Lesson Plan

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Cause and effect

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Lesson Plan

  1. 1. Lesson Plan in English Grammar for Fourth Year StudentsI. Objectives Students must be able to do the following at the end of the activities with at least 85% proficiency: Match cause-effect relationship. Use conjunctions to show cause-effect relationship. Compose a paragraph using conjunctive adverbs.II. Subject Matter Conjunctions/Connectives of Cause and Effect Reference: English Book pp. 228-230 Materials: Visual AidsIII. Procedure A. Motivation: 1. Ask the class the following questions: a. Have you ever done something that did not have an outcome? 2. Introduce the cause-effect topic. A cause is WHY something happens. An effect is WHAT happens. B. Presentation: 1. Introduction a. Introduce the lesson. C. Discussion 1. Discuss cause-effect relationship and how to use the connectives. Cause-effect relationship is a form of reasoning to reach valid conclusions. In grammar, we can show this relationship by using conjunctions/connectives of cause and effect. These connectives may introduce the cause-clause or the effect-clause. Example: 1. Ken did not do his homework. 2. He got a bad grade. a. Ken did not do his homework; (therefore/so/thus/consequently), he got a bad grade. b. (Because/Since) Ken did not do his homework, he got a bad grade. In letter a, 2 independent clauses were joined/combined by the connective „therefore‟. In writing this sentence, use a semicolon (;) after the first clause then add a connective followed by a comma (,). In letter b, the 1st sentence was introduced by the connective “Since”. In writing this sentence, we only used a comma to separate the 2nd sentence.*The connectives that introduce the cause-clause () 1
  2. 2. If, since, because, thus* The connectives that introduce the effect-clause Therefore, so, thus, consequently*other examples of cause-effect connectives Hence, for, for this reason, on account of this, it follows, as a result, arising from this, so that, etc 2. Ask the students to match the cause-effect relationship of the examples given. C. Application 1. Let the class answer the exercises on the board by using conjunctions to show cause-effect relationship.IV. Evaluation: A. Let the students answer the question using proper conjunctive adverbs on a piece of paper: 1. Why are trees important in the ecological system?V. Assignment: A. Describe the scenario in a world where all trees and forests are destroyed using conjunctive adverbs.Write your answer on a sheet of paper. 2

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