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Double Jeopardy?: How Gender Bias Differs by Race


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This workshop explores how the experience of gender bias differs by race. It’s based on a study that was done for Tools for Change where we interviewed 60 women of color in science. What we have done is look specifically at how women of color experience gender bias and how that experience differs from the experience of white women.

Published in: Leadership & Management
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Double Jeopardy?: How Gender Bias Differs by Race

  1. 1. DOUBLE JEDPARDY? How GENDER BIAS DIFFERS BY RACE PROFESSOR JOAN C. WILLIAMS Hastings Foundation Chair, Director Center for WorkLife Law University of California, Hastings College of the Law qTooLs W§CHANGE Boosting the Retention of Woman In the STEM Pipeline © Copyright 2013. Joan C. Williams, Center for WorkLife Law.
  2. 2. FOUR PATTERNS OF OENOER BIAS PROVE IT MATERNAL AGAIN! TIOHTROPE WALL (descriptive bias) qirescriptive bias) I can identify with each of the four buckets. I can identify with each. ”
  3. 3. DOUBLE JEOPAROY PROJEOT ‘ National Science Foundation grant Erika Hall interviewed 60 women scientists of color ° to test double jeopardy hypothesis - What experience do women of color share with men of color? - What experiences do they share with white women? All quotes are from those interviews unless otherwise specified.
  5. 5. THE OLASSIOS: FOREVER FOREION I've had a number of conversations where people ask me where am I from. And the answer I'm from Pittsburgh is really not what they want, right? ... / K JJ . ..I went to Princeton and Cornell. ... I should speak English surprisingly well. ” (Asian-American Scientist)
  6. 6. THE OLASSIOS: 9/11 BIAS Sometimes I wait in line to ask something, say at a pharmacy. And it's like they would call the next person, but they're not looking at me. . . . [as if] I don 't exist. . . . And I thought it was just people are disgruntled. .. because of, you know, the incident, the terrorist attac ” (K JJ (Asian-American Scientist)
  7. 7. PROVE-IT AOAIN! LACK OF FIT K K The vision of the scientist is the white guy with J J 99 the glasses. (Latina Scientist)
  8. 8. PROVE-IT AOAIN! mm have to provide more evidence of competence than min in order to be perceived as equally competent - Potential v. achievement ° Women ’s mistakes remembered longer versus men ’s - Women ’s successes versus men ’s - Objective requirements applied rigorously to women but Ieniently to men - Polarized evaluations
  9. 9. PROVE-IT AOAIN! FOR ASIAN-AM. WOMEN ° If she is seen as a model minority °Does well educationally and stays out of trouble ° Cold and lacking in social skills ° Suited for technical work not leadership °Asian-Americans seen as equally competent as whites ° If she is seen through China doll Sources: (Wong et al, 1998; Lin et al, 2005; Cuddy et al, 2007)
  10. 10. MOOEL MINORITY: A BOOST 5 5 . ..conflicting stereotypes. .. . .. Asians are naturally talented in STEM . .. different set of . . . expectations about women . . . a play off between those two different traits I'm more acceptable. an Asian woman scientist rather than a woman scientist. ” (Asian-American Scientist)
  11. 11. ASIANS AS PASSIVE 5 J/ Asians are supposed to be very passive. ” (Asian-American Scientist) Is model minority stereotype more for men than women?
  12. 12. THE TIOHTROPE FOR ASIAN-AM. WOMEN / / . ..[ T [hey really don't expect Asian women to J J stand up for themselves, or they expect the dragon lady, the extreme opposite. . . . There's no expectation for you to be normal. ” (Asian-American Scientist)
  13. 13. WOMEN: TOO FEMININE PROBLEMS OOUPLE: BOTH VISITINO SOHOLARS FROM TAIWAN IN SAME LAB 5 5 . ..when we have disagreement in terms of the experimental design or result interpretation, and immediately she will say, oh, I ’m sorry, I ’m sorry, I ’m sorry. I told her. . . Nobody. . . will respect you if you do this in the United States. ”
  14. 14. TOO FEM| NlNE? : CULTURAL MISMATCH IN JAPANESE / V i ou 're sa in I want to do this or I don't want to J J J’ J’ 3 the sentence structure is. . . ‘I doing this want’, ‘I doing this want not, ’ . . . [so you can] pause all the way till the very end to make your mind . ..[to avoid] offending the person on the other end. ”
  15. 15. WOMEN: TOO MASCULINE PROBLEMS 551 ’m very candid and I do not hesitate to open my mouth and was probably not the submissive female person. I think that being an oriental female immediately started. ..a reputation of being a dragon lady. ” (Asian-American Scientist)
  16. 16. MATERNAL WALL Identical C Vs - 79% < likely to be hired, / / , . J J Don t worry about - Only halfas likely to bepromoted tenure; go home and - Oflered $11,000 less in salary have babieS_ ” 0 Held to higher performance and punctuality standards Source: (Correll, Benard, 8. Paik, 2007; Schneider. 2007)
  17. 17. MATERNAL WALL (OESCRIPTIVE) 5 5 . ..people think thatAsian women, they are caring and then they will give up their professions for their children. ” When asked if others questioned their career commitment after they gave birth or adopted a child, 72% of women of color said yes. (Lawyers)
  18. 18. MATERNAL WALL (PRESCRIPTIVE) 5 51 get that a lot: ‘Don ’t you feel bad leaving your kids at home? Don ’t you miss them? ’And they say, ‘Oh, my wife could never do that, never leave the kids. ”’ (Lawyer) LS, c'umu: (vlsiblolnvlslbillty. 2006. p. 34: Benard & convall, 2010)
  20. 20. THE CLASSICS: DISRESPECT 5 5 demeaning ” 5 5 disrespectful ” 3 5 feeling inadequate, some depression ” SENIOR PROFESSOR THREW A ROARO ERASER “Hey, you, why don ’t you write this down? ” HEARD FROM STUDENTS THAT OTHER PROFESSORS IN HER DEPARTMENT DID NOT BEUEVE SHEWOULO MAKE TENURE 55 itfelt so wrong , ,
  21. 21. THE OLASSIOS: ISOLATION J’ S . ..Ifit’s too social, then I think there’s a greater risk of you being put in that subservient position . . . ” (African-American Scientist)
  22. 22. THE CLASSICS: STEREOTYPE THREAT LESS LIKELY TO SPEAK UP IN A LAB MEETING FOR FEAR OF LOOKINO “DUMB” / K , J J “my fear is you don ’t want to come ofi" as the angry black woman. So I try —not to raise your voice or be too animated. . . . ” (A frican-American Scientist)
  23. 23. PROVE-IT AGAIN! 5 J/ ... yearly conferences within my field. .. not that I feel like the audience doesn 't necessarily believe my results. . . have to. . . defend it before I can even present it. I really don 't think it's just because I'm a female. I think that that's secondary to my race. ” (African-American Scientist)
  24. 24. PROVE-IT AGAIN! K K , J J T here’s Just no room for error. ..To the extent that other folks might feel that they can have a bad day. ..I never feel I have that luxury. ” (Lawyer) ‘Saunas: (Rosetta and Livingston. 2012)
  25. 25. PROVE-IT AGAIN! K K . . J J I have always had the impression when I start a class, a course, it is always an uphill kind of battle. I get the impression that students don ’t believe that I know what I ’m supposed to know. ”
  26. 26. THE TIGHTROPE Studies say women often have to choose between being liked but not respected or respected but not liked 0 Focus group °Being liked was not on ofler. So our goal is to be respected.
  27. 27. THE TIGHTROPE: OFFIOE HOUSEWORK 55 . .. because there ’s so few of us, you feel like. .. they have to have a black on the committee, so they called me or they called so and so because there aren ’t that many of us. Sometimes you get tired of that. ”
  28. 28. THE TIGHTROPE: TOO MASCULINE S . .I kind of aspire to [being a bitch]. . . a little bit because I see, at this university at least, that actually it ’s a very ejfective perception ” -- to create. 55 very outspoken in meetings” -- felt she was rewarded for assertive behavior Source: (Llvlngsinn at al, 2013)
  29. 29. THE TIGHTROPE 5 5 I am allowed to be passionate, even to demonstrate some level of anger, but it better not be personal. It better not be about me. If I become angry about anything personal then that is perceived as being an angry black woman. ” (Lawyer) source: (Williams & Dempsey, in press)
  30. 30. MATERNAL WALL 5 5 if you had a full-blown career, that's inconsistent with being a mother. I certainly feel that sentiment. ” (A frican-American Scientist)
  31. 31. TUG OF WAR KKI J J have been in an organization where there was room for one woman, but one woman decided that she’s was it and would simply sabotage her colleagues, which unfortunately included me. ” (African-American Scientist)
  32. 32. TUG OF WAR FEMALE GOLLEAGUE HARSHER ON WOMEN THAN ON MEN 5 5 because she struggled a lot and had to work extra hard and so expects other women to have done as much as she has. ” The goal was ‘to have women achieve high standards so there is no criticism ’. ” (African-American Scientist)
  33. 33. TUG OF WAR 5 51 certainly think that if I was a white man I would not have been given so much feedback about being an empathetic person and how important it would be to try to make people more comfortable with me. I also think that part of what has been interpreted as my hard edges are attributable to me being a black woman. ” (A frican-American Scientist)
  34. 34. I4 3 « ~ Mm. ‘ L V. I. IL. I. 5 J/ Once this grant finishes, you ’ll have to leave. . . . essentially, she was saying ‘Having a family is important for you. I don ’t think you can have an academic science career. ” 5 J/ Its like your parents. Your parents did the best they could. It’s the same with our mentors. . . They didn’t mean any harm. They were trying to protect me from grief ” (A frican-American Scientist)
  35. 35. LATINAS
  36. 36. PROVE-IT AGAIN! SST here seems to be this stereotype that, if you are from Mexico, you are lazy, and you only like to either sleep by a cactus or party. And I have battled extremely hard all of these stereotypes. ” (Latina Scientist)
  37. 37. 5 5‘Guys, are you talking about my project? Then I should probably be involved in the discussions of my project because I was not considered to be able or capable of offering any useful information. ” (Latina Scientist)
  38. 38. PROVE-IT AGAIN! 5 51 thought my mistake was remembered much longer ” 5 5 I was judged much more harshly than my colleagues. ” (Latina Scientist)
  39. 39. THE TIGHTROPE: OFFICE HOUSEWORK Mentors “very adamant” she didn ’t “need to sit on every blasted committee” 5 50f course I ’m not going to say no to the Provost. This is the man who basically has my tenure in his hands. ” (Latina Scientist)
  40. 40. THE TIGHTROPE: TOO FEMININE BRIGHT COLORS 55So, if you dress well, sometimes, you get less respect. . . ” (Latina Scientist)
  41. 41. THE TIGHTROPE: MOTHER, PRINCESS, PET 5 5 [At] times. .. I am asked to be kind of the mother of the group. . . .make sure that everybody. . . fills out their paperwork. . . sets up the meetings. .. I play many roles that would be--could be done by a competent administrative assistant if we happen to have had a competent administrative assistant, which we don 't. It's assumed that I'll take care of it because nobody else will. ” (Latina Scientist)
  42. 42. THE TIGHTROPE: TOO MASCULINE 5 51 lost my temper with him this one time and basically chewed him out at work and just lost all respect of my colleagues. After that I’ve been very very careful about that. ” (Latina Scientist)
  43. 43. MATERNAL WALL 5 5 You ’re supposed to have kids in your twenties. Every good Mexican woman has kids in their twenties. ” (Latina Scientist)
  44. 44. MATERNAL WALL S 51 think a lot of it is self-imposed. I feel like I have a very specific role in keeping the family running. .. ” 5 . . The cooking is always big in Hispanic households. . . . ” (Latina Scientist)
  45. 45. TUG OF WAR on top of being young and a woman, 1 am Mexican. And whether it is clear to them conscious or unconscious, here, there is this Mexican woman telling [an administrative stafl person] what to do. ” KK JJ (Latina Scientist)
  46. 46. TUG OF WAR 3 5 . . . most of the time female bosses have a lot more resistance from the other females in the group, from everybody, but it happens especially if there’s a difference in race. ” (Latina Scientist)
  47. 47. ALL THREE GROUPS MISTAKEN FOR ADMINISTRATIVE OR SERVICE PERSONNEL K K . . . . . J J 1 always amuse my friends with my janitor stories, but it has happened, not only at weird hours. ”
  48. 48. SUMMARY PROVE IT AGAIN! ° Big issue with Blacks and Latinas - Much less with Asian-Arnericans THE TIGHTROPE TOO FEMININE PROBLEMS - Office housework a big issue for African-Americans and Latinas - Too feminine problems for Latinas and Asian-Americans TOO MASCUUNE PROBLEMS - All groups, although contours are diflerent for A frican-Arrrericans
  49. 49. I‘Fy. I ! I'III! Iu_v‘! ‘u"j iiiiznimiiiiii Iiusnnimn °' All g''0"PS * None reported for Asian- ~* Motherhood a particular issue Americans f 0" Latinas * Showed up loud and clear for Latinas and Blacks
  50. 50. WWWTUDLSFORCHANGEINSTEM.0RG LEVELTHEPLAYIIIGFIELII wnnxsnnrs > Do Babies Matter? 1, H, II MARY ANN MASON , Professor ofthe Graduate School UC Berkeley and P S Cheaper to Her Faculty Co-Director ofthe Earl Warren Institute for Law and Social Policy _ _ I. .. > Best Practices for Family {,5 WI )1; K L111; F"‘°“‘“3’ P°1‘°‘°s - ‘ ‘i ‘ Hi I“! ii: - I‘! '33‘ S > Double Jeopardy? : How Gender JUAN Li. WILLIAMS Difiers Race Distinguished Professor of Law and 1066 Foundation (ihalir at University of Caliioriiia, Hastings College of t C . aw IN PARTNERSHIP WITH: AWIS ASSOCIAYION rot: womm IN SElFN(E AWIS is today's premiere leadership organization advocating the interests of women in science and technology. 9 What Works for Women at Work 9 Some Things are Illegal This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant number (1106411).
  51. 51. JOAN C. WILLIAMS (.9 RACHEL DEMPSEY FOUR PATTERNS WORKING WOMEN NEED TO KNOW WHAT WORKS FOR WOMEN AT WORK An essential resource for any working woman, What Works for Women at Work is a comprehensive and insightful guide for mastering oflice politics as a woman. Authored by Joan C. Vlrilliams, one of the nation’s most-cited experts on women and work, and her daughter, writer Rachel Dempsey, this unique book offers a multi-generational perspective on the realities of today’s workplace. Ofien women receive the message that they have only themselves to blame for failing to get ahead: —Negotiate more! —Stop being such a wimp! — Stop being such a witch! What Works for Women at Work tells women it’s not their fault. The simple fact is that oflice politics oflen benefit men over women. Look for it on shelves beginning January 17, 2014, or pre-order your copy wherever books are sold. PHE-OHOEB ON AMAZONOOM