The British tried to Renovate it <ul><li>Deputed Sir. Albert Howard to study and report </li></ul><ul><li>After a thorough investigation he recommended that the Agriculture of India is intact and a model to all countries and </li></ul><ul><li>That Britain should adapt this </li></ul><ul><li>But Britain and America together, through Rockefeller Foundation entirely demolished the system </li></ul><ul><li>How & Why ??? </li></ul>
A movement starting post World War II in the Pretendance of addressing food shortages in developing countries New agricultural technologies were brought to India- fertilizer, agrochemicals, new types of irrigation An effort to break ecological limits that resulted in new types of insecurity and vulnerability
Green revolution introduced the so called High Yielding Crop Varieties (HYCVs) to India HYCVs required constant input of agrochemicals (pesticides etc.) and fertilizers New irrigation techniques were implemented
Changed the nature of agriculture, from internal to external inputs (buying seed, fertilizer etc) Movement to high tech centralized agriculture Seed and chemical distribution was controlled by the Government, the top-down approach created insecurity The commercialization of relationships and subsequent cultural erosion
The rapid increase in grain in the first several years along with massive imports drovedown the price of food , harder for small farmers, which converted them to cash crops Decreasing return on investments Changed how farmers interacted with the environment
CHEMICAL FARMING <ul><li>Lays emphasis on use of Chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient specific Pollution (soil+ water+ air) </li></ul><ul><li>First time Rapid results Soil quality destruction </li></ul><ul><li>First time high yields Eutrophication </li></ul><ul><li>Biomagnifications </li></ul><ul><li>Deterioration of Health </li></ul>
Chemical Agriculture accounts for about 20% of the Green House Gases responsible for Global Warming Pimental. D. et al, “Reducing energy inputs in the U.S Food System” – Human Ecology, 36(4): 459 – 471 - 2008
Use Resources Sustainably A medical check-up for the planet Earth would reveal that Only one species – the Homo sapiens – are destroying the resources of the earth and damaging the environment, and thereby destroying their own existence on Earth
Toxins do not know when to stop Killing and Whom to Kill !
Facts About Pesticides <ul><li>When the first list of pesticides known to be endocrine disruptors was published in 1993, it included 35 pesticides representing about 20% of the commercially important pesticides at that time. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, there are 180 pesticides on that list, accounting for over half of the pesticides applied globally. </li></ul><ul><li>Nine out of the top 10 pesticides posing the greatest risks as a result of dietary exposures are endocrine disruptors. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: That First Step, The Organic Center Critical Issue Report, C. McCullum Gomez, C. Benbrook, R. Theuer, March 2009. </li></ul>
Pesticides don’t‘ stay where they are put. They soak/leach into the Soil, Water and Air, killing all Life Forms. Lead to the Three R’s : Resistance, Reappearance and Residues .
And Killing other necessary organisms around Thai Sac Brood Disease
Mother's Milk or Mother's Poison? Pesticides in Breast Milk Over 350 pollutants in total have already been detected in breast milk (Lyons, 1999). Particularly worrying are the persistent (long-lived) and lipophilic (fat-loving) substances that are not broken down and which accumulate in fatty tissue. Well examined are certain representatives of the so-called POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants) such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the insecticide DDT, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and the toxic combustion by-products dioxins and furans.
<ul><li>leukemia </li></ul><ul><li>cancer </li></ul><ul><li>spontaneous abortions </li></ul><ul><li>genetic damage </li></ul><ul><li>decreased fertility </li></ul><ul><li>liver and pancreatic damage </li></ul><ul><li>neuropathy </li></ul><ul><li>disturbances to immune systems </li></ul><ul><li>asthma/ allergies </li></ul><ul><li>increases in still births </li></ul><ul><li>decreased sperm counts </li></ul>Ultimately resulting in ... To Humans
In the rubber sector large quantities of chemicals are used as fertilizers, Herbicides, Pesticides, Fungicides and Hormones. Ethrel or Ethephon is a yield stimulant used for Rubber. It is also used for ripening fruits. The residues of monochloroacetic acid possibly found in Ethephon treated commodities is a potential degradation product which is extremely toxic metabolic inhibitor. The acid water, a waste of Latex processing also flow in to the soil Plastic rain shades and cups also pose a great threat to the environment. The noxious gases and other chemicals in them drift to the soil and to the water courses.
Polluted Water Monoculture Water Logging Salinity
Fertilizers cause Eutrophication Eutrophication is the enrichment of an ecosystem with chemical nutrients, typically compounds containing nitrogen, phosphorus, or both. It leads to increased plant growth in a lake or pond. The eutrophication of freshwater bodies results in depletion of oxygen and deteriorating living conditions for many organisms. Once oxygen levels are low, phosphates and other salts will leak out of the bottom sediments, reinforcing the eutrophication process.
In extreme situations, the water will contain toxic hydrogen sulphide gas, causing fish to die and bottom areas to rot.
GM Corn and Health Italian researchers found significant disturbances in the immune system of young and old mice fed GM maize (MON810), and elevated levels of a cell type known to be associated with asthma and food allergies in children. According to results from a long-term feeding study with mice, researchers in Austria concluded that consumption of a genetically modified corn developed by Monsanto (NK603 x MON810) may lead to lower fertility and body weight and impaired gene expression . Sources : Finamore A., et. al., "Intestinal and peripheral immune response to MON810 maize ingestion in weaning and old mice," Journal of Food and Agricultural Chemistry , November 16, 2008. Austrian Ministry of Health, Family and Youth, Nov. 11, 2008.
Even Paddy Fields converted to Rubber Plantation
Dead Zone in Gulf of Mexico <ul><li>The Dead Zone is 8,000 square miles in the Gulf of Mexico that is caused by the run off of toxic synthetic fertilizers from conventional agriculture in the watersheds that feed into the Mississippi River. </li></ul>Dead Zone in Gulf of Mexico The Dead Zone is 8,000 square miles in the Gulf of Mexico that is caused by the run off of toxic synthetic fertilizers from conventional agriculture in the watersheds that feed into the Mississippi River.
So we need healthy food, which can be had, only through Organic Farming
What is Organic Farming? “ Organic farming is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. Organic farming combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved.”
Types of organic farming Organic Farming Zero Budget Farming
PRINCIPLES of ORGANIC FARMING <ul><li>The principle of health – Organic farming should sustain and enhance the health of soil, plant, animal, human and planet as one and indivisible. </li></ul><ul><li>The principle of ecology – Organic farming should be based on living ecological systems and cycles, work with them, emulate them and help sustain them. </li></ul><ul><li>The principle of fairness – Organic farming should build on relationships that ensure fairness with regard to the common environment and life opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>The principle of care – Organic farming should be managed in a precautionary and responsible manner to protect the health and well-being of current and future generations and the environment. </li></ul>
Top most layer of earth’s crust consisting of organic and inorganic matters is called soil. Soil is a heterogeneous mixture of silicate particles, humus, and a variety of insoluble salts and oxides of metals called the solid phase, a liquid phase and a gaseous phase with a unique combination of life forms including micro and macro Organisms. Soil is a renewable resource. Soil is a living system. It is the medium of plant growth and supports different types of living organisms on the earth.
Alluvial Soils Black Soils Red and Yellow Soils Laterite Soils Arid Soils Forest Soils
Also, soil is a/an: Great integrator Producer and absorber of gases (CO 2 and others) Medium for plant growth Medium of crop production Home to organisms (plants, animals and micro-organisms) Waste decomposer Snapshot of geologic, climatic, biological, and human history Source material for construction, medicine, art, etc. Filter of water and wastes Essential natural resource Medium of heat and water storage
Global potential to use 160 million tons of nitrogen (and other nutrients) from livestock manure more efficiently on cropland (calculated on the basis of 18.3 billion farm animals/FAO) Global potential to produce 140 million tons of NPK + Double amount of micro organisms on cropland which can be enhanced to 10 fold
Fermented manures increase soil organisms and activity. But while using fermented items, remember to maintain the pH of the soil, as fermentation increases acidity
The Five Rules: Cook with Love, Eat with Gratitude Eat Living Food, With priority to Vegetables, Rice, Tubers & Fruits Avoid Dead Food & Poisons Use Resources Sustainably Protect the eco system
<ul><li>- “ Organic agriculture has the potential to secure a global food supply, just as conventional agriculture today, but with reduced environmental impacts." </li></ul><ul><li>“ Organic agriculture can be more conducive to food security in Africa than most conventional production systems, and is more likely to be sustainable in the long term. ” </li></ul>Organic, World Hunger and the UN United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Organic Agriculture and Food Security , May 2007 UNCTAD, UNEP, Organic Agriculture and Food Security in Africa, Oct. 2008
Organic in Developing Countries In developed countries, organic systems produce 92% of the yield produced by conventional agriculture. In developing countries, however, organic systems produce 80% more than conventional farms and could increase food security. “ Organic Agriculture and the Global Food Supply, ” Ivette Perfecto, et. al., University of Michigan, Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems , July 2007
<ul><li>Average levels of 11 nutrients are 25% higher in organic foods compared to conventional foods, based on 236 scientifically valid comparisons. </li></ul><ul><li>Organic fruits and vegetables are approximately 30% higher in antioxidants than conventional. </li></ul>Did You Know?
Most People Walk In and Out of Life But People Who Think of Posterity Will Leave Their Foot Prints Behind Even After Their Life Can You??? Ensure Our Life To and Posterity!