1. University of the West of England
BSc Geography and Environmental Management
MANAGEMENT OF RIVERS AND COASTS
COASTAL MANAGEMENT REPORT BREAN
DOWN TO BURNHAM-ON-SEA: SECTION ‘C’
STUDENT NUMBER: 11020965
2. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
Brean Down (grid ref ST 29568 58709) to the north and Burnham-on-Sea (grid ref ST 29911
50572) to the south, stretches for 7 miles between the two locations (visit Somerset, 2014)
as shown by figure 1. The area in question is exposed to the Severn Estuary which is a
broad body of tidal water with one of the highest tidal ranges in the world (Uncles, 2010), with
an extreme tidal range of 14.8 metres (Allen, 1998). This estuarine environment is suitably
explained by Pritchard (1967). High tidal range and gradual action of waves and wind (Bird,
2008) are continuously acting upon this coastline and creating the variety of landforms
present; but the influence of high magnitude events are also taken into consideration
(Haslett, 2009) as a dominant factor in creating the features, and the potential issues present
at this macro-tidal coastline (Davies, 1964).
The wider study area within Bridgewater Bay is governed a Site of Special Scientific Interest
(SSSI) and designated under the Ramsar convention (Bowman, 1995) as a Special
Protection Area (SPA). Analysis of this investigation took place at a particular section of this
coastline; section C as demonstrated by figure 2. The geology and geomorphology present
at Berrow from the extensive beach and tidal flat deposits to windblown sand dune system
are shown in figure 4 (Spencer, 2013). This site has an important role to play in this coastal
zone; the Berrow sand dunes which extend up to 600 metres inland at their widest point (Pye
et al., 2007) provide an effective natural coastal defence. This dune system; notified an
SSSI under section 28 of the wildlife countryside act (1981), is an important geological
habitat and designated as a Local Nature Reserve (LNR), location of which is shown on
figure 2 (Sedgemoor, 2014). The dunes provide an environment for over 270 species of
flowering plant, giving the most diverse flora and fauna ecology on a local and on a national
scale (English Nature, 2011). The LNR is one of the best sites for moths and rare species
such as the pinion spotted pug moth have been recorded there and many other species
listed (Natural England, 2014). Hundreds of bird species also occupy these areas (RSPB,
2013) which are able to thrive here due to the defence the dunes provide from the hyper-tidal
estuary (Briggs, 1991).
The settlement of Berrow village is home to over a 1500 people, as well as the influx of
holiday makers who visit the beach and various tourist attractions the area has to offer
3. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
(Visit Somerset, 2014). The golf course, Holiday Park and other amenities (Burnham-on-Sea,
2014) create good economic revenue that the dunes at section C provide protection of.
Figure 3 shows the Somerset levels just inland of the dunes are up to 3 metres below high
spring water tide mark (Haslett, 1998), which demonstrates the vulnerability to inundation
and the protection the natural dunes are providing (Bardecki, 2008; Martinez, 2013). Behind
this lies the M5 motorway (figure 5) which is a significant transport route also threatened by
the possibility of Global Sea level rise (SLR). A coast should provide protection of habitat,
defence in terms of dissipating energy, and resource protection. When the coast no longer
fulfils the three roles then ‘Coastal Zone Management’ (CZM) (Beatley, 2002) needs to be
implemented (Image 1.1) to monitor and prevent the risk of flooding, sustain biodiversity and
to maintain environmental quality to provide better habitat in the coastal zone.
Image 1.1. Coastal zone management, from Conway (2003), adapted by author.
The area has a history of flooding with several events occurring between 1903 and 1981
giving multiproxy evidence of the potential risk (Burnham-on-Sea, 2006), further emphasizing
the importance of the natural dunes at this site. Currently the beach is a starved system as
outlined by Kirby (2010), limiting sediment supply to the dune system. In order for the dunes
to grow, supply of sand must be sufficient and sediment size must fall between the 0.2-2mm
in the intertidal zone with prevalent winds (UKBAP, 2010). The location has strong variant
wind speed (Uncles, 2010) blowing from the south west, sufficient enough for aeolian
processes detailed by Masslink & Hughes (2003) to occur if sediment supply is abundant; an
issue for this study site. The physical drivers of coastal change mentioned before are
projected to increase along with the likelihood of coastal inundation and erosion (Webster,
2005). Global SLR has risen 3.3mm yr-1 over the past 20 years (Boening, 2014) which
increases the threat of shoreline erosion, saltwater intrusion and general flood risk. A way of
counteracting the issue is through Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) outlined by
4. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
Van der Meulen et al., (2001). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
emphasize significant future environmental changes in sea level, ecosystems and the like
around the world (IPCC, 2007), and endorse ICZM to be a policy response to climate change
(Moksness, 2009). The problems associated with the study area and the possible
management techniques to resolve them are discussed in the following sections.
5. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
Figure 1: location maps. Google maps: Edina Digi map: Edited by author
6. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
Figure 2: Section C (Study site) Edina Digi map, edited by
author/ LNR: Magic 2014) edited by author
7. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
Figure 3: Sedgemoor District Council/ green infrastructure study vol1.
Research report (2011) & Edina Digimap, edited by author.
8. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
Figure 4: Geology of Brean Down to Burnham-on-Sea, Edina Digimap (2014), edited by
9. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
2. Coastal Problems
Fundamental to successful long-term sand dune habitat conservation and coastal zone
management is the understanding of geomorphological and ecological processes, and
human activities influencing dune characteristics past and present (Saye, 2007). The study
site demonstrates typical dune problems detailed below, as well as the probable future
without CZM. More sustainable approaches to coastal management policy rather than the
hard engineered defences (Clark, 1994) (Image 3.3), look to provide long term sustainability
to the coastline.
2.1 Regional Problems: Climate change/SLR
Climate change (Church, 2010) has and is expected to continue causing a profound series of
changes (Image 2.1) (Haslett, 2009). Coastal areas are the most densely populated,
economically active, and where the most productive ecosystems are found (Sachs et al.,
2001; Kremer et al., 2004), applicable to the study site. Global SLR (Image 2.2) has risen
between 1.8+ 0.3mm/year over a 50 year period (Church, 2010). The IPCC (2007) forecasts
between 8- 29 centimetres in eustatic SLR by 2020, not accounting for subsidence (Pethick,
1993), with further increase expected by 2100 (NSF 2014, image 2.3). The problem puts
pressure on the dunes especially in storm surge events by raising the plain from which
waves operate and decreasing return period which magnifies coastal erosion, avulsion and
flooding (Carter, 1991).
10. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
Image 2.1. Climate Change: Nicholls et al., 2007b, adapted by author.
The response of a shoreline to SLR describes the shift in sediment via transgressive dunes,
modified habitats and Coastal squeeze (Bruun, 1962).Coastal squeeze through denudation
(Doody, 2004) causes a net loss of sediment. Eustatic movements (Masslink, 2003), ocean
temperature (Halsett, 2009) and salinity, sedimentation, human influences, and the various
types of tectonic movement as outlined in Bird (2008) escalate the problem of SLR. Mean
SLR and tidal range directly influence beach width and morphology at the study site
(Houston et al., 2001).
Image 2.2: Global SLR, BBC (2014)
11. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
Image 2.3. Future SLR prediction, NSF 2014
2.2 Beach specific problems:
2.2.1 Sediment supply
Section C is a transitional zone between a river and the sea (Allen, 2011), receiving sediment
from fluvial and marine sources (Perillo, 1995) examples of which are detailed by King
(1972). Fluvial and marine sediment supply is sufficiently outlined by Bird (2008). Berrow
beach is constantly trying to achieve equilibrium (Masslink, 2003); however sediment in the
Bristol Channel has reduced overtime with the majority in suspended load or deposited on
the tidal flats creating a starved system (Kirby, 1986). Intertidal flats have become muddier,
with increased marsh which has reduced the sediment supply to the beach (Pye et al., 2007).
2.2.2 Car parking/Compaction
The area has the right conditions in terms of tide, wind, and profile for dunes to accumulate;
however the clayey/silt (Spencer, 2013) fine sediment on the beach face is not ideal for the
process of aeolian transport (Haslett, 2009). Popularity of Berrow sees an influx of tourists in
summer months and the impact of vehicles parking on the beach (image 2.4) increases sand
12. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
displacement, compaction (Schaler and Thompson, 2008), and is detrimental to macro-
invertebrates and faunal species (Stephenson, 1999; Martinez, 2013).
Image 2.4. Beach car parking. Google images
Compaction severity depends on sediment composition (Allen, 1999); at the study site
sediment is too cohesive for wind transport; the vehicles have compressed the sand
increasing water holding, causing a saturated foreshore (Image 2.5). The saturation is
affected by the high groundwater draining onto the foreshore at low tide (Davis, 1985),
reducing dry sediment for surface creep and saltation. The sediment budget (Bird, 2008) is at
a net loss as a result which directly limits the possibility of dune coupling.
Image 2.5. Saturated foreshore, taken by author
13. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
2.3 Dune specific
2.3.1 Sea buckthorn
Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) detailed by Doody (2013) was introduced to Berrow
in 1982 to combat sand blow and encourage stabilisation of dunes (Richards, 2011), but the
permanent stability it provides is contradictory to natural dune function (Ritchie, 2001).
This invasive, non-native species quickly spread via rapid growth, altering soil composition
(Hodgkin, 1984) and displacement of native species such as Marram (Ammophila arenaria)
and Lyme grass (Leymus arenarius) (Binggeli et al., 1992). Sea Buckthorn threatens the
dune system through low tolerance to beach conditions; the roots are exposed to salt spray
and sand/wind blasting, subsequently deteriorating then washed away from the fore dunes
(Image 2.6) resulting in loss of dune sediment (Richards, 2011) especially in storm events.
The intolerance to coastal conditions initiates blowouts (Bate, 1996) and inundation.
Image 2.6 Foredune erosion, Taken by author
Natural and anthropogenic disturbance to the study area have initiated the decline of dune
vegetation within the Berrow dunes due to extensive use of footpaths (Bird, 2008), causing
trampling and associated problems outlined by Lake (2010) and Coombes (2007). The
footpaths run perpendicular to the coastline (image 2.7) matching prevailing wind direction
and aiding deflation (Haslett, 2009). Once sediment is lost inland it cannot be regained. Zero
Sea Buckthorn eroded and exposing
14. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
management will see accelerated erosion and denudation rates allowing for continued
windward deflation (Carter, 1990) and blowout formation (Bate, 1996) as shown in image 2.7;
the resultant loss of natural flood defensive will create the need for expensive hard
engineering techniques (Silvester, 1974).
2.3.3 Reed swamp
Behind the fore dunes at the study site a reed swamp has developed (Spencer, 2013) due to
the present peat conditions (Mullin, 2009). Characteristics of this freshwater swamp are
detailed by Bird (2008); the swamp is dominated by reeds (Phragmites communis) often with
rushes (Typha spp.) or sedges. This represents a stage in vegetation succession and the
processes mentioned above have narrowed the dune system in front of the reed swamp
(image 2.8), creating the risk of breaching in this area causing saltwater intrusion (Barlow,
2009) and the destruction of this sensitive habitat.
Missed opportunities are seen at the study site; the LNR have implemented a hold the line
programme, evidenced by small scale thatching and interpretation panels (Sedgemoor,
2014). A larger scale, more proactive approach is needed in order to see results. If zero CZM
was to be implemented to the study area the pressure of SLR (Church, 2010) would result in
inundation of a large area across the Somerset levels (Figure 5), destroying the economic
and social benefits previously mentioned. The following sections will outline the possible
management strategies to be rejected and the most appropriate ICZM for the study area.
15. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
Formation of a Blowout
Footpath across dunes to beach
Image 2.7 Footpaths through dune system:
Taken by author & Google maps
16. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
Image 2.8 Reed Swamp: Google maps, amended by author
Gap between reed swamp and
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Figure 5: Potential future inundation: ArcGIS created by author & EA 2014.
18. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
3. Management solutions to reject
This section considers the management options that are inappropriate for dealing with the
problems at the study site, identified in section 2. A conceptual framework for coastal
vulnerability assessment by Klein and Nicholls (1999) helps emphasise the best approaches
for any vulnerable coastal environment (Image 3.1). Standing Conference on Problems
Associated with the Coastline (SCOPAC) detailed by Haslett (2009) and Hook & Bray (1995)
was created to implement CZM through governing bodies such as district councils. Table 1-5
summarise whether the management techniques ‘tick or cross’ the 4 fundamental categories
for successful coastal management at the study site.
Image 3.1: Conceptual framework of Coastal vulnerability. Klein & Nicholls (1999), edited by
19. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
3.1 Do nothing/zero management:
A do nothing approach at this site is already discounted considering the problems previously
outlined and the various habitat, settlement and assets (Burnham-on-sea, 2014) at the study
site (see Section 1), and the awareness that the dune system is under a lot of pressure
because of SLR (Church, 2010). The dunes have visible damage to the forefront from recent
storm surges (image 2.6) and sediment supply issues will see a continued net loss of the
dunes. Eventually hard engineering techniques will have to be implemented to prevent
flooding, coming at great monetary expense (SNH, 2000). This management scheme
achieves none of the fundamental issues as shown in table 1 and so can be rejected.
3.2 Managed retreat/realignment:
This management technique involves the relocation of communities and industry (Masslink,
2003) in order to let areas of hinterland to be claimed by the sea. The Somerset levels are
below mean sea level (figure 3) which forces an all or nothing approach in this area; either
defend a hard line on the map (French, 2002), or allow an area to be inundated. The range of
habitat (Sedgmoor, 2014), settlement and resources (Burnham-on-Sea, 2014) along the
Burnham coast (section 2) have been deemed significant enough for a hold the line
approach (Image 3.2) to have already been implemented by the Environment agency (EA,
2014). Hard defences have been used (image 3.3) which provides a fixed line of defence
20. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
(French, 2002) from SLR and inundation. Managed retreat can therefore be rejected as a
management concept because it cannot be implemented alongside the already established
techniques on the Brean Down - Burnham-on-Sea coastline without making them void
structures. Strong government supported legislation (Haslett, 2009) that is needed for this
type of management is not present for the study site. It does not achieve any of the
fundamentals (table 2) and cannot address the problems outlined in section 2.
This management solution involves adapting to and living with SLR and inundation through
the elevation of buildings and modifying drainage systems (Haslett, 2009). It requires
significant organisation and community participation, as well as funding to adapt the entire
infrastructure already in place (Hook & Bray, 1995). Due to the low lying nature of the land
behind the dune system this management scheme is not suitable as it would cause social
and economic loss and undermine the current management strategies implemented by the
EA (2014). This is because accommodating SLR does not conform to the hold the line/hard
engineering techniques (image 3.3) that have been put in place further up the coast. On
these grounds it is possible to reject this strategy.
21. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
3.4 Protection/Hold the line:
This hold the line approach physically protects the coastline through hard or soft engineering
(Masslink & Hughes, 2003).Sea walls and revetments provide an instantaneous barrier
against the threat flood inundation as seen further up the coastline from the study site (Image
3.3). However, hard engineering is hugely expensive and causes environmental problems,
specifically wave reflection and accelerated erosion (Kraus & McDougal, 1996). Table 3
emphasizes the detrimental effect hard engineering has on habitat and resource. The ‘fixed
line’ (SNH, 2000) causes a barrier between marine and terrestrial zones which disrupts
natural dune beach processes (Dugan et al., 2008) proving costly for the valuable habitat.
Groynes (Nordtsrom, 2014) act against longshore drift (LSD) causing starvation down drift
(Peterson et al., 2000a). They do not conform to the known geomorphology outlined in
section 2 as LSD is absent from this estuarine environment. Hard engineering increases
erosion rates by reflecting wave energy on the beach and dunes (Masslink & Hughes, 2003).
They disrupt public access to the upper beach and can be seen as an eye sore (SNH, 2000).
A storm in 1981 (Lewis, 2010) caused overtopping (Ingram, 2009) of the sea wall at
Burnham-on-Sea (Smith, 2009) causing flood damage to nearby towns (Burnham-on-Sea,
2006). The dunes system at the study site however, dissipated the storm energy effectively
protecting the hinterland from inundation. Soft engineering may be the most suited
management option (table 4) at the study site. On the above evidence hard engineering is
rejected as a management technique.
Hard engineering: Sea walls, rock
armour, revetments, Groynes,
Soft engineering: beach nourishment,
fencing, vegetation planting
£: X £200-500/100m
22. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
3.5 Advance the line/ Offshore structures
The current environment between Brean Down and Burham-on-Sea is a struggling dune and
beach system with an ever decreasing sediment budget (see section 2). With much of the
sediment supply suspended in the tidal flow the area lends itself for saltmarsh creation, much
like the sand bay coastline just north of Brean Down (Visit Somerset, 2014). The
implementation of an offshore defence (Lamberti et al., 2005) will reduce the tidal energy and
increase the scale of deposition resulting in saltmarsh formation overtime. This will overall
increase species diversity (Martin et al, 2005) whilst forming a natural coastal defence, but
will replace the sandy beach/ dune habitat with a marsh environment (Nordstrom, 2014). The
maintenance of the dunes and beach is vital due to the tourism it attracts and flood defence it
provides, allowing for the rejection of this management scheme.
Image 3.2: EA 2013
23. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
Image 3.3 Existing coastal defences: Edina Digi map, photos taken by author.
Sand dunes at Study site
Ad hoc defence
24. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
4. Recommended management
Preparation of a suitable CZM plan that ensures the conservation and sustainable use of
dune systems requires analysis of the impacts of sea level, climate, human activities and
sediment supply in the dune systems (section 2) (Saye et al., 2007). The geomorphological
response of Berrow Dunes (figure 2) to these implications help shape a future ICZM strategy
for the area. In order to provide a solution to the problems outlined in section 2 the following
management strategies are to be implemented:
i. Removal of sea buckthorn
ii. Dune vegetation (native species) planting
iii. Dune fencing implementation, and managing people
iv. Car parking initiative
v. Beach nourishment to encourage dune coupling
i. The problem with Sea buckthorn at the study site as outlined in section 2 is its invasive
nature causing reduction in native Marram and Lyme grass (Binggeli et al., 1992). This soft
engineering technique (Haslett, 2009), will strategically remove the sea buckthorn from
inland dunes to the fore dunes over a 3 year timescale (Figure 4.1). Cutting and burning will
take place between October and February each year in the designated areas, followed by re-
spraying to kill regrowth in the following spring months (ESCC, 2014). Removing the
invasive species alone will result in further net loss of sediment (See section 2.) so the
chosen strategies (i & ii) must work in tandem with one another in order to improve
sediment accumulation and the natural function of the dune system (Broome, 1981) (Figure
4.1 and 4.3). Sea buckthorn creates a contradictory environment to natural dune function
Fencing Car parking
25. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
(Ritchie, 2001), so the removal of this shrub whilst planting native species (ii) will help
recreate a naturally progressive system that provides a stronger defence to flood inundation.
This process is low cost as the sandy soil makes for easy plant removal; the labour intensive
nature being the only monetary spending (SNH, 2000). The golf course is worked into the
strategy, as there is evidence this man made area has been managed logically with native
vegetation and a managed water table so as not to hinder the dune system.
26. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
Image 4.1. Sea Buckthorn removal plan: Google maps, edited by author
Year 1 Sea Buckthorn removal
Year 2 Sea Buckthorn removal
Year 3 Sea Buckthorn removal
27. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
ii. Once the invasive species has been removed from an area (image 4.1) dune grass planting
will take place. Vegetation traps sand, provides habitat and has aesthetic appeal (Hesp,
1989) whilst stabilizing surface sediment for other species to establish themselves (Martinez,
2004). Many aspects must be considered when planting dune vegetation outlined by Ranwell
and Boar (1968). Wild thyme and marram grass will be used as it enhances the development
of yellow dunes above wave attack limit. This will be the first species undergoing planting
particularly in year 1 and 2 (Image 4.3), followed by Lyme grass in year 3 and beyond. Lyme
grass species help develop foredune growth because of its tolerance to inundation events
(SNH, 2000). Certain Species can be sourced from nearby areas of affluent growth
(image4.2) which further reduces the low cost scheme. Details of correct planting (image 4.2)
techniques such as plant root depth and spacing are detailed by Doody (2013). Initially plants
will be sown parallel to the prevailing wind to allow some wind to pass through and prevent
them being blown away completely at seedling stage (Tsuriell, 1974). Sand trapping is a
gradual rather than an overnight solution so a 3 year scheme will be used to assess
Image 4.2 Vegetation planting, SNH (2012)
28. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
Image 4.3 Vegetation planting zones: Google maps, edited by author
Year 1 Vegetation planting
Year 2 Vegetation planting
Year 3 Vegetation planting
29. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
iii. Dune fencing is a management technique that will encourage the deposition of windblown
sand by interrupting and reducing wind speed, allowing foredune growth and resistance
against erosion (SNH, 2000). They are effective in reducing the damage seen from trampling
(Coombes, 2007), and protecting new or existing vegetation through managing the areas
accessible to tourists (section 2). The use of board walks and signs in conjunction with
fences to manage pedestrian traffic (Nordstrom, 2014) further enhance the effectiveness of
this technique (image 4.4), with the possible implantation of zigzag pathways (Snyder &
The success of this management idea depends on the void/solid ratio of fence posts, the
availability of blown sand and the amount of vegetation to stabilise the accumulating sand.
CERC (1984) recommend straight fences parallel to the coast with porosity of 50%
preferably coinciding with natural dune vegetation. Strategies (i.) and (ii.) will provide
sufficient vegetation upon the dunes and strategy (iv.) will reduce compaction and increase
sediment available for beach dune coupling.
Chestnut paling fencing costs £400-2000/100m with approx. 2-5 years life expectancy (SNH,
2000). Low cost, good life span and ease of erection makes it ideal for the study site and
outweigh the problems associated with this technique e.g. beach litter. Fencing will be placed
across the entire study site in year 1 for immediate dune and reed swamp protection, and
subject to rate of sediment accumulation, a second fence line behind it in year 2 or 3 (Image
4.4 & 4.6). Forecast sand accumulation averages about 1m³/ per meter of fence per year
(Davis, 1985), so a three year projection looks positive for beach dune coupling and
increased sediment budget.
30. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
Image 4.4 Dune fencing plan: Google maps, edited by author
Fencing year 1
Fencing year 2/3
31. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
Image 4.5 Frontal dune defence SNH 2012, edited by author
32. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
Image 4.6 Dune fencing: South West Coastal Group
iv. Car parking on the Berrow beach causes issues of compaction and interferes with the natural
processes of sediment transport from beach to dune as detailed in section 2. Ideally there
would be no parking on the beach but the areas popularity will not allow for this. As an
alternative, parking will be restricted to particular sections along the beach (Nordstrom, 2003)
through signage and boundaries to manage pedestrian traffic (Nordstrom, 2014). A rotational
scheme is forecasted by which 3 zones of parking systematically facilitate vehicles one zone
at a time interchanging each month (Image 4.7). The parking areas not in use will be
ploughed or raked (Dean, 2002) to loosen compacted sediment. This will assist the ease in
which aeolian transport (Haslett, 2009) and other beach processes occurring leading to dune
recovery. Beach raking can be detrimental to backshore habitats (Martinez, 2013) so will be
used strategically. This parking scheme is key to the success of the management scheme as
the other methods will fail without improved sediment supply. Beach nourishment (Spybroek
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et al., 2006) is a viable option if current conditions remain the same and will be factored into
the 3 year plan for back up purposes (table 7).
Image 4.7 Car parking scheme: Google maps, edited by author
34. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
i. i. Removal of sea
Removal or invasive species from furthest
shoreward zone (image 4.1), via cutting,
burning and spraying.
Second zone closer to
shoreline removed through the
same techniques (image 4.1)
Final near shore zone removed
of invasive species.
Monitoring progress Check species is not returning after each year of removal.
ii. ii. Native vegetation
Planting to occur in shoreward zone (image
4.3), immediately after removal of sea
buckthorn to reduce deflation rates. Marram
grass and wild thyme planted in year 1.
Primary planting behind fencing in
nearshore zone (image 4.2).
Repeat planting in next
designated zone (image 4.3)
predominantly Marram grass.
Planting of Marram and Lyme
grass in the near-shore zone to
encourage embryo dune
Monitoring progress Monitor rate of vegetation growth, and assess whether more planting is needed.
iii. Dune fencing
Introduce fencing along entire study site to
provide protection to reed swamp and
vulnerable areas. (Image 4.4) primary
planting of Lyme and marram grass behind
fence (image 4.5).
Check accumulation rates
behind fencing, and make sure
pathways are fenced, with
signage for visitor guidance.
Continue maintenance of
fencing whilst checking
accumulation rates. If
appropriate, erect a second line
of fencing (image 4.4 & 4.6).
35. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
Monitoring progress Maintenance of fences and monitoring of accumulation rate yearly.
iii. iv. Car parking
Signs/ boundaries enforced (image 4.7) for
visitor parking guidance. 4 week rotational
scheme and beach raking commences.
4 week rotation maintained,
unused zones to be raked
every 4 weeks. Check
sediment accumulation in front
4 week rotation scheme
continued, with monthly beach
Monitoring progress Check parking is occurring in designated zones only. Assess the effectiveness of rotating the zones in peak
iv. Assessment after 3
Monitor beach and dune height; check fenced areas for accumulation rates to assess if sediment supply is
increasing. Beach nourishment may be implemented after the 3 year programme to improve sediment supply.
36. Management of Rivers and Coasts (UBGMXD- 20-3) Student number: 11020965
Allen, J.R.L. and Duffy, M.J. (1998) Medium-term sedimentation on high intertidal mudflats
and salt marshes in the Severn Estuary, SW Britain: the role of wind and tide. Marine
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