if it status quo. All of the designs and calculations for our workmodifications to the environment, because they have many exceeds the standards of existing eco-communities in at least are therefore published under a non-commercial Creativedifferent species fulfilling the same role and compensating for the following ways: Commons License and distributed broadly to encouragethe decline of any individual actor or species due to disease or widespread adoption.environmental stress. ›› Achieving the highest goals for renewable resource management (further defined in the “goals” section onOur goal with the Cleantech Playground was to create a system pages 24 and 25). PROJECT EXECUTIONthat works similarly to an ecosystem: harvesting ambient energyand water for use on site, cycling nutrients locally, and creating ›› Exemplifying integrated design principles. We recog- Perhaps the most important measure of success, however, willan environment that is supportive of natural biodiversity. Our nize that sustainability goes far beyond just physical re- be to see the Cleantech Playground actually built. As part of ourgoal is to create a new blueprint for biobased cities, rooted in source management. The CTP should support a healthy, en- commitment to its realization, Metabolic Lab has joined the dethe strength of human community. joyable, and beautiful living environment. The technologies Ceuvel community as a stakeholder; we plan to retrofit a house- included should work with realistic behavioral constraints boat on the site to serve as our own office. This houseboat can and contribute to a socially cohesive environment. also potentially become a focal point for educational activities,COMMUNITY FOCUS public site visits, and the integration of new technology pilots on ›› Providing room to experiment and to evolve over time. the de Ceuvel site.Though much of the focus of this report is on technology, the Neighborhoods should not be created in a static visionessential core of this new developmental blueprint is the power of what is possible right now: they should be designed to We believe this project offers an opportunity to implement aof community. Without trusting communities of individuals who improve and grow over time. It should be possible to up- working system of environmental technologies and communityhold shared values and are willing to work together to build a grade to newer and better functioning technologies as they practices that can inspire the rest of the world to imagine what isgreater whole, the kind of urban development we describe is become available on the market. The site should also be possible. It shows how inexpensive, beautiful, and comfortablenot possible. People make up the most important part of this a testing ground for small-scale technology pilots that can the path of a sustainable lifestyle can be if we choose not to walkcleantech ecosystem. They become essentially linked to one become more broadly adopted if they are successful. it alone.another in caring for their local resources, trading energy, pro-ducing shared crops of food. This is not a retrograde approach ›› Inspiring and educating. The implemented technologieshearkening us back to pre-modern lifestyles. Rather, it is a big should be made visible and their functionalities explained.step forward, where technology is used to assist in making con- The site should be at least partly accessible to partiesnections between people, facilitating the transfer of knowledge, wishing to learn about this kind of development approach.easing the burden of work, and increasing the comfort and joy Data on the system’s performance should be collected viaof living. At both sites we have designed for the preservation of an integrated IT system and used both in user feedbackmodern comforts to as great an extent possible. mechanisms as well as recommendations for policy devel- opment.Fundamentally, however the willingness of individuals tocooperate with one another, work together, share, and trust one ›› Replicability. Though pioneering projects can sometimesanother is the cornerstone of the success of these endeavors. require an extra boost to get off the ground, we want the fundamental approaches used in the CTP to be financially
  13. 13. cleantech playground executive summary14 / 146
  14. 14. The Cleantech Playground spans two The test case we have worked out for both sites, summa- sential functions on both sites, though some have beenlinked, but quite different development rized on the next two pages, will achieve extremely high recombined in unique ways (for example, the custom-de- sustainability performance on both sites with a compara- signed waste processing system we have recommendedsites in Amsterdam: land-based office tively minimal investment. One of the key challenges to on both sites; see pages 51 - 53).park de Ceuvel, and floating residential overcome was the limited budget of the whole de Ceuvelcommunity, Schoonschip. project and the financial variation among the members PHASED DEVELOPMENT PLAN of the Schoonschip community. To cut the costs of ourHere we provide a quick snapshot of the proposed technological system, we have used two ap- To reduce the total amount of up-front investment, proaches: a focus on “do-it-yourself” (DIY) and low-tech we have recommended three phases of technologicaltwo projects and the performance of solutions, and a phased development plan which spreads deployment for both de Ceuvel and Schoonschip. Forboth sites if the test scenarios detailed in investment over time. both developments, the first phase focuses on essentialthis report are fully applied. Both the de infrastructure, the second phase on power genera-Ceuvel and the Schoonschip communities “DIY” FOCUS tion and food production, and the third phase on thehave very high ambitions for sustainabil- continued addition of technologies over time to keep the The DIY approach requires more labor from individual system up to date and evolving as technologies becomeity, with the Schoonschip group express- house owners and higher personal risk, but can achieve less expensive and an even more pronounced desire for a the desired ambitions for self-sufficiency at around asustainable and self-sufficient lifestyle. third of the price that would otherwise be possible. We have recommended only proven technologies for es-
  15. 15. de ceuvel executive summary DE CEUVEL De Ceuvel is a planned workplace for creative and social enterprises adjacent to a canal off the river IJ in northern Amsterdam. The land was secured for a 10-year lease in 2012. The formerly industrial plot has heavily polluted soils that will be treated with a phytoremediation garden (“The Forbidden Garden”) designed by Delva Landscape Architects in collabo- ration with the University of Ghent. Scattered throughout the plot will be reclaimed and retroffitted houseboats that will house offices, ateliers, and workshops. The de Ceuvel site will also have some public functions including a teahouse and bed and breakfast. STRATEGY AND ACTIVITIES The de Ceuvel development strategy we recommend takes place over three phases. In the first phase of the de Ceuvel deployment plan, the boats will be retrofitted off-site to a very high level of eco-efficiency. The focus is primarily on basic repairs, insulation, and the instal- lation of a solar heating system. The main goal of this phase is to achieve sufficient insulation and renewable heating capacity to eliminate the need for a gas connection. Secondary goals in- clude installing a rainwater collection system, dry toilets for sani- © 2012 spacematter tation, and integrating ecological elements such as green roofs into the boat structures. We will work together with architects spacematter to ensure that the boats are retrofitted to a high level of architectural quality. The materials budget for phase oneAbove is an artist’s impression of the de Ceuvel site once the buildings and walkways are constructed. The site design and image were made is capped at a strict limit of 5.000 € per boat. To keep to this bud-by architecture firm spacematter, one of the initiators of the de Ceuvel project and the developer of the concept. get, a lot of creativity will be required to scavenge free and cheap 16 / 146
  16. 16. materials and adapt the plan during the retrofit process. main flexible and continue to evolve. The site can serve as a pilot FINAL TARGETS ACHIEVED (HIGHLIGHTS): space for decentralized, renewable technologies. If the associa-In phase two, the boats will be placed on the site, the phytore- tion managing the site is able to generate profits from festivals,mediation garden will be planted, and the communal infra- educational activities, and other planned sources of income, ›› 100% renewable heat and hot water supplystructure will be built. A central feature of the technology plan these can partially be re-invested in the continued development ›› 100% renewable electricityin this phase is the construction of the D-SARR system, a waste of the plan. ›› 100% wastewater and organic waste treatmenttreatment and resource recovery unit that will serve the entire ›› 100% water self-sufficiencyde Ceuvel site, producing biogas and harvesting nutrients for FINAL SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ›› 60 - 80% nutrient recoveryon-site use. Additionally, urban food production and floating ›› 50 - 70% reduction in electricity demand overgardens will be deployed during this stage. Electric power gen- The de Ceuvel development plan has the following key fea- conventional officeseration capacity will also be installed in this phase if sufficient tures: ›› 10 - 30% vegetable fruit production using lo-funding is acquired. If not, this step will be pushed to phase cally recovered nutrientsthree. A site-wide IT system will show live feeds of all resources ›› “Featherlight” footprint: infrastructure on site will be ›› sensor network and real-time system perfor-used and produced on site to give users feedback about their minimized, with the objective of all boats only having a con- mance displaysbehavior and showcase the performance of these technolo- nection to the electric grid, but no other utility demands. Asgies for visitors to the area. This IT platform will also serve as a largely autarkic elements, the boats will be able to leave thecollection point for information on monitoring biodiversity, and site after ten years without leaving much of a trace.sharing resources (such as cars or tools) among site users. Thetotal estimated costs of phase two development are 10.000 € per ›› Regenerative development: the phytoremediation planboat. and biodiverisity measures will result in a cleaner and more biodiverse area than at the start of the project.By 2014, once the two first development phases of the de Ceuvelsite have been completed, the houseboats on the de Ceuvel site ›› Fast return on investment: using a DIY approach and re-should be fully self-sufficient in renewable heat and electricity cycled materials, return on investment is possible in undersupply, water collection and upgrading, and 50 - 70% lower five years for all recommended interventions.electricity demand than a conventional office building. Thebuildings themselves will not only be highly eco-efficient, but ›› Closed material cycles: reuse of nutrients and energy onalso designed in a variety of architectural styles with creative site.exterior finishing. ›› Evolving technology landscape: continual improvementIn phase three of the development, which spans the remaining of system performance by adopting new technologies as Greenhouses 250 sqm DESAR organic waste treatment 110 sqm Green roof terraces 600 sqm Reedbed filtration 200 sqm (1,4 sqm/person)period of the ten year lease, the technological plan should re- they become avaiable and affordable. Greenhouses Solar heat collectors 250 sqm 80 sqm (5 sqm / house) DESAR organic waste treatment Food production 110 sqm 300 sqm Green roof terraces 600 sqm Reedbed filtration 200 sqm (1,4 sqm/person) Solar PV cells 160 sqm (10 sqm / house) Ecosystem elements 1.500 sqm Solar heat collectors 80 sqm (5 sqm / house) Food production 300 sqm Solar PV cells 160 sqm (10 sqm / house) Ecosystem elements 1.500 sqm
  17. 17. schoonschip executive summary SCHOONSCHIP The Schoonschip project is a prospective floating residential community of 30 houseboats (a total of ~48 households) to be built over the coming two and a half years, where people with diverse incomes can live together with shared values. The group focuses on sustainable living, which is partially achieved through building a strong community. This water- based site will be built surrounding five piers, each of which will have 5 - 6 buildings, most of which will be shared by multiple households. In between these piers is space for addi- tional program like gardens or a swimming pool. The commu- nity will determine what they would like to build and invest in over time, and jointly finance these projects in later phases of construction. STRATEGY AND ACTIVITIES The Schoonschip technological development strategy we have recommended takes place over three phases and must match the financial phasing and communal investment in the overall construction of the site. To limit the risk of investment in communal infrastructure such as the piers in between the boats, the Schoonship site will be constructed one pier at a time. Because of this construction © 2012 spacematter pattern, we have also recommended the centralization of certain technological functions on the level of each pier. Some of the recommended technologies in our plan, such as urine separat- ing toilets, are fixed. Others, such as the degree of insulation forAbove is an artist’s impression of the Schoonschip site once the full plan is completed, which will take an estimated three years from the start of each home’s building envelope, are flexible. In the test case de-the development. The site design and image were made by architecture firm spacematter. scribed throughout this report, we have used the passive house standard of insulation. However, this is by no means a require- 18 / 146
  18. 18. ment. Home owners will be able to select other options as long gardens, playgrounds, pools, food processing and storage, FINAL TARGETS ACHIEVED (HIGHLIGHTS):as the recommended performance targets are met. and other elements will increase community interaction and facilitate resource sharing.Phase one includes the construction of the passive and active ›› 100% renewable heat and hot water supplyheating system, water collection and ugrading, wastewater and ›› Demand side management: The success of the plan will ›› 100% renewable electricityorganic waste treatment, green roofs and greenhouses, and partly be achieved through strong demand-side manage- ›› 100% wastewater and organic waste treatmentsome of the communal gardens. In this phase we also recom- ment approaches which will limit overall resource demand. ›› 100% water self-sufficiencymend the construction of the communal laundry facility, com- ›› 60 - 80% nutrient recoverybined with greenhouse, kitchen, and play area. This facility will ›› Heat and nutrient cascades and closed material cycles: ›› 50 - 70% reduction in electricity demand overallow for approximately 20% reduction in domestic electricity reuse of nutrients and energy on site, cascading of heat conventional householdsuse by employing laundry machines that can use hot water as a from waste sources for reuse in other functions (from green- ›› 60 - 80% vegetable fruit production using lo-direct input and using this hot water to heat the community pool houses to the community pool). cally recovered nutrients(to be built in phase two) via a heat exchanger. ›› sensor network and real-time system perfor- ›› Evolving technology landscape: continual improvement mance displaysPhase two includes the addition of solar electricity and poten- of system performance by adopting new technologies astially other power generation equipment such as a gassifer. In they become avaiable and affordable. 3mthis phase, additional communal areas will also be built, someof which, such as a community managed bed and breakfast,can also generate profit for future investments. The urban food 24 m 24 m 26 m 32 mproduction plan comes into full development at this stage, with 31 m 44 mcollective harvesting,management,and processing of various 26 31 mfood types in a collective area. 10 m m 30 m m 23 m m 5m 20 24 15 m 34 mIn phase three of the development, the technological planshould remain flexible and continue to evolve. The site can serve 218 mas a pilot space for decentralized, renewable technologies. Green roof + solar infrastructure 1.155 sqm DESAR organic waste treatment 110 sqm (22 sqm /pier)FINAL SYSTEM PERFORMANCE Greenhouses 490 sqm Reedbed filtration 600 sqm (1,4 sqm/person) Green roof terraces 741 sqm Vertical food production 300 sqmThe Schoonschip development plan has the following key Vertical ecosystem 220 sqm Solar heat collectors 384 sqm (8 sqm / house)features: Pool and sauna 250 sqm HOUSE BOATS: 6300 sqm (30) Solar PV cells 480 sqm (10 sqm / house) JETTY: 1635 sqm Play area 60 sqm Outdoor food production 180 sqm›› Communal facilities: shared laundry facilities, kitchens, Food processing storage 120 sqm
  19. 19. cleantechplayground process ^ strategy
  20. 20. PROCESS STRATEGYDesigning a complete ecosystem of technologies for the Cleantech The final result of our work is a framework for further decision makingPlayground was a complex process with many iterative steps. that will lead to a customized mix of technologies and practices that will make these neighborhoods largely resource self-sufficient andHere we briefly describe our design approach and how we came to the adaptive over decisions represented in this report. These solutions are not idealor recommended for every situation, but rather, have been adapted to In this section we describe some of the tools we have developed tothis particular context, the desires of the communities and stakehold- guide this further decision-making process. We focus specifically oners involved, and the financial constraints of both communities. the technology selection tool and the financial modeling tool. It is on the basis of these tools that we have modeled the test case scenariosThis quick snapshot gives insight into how we arrived at certain key detailed further in the document.decisions and why certain tradeoffs were made.
  21. 21. DESIGN PROCESSMetabolic Lab is a sustainable design company that takes a parallel trajectories to help us collect the necessary information and is by now ubiquitously used to generate clean energy. Othersystemic and iterative approach to urban and agricultural for the complete design process: a community and stakeholder technologies, such as waste digestion, gasification, and localdevelopment. We work on applied projects, making it essen- engagement path, and a technical design process. These two food production, have more complicated regulatory hurdles.tial to integrate the users and address practical challenges approaches were used to clarify community preferences, receivethroughout the process. From the start of the Cleantech advice from external experts, and test proposed systems against Based on precedent research, Metabolic Lab catalogued regula-Playground project in October 2012, Metabolic Lab actively technical parameters. tory concerns and what they meant for the Cleantech Play-engaged community stakeholders, utilities, knowledge ground in initial design phases. Nevertheless, new regulatoryinstitutes, technology partners, and other relevant groups in COMMUNITY AND STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT questions arose throughout the iterative process as we incorpo-a high-input design process. rated community interests and the contextual challenges of the De Ceuvel and Schoonschip are separate but connected com- sites themselves.De Ceuvel and Schoonschip have unique contextual consider- munities, both of which have existed since 2009. Both communi-ations. The entire Buiksloterham region, where both sites are ties require all members to sign a manifesto committing them tolocated, is highly polluted with industrial wastes. For de Ceuvel a sustainable lifestyle.this is of particular concern because no digging can be done onsite. There are differing levels of commitment to sustainability Metabolic Lab joined the De Ceuvel vereniging (association), be-between and among the De Ceuvel and Schoonschip communi- coming a stakeholder in the process and part of one of the com-ties. The Schoonschip community is a more cohesive, residential munities involved in the Cleantech Playground. As a membergroup with a stronger commitment to sustainable living. The de of the association, we participated in monthly meetings and inCeuvel group formed more recently and is still evolving. These sub-teams for the site’s development. We met at least bi-montlyand other legal, financial, and environmental particularities of with the Schoonschip management team as they also oversawthe case impacted our design objectives. More details on the site the development process for the Schoonschip tender. We metlocation can be found in Appendix A. with both communities as a group in October, December, and January.Our design process began with defining shared performancegoals for both sites (these are listed on the pages 24 and 25 of We worked with public utilities and government agencies tothis document). Once the initial set of goals was established, we understand their potential interests in decentralized technologyfollowed several design process loops. as pilot opportunities for research. We reached out to agencies responsible for different regulatory aspects of the sites, includingOur first step was to scan for as many technological solutions as the water authorities and the local government, to gain a clearpossible by examining the latest eco-community designs and understanding of the regulatory process, detailed further in Ap-augmenting our existing database of clean technologies with pendix B. Clean technologies providing resource self-sufficiencythe latest published breakthroughs. We used this technology are innovating faster than governments’ ability to regulate them.database as a starting point to create a tangible pallette of op- For some technologies, like solar PV, regulatory issues are clear;tions to work with. With this information in hand, set off on two the technology has been available on the market for decades 22 / 146
  22. 22. CTP SYSTEM GOALSGOALS USING ELSIA FRAMEWORK ›› Optimized transportation access; re-At the start of the design process for the Cleantech Play- ›› Maximum reduction of energy and duction of systemic transport demandground, we established a set of performance goals that we material resource demand through through information sharing toolswanted the final technological plan to uphold. implementation of best practices and highest efficiency technologies ›› Feedback systems should be incorpo-These goals were formulated using the ELSIA framework, rated into the design to provide userswhich is most simply understood as an alternative to the ›› 100% renewable electricity supply with information on their own energytraditional People, Planet, Profit division. It recognizes an usage patternsimplicit hierarchy in areas of concern: energy and materi- ›› 100% renewable heat supplyals, ecosystems and species, culture and economy, andhealth and happiness. ›› Smart energy systems for local load balancing and optimized day cycleThe functional foundation of any system is its physical usesperformance in terms of energy and material use. Misusingresources in these category has consequences throughout ›› Self sufficiency in food productionthe more complex ranks of the system above, beginning ENERGY for all food types that can be feasibly ENERGY wtih ecosystems and species. System complexity continues MATERIALS produced in the local area MATERIALSto increase towards the “health and happiness” category.There is an implicit dependency between each set of goals, ›› 100% recycling collection capacity forwith all of them aiming towards high ultimate performance recyclable materialson human health and happiness. ›› 100% sustainably sourced materialsThroughout the iterative design process, we continuouslychecked whether our recommendations would satisfy the ›› 100% reusable and recyclable con-initial performance goals outlined on this page. structions and materials ›› 100% water self-sufficiency (excluding potable water for legal reasons) ›› Greywater recycling ›› Nutrient recovery from wastewater 24 / 146
  23. 23. ›› Beneficial impact on existing ecosys- ›› The system design should incorporate tems: focus on not only conserving an intelligent governance model, ›› A healthy safe and enjoyable environ- existing value, but regenerating eco- which insures appropriate manage- ment to work and live in logical quality where possible ment ›› No use of toxic chemicals or materials ›› Regenerative treatment of local soil ›› The system is financially viable within that may pose a threat to human or and water a short to mid-range time horizon ecosystem healthy ›› High on-site biological diversity ›› Provides high levels of self sufficiency ›› Aesthetically pleasing in outside ap- and fossil fuel independence for pearance, enriching landscape quality ›› Preservation of existing species habi- residents tats and migration corridors ›› Design for social cohesion and com- ›› Engages the broader community be- munity interation ›› Consider animal welfare a top priority yond the immediate development siteECOSYS- within all agricultural production CULTURE ›› A highly resource efficient andTEMS systems ECONOMY ›› It provides opportunities for functions HEALTH comfortable living environment thatSPECIES in addition to basic utility provision. HAPPINESS achieves all performance objectives These functions could include: educa- without compromising fundamental tion, tourism, social uses, product quality of life processing and sales (particularly food products), etc.
  24. 24. TECHNICAL DESIGN PROCESS test case scenarios for review. From these midterm designs, we The system designs presented in this report do not reflect an received feedback from the communities and a selection of engi- optimal level of technological decentralization. Rather, becauseOn October 31st and November 1st, 2012, Metabolic Lab hosted neers from different backgrounds. This informed our final design the main focus of this project is to illustrate what is possiblea technical design workshop for the Cleantech Playground, decisions and our approach of creating flexible tools in addition even within severe financial constraints, our primary drivers forwhich was attended by our core team and a number of domain to design recommendations. technological selection in this regard were the expressed desireexperts. of the community to be self sufficient and the financial invest- Early in the design process, we contacted hundreds of technol- ment capacity of both communities.During this workshop, we explored three conceptual approaches ogy providers in order to understand the specifications of prod-for how the CTP system could work. These scenarios were con- ucts offered by cleantech companies, which products at whatceived of as thought experiments to test the range of potential performance were in development, and how companies wouldtechnologies and edge conditions that we may encounter. They like to be involved in projects like the Cleantech Playground.are further documented and described in Appendix D of this Thus far, potential technology partners have been interested indocument. the opportunities embedded in the project and have been re- ceptive to providing technology in-kind in exchange for visibilityThe scenarios were: and ongoing research.›› Do-It-Yourself (DIY) Scenario: explores what can be TECHNOLOGICAL SCALE achieved with minimal funding, repurposed materials, and a high level of community participation for both construc- Within the sustainability field, there is a debate about the opti- tion and management of the CTP. mal scale and degree of centralization of technologies for energy generation, waste processing, and other resource management.›› Proven Technology Scenario: evaluates how commer- There is a tradeoff between the costs and materials required for cially available systems can be recombined to provide the decentralization and the flexibility and responsiveness of the targeted needs of the CTP. system.›› Fantasy Technology Scenario: imagines how to incor- It is possible to develop an algorithm for determining the porate developing and new technologies into the CTP optimal level of technological decentralization by factoring in and how to reasonably push the boundaries of current stan- parameters such as: the occurance of a resource (spatial density dards in cleantech. and abundance), the cost of the technology required to process that resource until it is useful, the material impacts of the pro-Using and adding to a clean technology database we had cessing technology (represented sometimes in proxy by cost),developed over the summer of 2012, we created cleantech cards the cost of transport, and the density of demand / consumptionshowing inputs, outputs, and key information about individual of that resource. These variables are constantly in flux, so thetechnologies. We used these cards and their data to visually answer to how centralized or decentralized should optimally bemodel different technological systems. From modeling these is also contantly with internal and external experts, we designed three 26 / 146