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Solvents

  1. 1. SolventsSolvents
  2. 2. OutlineOutline • HistoryHistory • Key StatsKey Stats • Different types of solventsDifferent types of solvents • How they workHow they work • Methods of useMethods of use • Health / DangersHealth / Dangers
  3. 3. Defining volatile substance abuseDefining volatile substance abuse • Solvent abuseSolvent abuse is sometimes calledis sometimes called glueglue sniffing, inhalant abusesniffing, inhalant abuse oror volatile substancevolatile substance abuseabuse (VSA)(VSA) • Children and young people often call itChildren and young people often call it huffing, sniffinghuffing, sniffing oror tootingtooting.. ((NHS Direct website)NHS Direct website)
  4. 4. How does Solvent use differ from other drugs? • The age at which young people experiment is generally much younger than for controlled substances • Solvents aren’t physically addictive. However the user may develop a psychological addiction
  5. 5. What is solvent and volatile substance abuse? • Volatile substances are depressants which slow down the activity of your brain. • They can also be stimulants and cause hallucinations. • Two main candidates for sniffing; solvents /gases
  6. 6. Solvents:Solvents: What are you finding?What are you finding? • Age & SexAge & Sex • Products & MethodsProducts & Methods • Social & family issuesSocial & family issues • FinancialFinancial • Physical healthPhysical health • Mental healthMental health • Other alcohol or drug useOther alcohol or drug use
  7. 7. Who uses volatile substances?Who uses volatile substances? • One in 10 secondary school children ‘sniff’ atOne in 10 secondary school children ‘sniff’ at least once, most of these will only experimentleast once, most of these will only experiment • Less than one per cent of all children becomeLess than one per cent of all children become heavy and frequent users.heavy and frequent users. • Peak age for experimenting around 13 or 14.Peak age for experimenting around 13 or 14. • Boys are more likely to die than girls, and it isBoys are more likely to die than girls, and it is more common in inner city areas.more common in inner city areas. • 1996 British Crime Survey - Black or South1996 British Crime Survey - Black or South Asian groups half as likely to use volatileAsian groups half as likely to use volatile substances as those from White groups.substances as those from White groups.
  8. 8. History & key findingsHistory & key findings
  9. 9. Historical Background • Ancient Greece -“Cave Sniffing” • 1775 – Joseph Priestley: Nitrous oxide • 1790s – Humphrey Davy tested gas on himself including Coleridge. • 1857 – Amyl nitrite, treatment for angina • 19th Century - England and America Ether, chloroform and nitrous oxide “sniffing parties” and “ether frolics”
  10. 10. • Second World War - Germany • ether drunk as a substitute for alcohol • 1950s America – petrol/glue sniffing • Australia, India and Great Britain • 1976 – Punks and ‘glue sniffing’ • 1980 – Glasgow study - community response • 1990-92 - VSA deaths fall sharply • 2000 – present Butane accounts for majority of deaths, increase in glue
  11. 11. Key statisticsKey statistics • Since 1971Since 1971, there have been more than, there have been more than 2,1982,198 VSA-linked deaths in the UKVSA-linked deaths in the UK.. • InIn 20052005,, 45 deaths45 deaths were associated withwere associated with VSA, the lowest since 1983.VSA, the lowest since 1983. • The rapid fall in VSA deaths in the earlyThe rapid fall in VSA deaths in the early 1990s associated in part with an1990s associated in part with an advertisingadvertising campaigncampaign in 1992in 1992?? • InIn 20052005,, butanebutane from all sources, includingfrom all sources, including aerosol propellantsaerosol propellants, accounted for, accounted for 80 per80 per centcent of theof the 45 VSA-linked45 VSA-linked deaths.deaths.
  12. 12. • 1971 to 20051971 to 2005,, halfhalf of all VSA-linked deaths occurredof all VSA-linked deaths occurred in the under-18 age group.in the under-18 age group. • 2000–2005,2000–2005, there werethere were 52 deaths associated52 deaths associated withwith VSA (10–15 age group), compared with 24 deathsVSA (10–15 age group), compared with 24 deaths associated with drug abuse.associated with drug abuse. • VSAVSA is nearly equalis nearly equal between the sexesbetween the sexes, but deaths in, but deaths in thethe over-18over-18 age group are far more common amongage group are far more common among males.males. • Most fatalitiesMost fatalities were in the abuser’swere in the abuser’s home (73 perhome (73 per cent),cent), with a further 7 per cent of abuses taking placewith a further 7 per cent of abuses taking place in the home of a friend.in the home of a friend. Source: ‘Trends in Death Associated With Abuse of VolatileSource: ‘Trends in Death Associated With Abuse of Volatile Substances: 1971-2005’, Field-Smith and others (2007)Substances: 1971-2005’, Field-Smith and others (2007)
  13. 13. The law and solventsThe law and solvents
  14. 14. Legislation • Intoxicating Substances (Supply) Act 1985 Illegal to sell to under 18s if reasonable belief the substance may be inhaled • Cigarette Lighter Refill (Safety) Regulations 1999 Offence to supply any refill canister containing butane to under 18s • Few prosecutions, only 53 out of 90 leading to a conviction, the other 37 resulting in a fine • Maximum penalty is 6 month prison sentence and a fine of £5,000
  15. 15. Different types of solventsDifferent types of solvents
  16. 16. What are the different volatileWhat are the different volatile substances?substances? • Aerosol glueAerosol glue • Air freshenerAir freshener • Anaesthetic agentsAnaesthetic agents • Butane gas cansButane gas cans • ChloroformChloroform • Cleaning fluidsCleaning fluids • Contact adhesivesContact adhesives • Deodorant/Deodorant/ AntiperspirantAntiperspirant • GluesGlues • Hair sprayHair spray • Industrial solventsIndustrial solvents • Lighter fuelLighter fuel • Model glueModel glue • Paint thinners andPaint thinners and strippersstrippers • PetrolPetrol • Propane gas cylinderPropane gas cylinder
  17. 17. Solvents & Gases Solvents Used to keep products dissolved until they are ready for use. Glues, Tipex, nail varnish, petrol etc. Quick evaporation and volatility give the intoxicating effect. Gases Fuel gases i.e. cigarette lighter refills or propellants Propellants Pressurised liquid gases used to propel the contents (e.g. hairspray) from the container. Main propellant used today is butane
  18. 18. Organic solventsOrganic solvents
  19. 19. Put into right orderPut into right order • Methyl acetate/ethyl acetate –Methyl acetate/ethyl acetate – drydry cleanerscleaners • Toluene/turps -Toluene/turps -paint thinnerspaint thinners • Citrus terpenes -Citrus terpenes - nail varnish removernail varnish remover • Tetra-chloro-ethylene -Tetra-chloro-ethylene - gluesglues • Hexane, petrol ether -Hexane, petrol ether - spot removersspot removers • Acetone -Acetone - detergentsdetergents • Ethanol -Ethanol - perfumesperfumes
  20. 20. Examples of organic solventsExamples of organic solvents • Tetra-chloro-ethylene –Tetra-chloro-ethylene – dry cleanersdry cleaners • Toluene/turps -Toluene/turps -paint thinnerspaint thinners • Acetone –Acetone – nail varnish removernail varnish remover • Methyl acetate/ethyl acetate –Methyl acetate/ethyl acetate – gluesglues • Hexane, petrol ether –Hexane, petrol ether – spot removersspot removers • Citrus terpenes –Citrus terpenes – detergentsdetergents • Ethanol -Ethanol - perfumesperfumes
  21. 21. How are volatile substances used?How are volatile substances used? • Glue tends to be sniffed from bags, including crispGlue tends to be sniffed from bags, including crisp bags.bags. • Liquids, including petrol, can be sniffed from aLiquids, including petrol, can be sniffed from a handkerchief or a coat sleeve.handkerchief or a coat sleeve. • Gaseous preparations, such as butane and aerosols,Gaseous preparations, such as butane and aerosols, can be sniffed from bags or sprayed directly into thecan be sniffed from bags or sprayed directly into the mouth.mouth. • Heads are often placed inside a large plastic bag toHeads are often placed inside a large plastic bag to inhale the fumes.inhale the fumes. Some people will inhale through both the nose and mouth toSome people will inhale through both the nose and mouth to enhance the effect.enhance the effect.
  22. 22. Gas Fuels • Accounted for 46.8% of deaths between 1971 and 2006. • 2006 - 56.3% • Cigarette lighter fuel refills constituted 81.7% of total gas deaths 1971-2006
  23. 23. Aerosols • Accounted for 17.7% of deaths between 1971 and 2006
  24. 24. Adhesives • Glues accounted for 15% of deaths between 1971 and 2006
  25. 25. How solvents workHow solvents work
  26. 26. How do solvents and volatile substances work?How do solvents and volatile substances work? • Absorbed through the lungs into the bloodstream.Absorbed through the lungs into the bloodstream. • The chemicals in solvents are fat soluble passThe chemicals in solvents are fat soluble pass rapidly to the brain - effects 20-30 seconds last forrapidly to the brain - effects 20-30 seconds last for the next 30-40 minutesthe next 30-40 minutes • Effects vary from person to person the ‘high’ usuallyEffects vary from person to person the ‘high’ usually last only a few minutes.last only a few minutes. • Duration of the experience depends on the productDuration of the experience depends on the product glue has a longer duration than butane.glue has a longer duration than butane.
  27. 27. Initial feeling of euphoria, very similar to alcoholInitial feeling of euphoria, very similar to alcohol intoxication, speed of onset is much more rapid;intoxication, speed of onset is much more rapid; • •• Drowsiness: initial excitement often followed by drowsinessDrowsiness: initial excitement often followed by drowsiness • •• Slurred speechSlurred speech • •• Loss of co-ordinationLoss of co-ordination • •• Buzz - buzzing in the earsBuzz - buzzing in the ears • •• Light-headed - floaty feelingLight-headed - floaty feeling • •• Numbness and tingling in hands and feetNumbness and tingling in hands and feet • •• HallucinationsHallucinations • •• Visual distortions - flashes of lights before the eyesVisual distortions - flashes of lights before the eyes • •• Loss of inhibitionsLoss of inhibitions
  28. 28. Biochemistry of SolventsBiochemistry of Solvents SolventsSolvents Nerve cell in brain (diffuses through cell membrane?)
  29. 29. Biochemistry of SolventsBiochemistry of Solvents Solvents?Solvents? Nerve cell in brain NMDA /GABA Receptor
  30. 30. User ProfileUser Profile
  31. 31. Reasons for volatile substance abuseReasons for volatile substance abuse Children and young people calling ChildLine identified theChildren and young people calling ChildLine identified the following reasons for abusing volatile substances:following reasons for abusing volatile substances: • low self-esteem and poor self image and resulting self-low self-esteem and poor self image and resulting self- harmharm • difficult family relationshipsdifficult family relationships • lack of support through traumatic events and transitionslack of support through traumatic events and transitions • peer influencepeer influence • bullying, violence and other abusebullying, violence and other abuse • opportunity and availability.opportunity and availability.
  32. 32. Who Sniffs Solvents and Volatile Substances? Four groups; • Experimental, • Social • Problematic • Chronic
  33. 33. Experimental Use The majority of young people fall into this category and only try solvents once or twice
  34. 34. Social Use • Young people ‘sniff’ solvents in a recreational way or with friends. • The amount of use varies depending on what else is happening in their lives • Often just a phase in their life and stops when they find other interests or ‘grow out of it’
  35. 35. Problematic Use • People see their sniffing as more important than other activities. • Underlying reasons for use include problems with friends or family, financial pressures and using solvents as a way of managing difficult, feelings, stresses or situations.
  36. 36. Chronic Use • Only a small number of people become chronic users. • More regular and increasing amounts need to be taken to get the same effect. • May use alone or with others. • Users may also have other problems such as difficulties at home, depression, anxiety, low achievement at school etc. • Solvents are often used as a way of escaping from problems
  37. 37. HealthHealth
  38. 38. HealthHealth • The primary danger is death, particularly through firstThe primary danger is death, particularly through first time use.time use. Heart Failure – Sudden Death Syndrome (cardiac arrhythmia) • Drug induced trauma – paranoia, agitation, anxiety.Drug induced trauma – paranoia, agitation, anxiety. • Vulnerable to a range of dangers and risky behaviours.Vulnerable to a range of dangers and risky behaviours. • If butane or aerosols are sprayed directly into the mouth,If butane or aerosols are sprayed directly into the mouth, may freeze and damage the throat tissues.may freeze and damage the throat tissues. • Many of these products are flammable, there is a fireMany of these products are flammable, there is a fire risk, especially when sniffing and smoking.risk, especially when sniffing and smoking.
  39. 39. • Large plastic bags to inhale solvents carriesLarge plastic bags to inhale solvents carries the risk of suffocation.the risk of suffocation. • May choke on their own vomit.May choke on their own vomit. • Likely to compound the effects of street drugsLikely to compound the effects of street drugs or alcohol, which may add to the dangers.or alcohol, which may add to the dangers. • Damage to the liver, kidneys, lungs, boneDamage to the liver, kidneys, lungs, bone marrow or nervous system is known, but it ismarrow or nervous system is known, but it is not common and is generally reversible.not common and is generally reversible.
  40. 40. Signs of “Sniffing” • Empty butane gas, aerosol or glue containers. • Teeth marks on nozzles, towels with white marks on, bags containing glue, etc. • Physical symptoms such as; drunken behaviour, chemical smell on clothing, dilated pupils, pale complexion, red watery eyes, persistent runny nose, cough in the back of the throat, rashes or spots around the nose and mouth (only occurs with certain products)
  41. 41. Emergency response • If they are high keep them calm and still. There is a risk of sudden death if exertion follows sniffing – don’t chase or over excite them. • If they are unconscious check their airway, breathing and circulation place them on their side in the recovery position call an ambulance and inform them what has been taken keep them warm and still
  42. 42. GP Awareness • Survey of professionals revealed that GPs, as a group, demonstrated less awareness of the problem than teachers and other professionals.
  43. 43. Treatment Programmes • Early intervention may be enough to prevent the development of a long-term problem. • Where the habit is already active, treatment may be provided by social and youth services, counselling agencies and family/group therapy • Aim of treatment is to develop social and emotional skills to deal with personal problems. • Develop reading/creative skills or use of recreational facilities. • More specialised help for chronic users.
  44. 44. CombinationsCombinations • Space surfing (nitrous oxide /amyl nitrite)Space surfing (nitrous oxide /amyl nitrite) • AlcoholAlcohol • BZP - PiperizineBZP - Piperizine • CannabisCannabis • GBL (floor stripper & drain cleaner)GBL (floor stripper & drain cleaner)
  45. 45. GHB can be in any formGHB can be in any form
  46. 46. GHBGHB May be slightly salty or bitterMay be slightly salty or bitter to tasteto taste.. DoseDose – usual dose is around 1–3 gusual dose is around 1–3 g powder;powder; CConcentration is widelyoncentration is widely variablevariable.. RouteRoute – oral, less often IVoral, less often IV.. OnsetOnset – 10–60 minutes10–60 minutes..
  47. 47. GHB EffectsGHB Effects Small dose (1–3 g)Small dose (1–3 g) – Decreased inhibitionsDecreased inhibitions – Increased libidoIncreased libido – Euphoria similar toEuphoria similar to ecstasyecstasy – Sedative effectsSedative effects – Memory loss (sedation)Memory loss (sedation) – Synergistic effect whenSynergistic effect when combined with alcoholcombined with alcohol (significantly increases(significantly increases risk of overdose)risk of overdose).. Larger Dose (4–5 g)Larger Dose (4–5 g) – Powerful sedative effectsPowerful sedative effects – Nausea and vomitingNausea and vomiting – Stiffening of musclesStiffening of muscles – DisorientationDisorientation – Profound sedationProfound sedation – ConvulsionsConvulsions – ComaComa – Respiratory collapseRespiratory collapse..

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  • Mohan9182497498

    May. 3, 2019

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