1What Is a Portfolio?A portfolio is a purposeful collection of student work that exhibits thestudents efforts, progress, and achievements in one or more areas of thecurriculum. The collection must include the following:Student participation in selecting contents.Criteria for selection.Criteria for judging merits.Evidence of a students self-reflection.It should represent a collection of students best work or best efforts,student-selected samples of work experiences related to outcomes beingassessed, and documents according growth and development towardmastering identified outcomes.Why Use a Portfolio?In this new era of performance assessment related to the monitoring ofstudents mastery of a core curriculum, portfolios can enhance theassessment process by revealing a range of skills and understandingsone students parts; support instructional goals; reflect change andgrowth over a period of time; encourage student, teacher, and parentreflection; and provide for continuity in education from one year to thenext. Instructors can use them for a variety of specific purposes,including:Encouraging self-directed learning.Enlarging the view of what is learned.Fostering learning about learning.Demonstrating progress toward identified outcomes.Creating an intersection for instruction and assessment.Providing a way for students to value themselves as learners.Offering opportunities for peer-supported growth.What are the Characteristics of a Good Portfolio?Portfolio assessment is a multi-faceted process characterized by thefollowing recurrent qualities:It is continuous and ongoing, providing both formative (i.e.,ongoing) and summative (i.e., culminating) opportunities formonitoring students progress toward achieving essentialoutcomes.It is multidimensional, i.e., reflecting a wide variety of artifacts andprocesses reflecting various aspects of students learning process(es).It provides for collaborative reflection, including ways for studentsto reflect about their own thinking processes and metacognitive
2introspection as they monitor their own comprehension, reflectupon their approaches to problem-solving and decision-making,and observe their emerging understanding of subjects and skills.Although approaches to portfolio development may vary, all of themajor research and literature on portfolios reinforce the followingcharacteristics:They clearly reflect stated learner outcomes identified in the core oressential curriculum that students are expected to study.They focus upon students performance-based learning experiencesas well as their acquisition of key knowledge, skills, and attitudes.They contain samples of work that stretch over an entire markingperiod, rather than single points in time.They contain works that represent a variety of different assessmenttools.They contain a variety of work samples and evaluations of thatwork by the student, peers, and teachers, possible even parentsreactions.What are the Different Types of Portfolio?Phase One:Organization and Planning - This initial phase of portfolio developmententails decision-making on the part of students and teachers. Byexploring essential questions at the beginning of the process, studentscan fully understand the purpose of the portfolio and its status as ameans of monitoring and evaluating their own progress. Key questionsfor the teacher and the student must include:How do I select times, materials, etc. to reflect what I am learningin this class?How do I organize and present the items, materials, etc. that I havecollected?How will portfolios be maintained and stored?Phase Two:Collection - This process involves the collection of meaningful artifactsand products reflecting students educational experiences and goals.Decisions must be made at this phase about the context and contents ofthe portfolio based upon the intent and purposes identified for it. Theselection and collection of artifacts and products should be based upon avariety of factors that can include:Particular subject matter;A learning process; or
3Special projects, themes, and/or unites.All selections included in the collection should clearly reflect the criteriaand standards identified for evaluation.Phase Three:Reflection - Wherever possible, there should be evidence of studentsmetacognitive reflections upon the learning process and their monitoringof their evolving comprehension of key knowledge and skills. Thesereflections can take the form of learning logs, reflective journals, andother forms of reflections upon their experiences, the thinking processesthey have used, and the habits of mind they employed at given points intime and across time periods. In addition, teacher and/or parentreflections upon the products, processes, and thinking articulated in theportfolio should also be included wherever appropriate.How Can Portfolios be Evaluated?According to Paulson, Paulson and Meyer, (1991, p. 63): "Portfolios offera way of assessing student learning that is different than traditionalmethods. Portfolio assessment provides the teacher and students anopportunity to observe students in a broader context: taking risks,developing creative solutions, and learning to make judgments abouttheir own performances."In order for thoughtful evaluation to take place, teachers must havemultiple scoring strategies to evaluate students progress. Criteria for afinished portfolio might include several of the following:Thoughtfulness (including evidence of students monitoring of theirown comprehension, metacognitive reflection, and productivehabits of mind).Growth and development in relationship to key curriculumexpectancies and indicators.Understanding and application of key processes.Completeness, correctness, and appropriateness of products andprocesses presented in the portfolio.Diversity of entries (e.g., use of multiple formats to demonstrateachievement of designated performance standards).It is especially important for teachers and students to worktogether to prioritize those criteria that will be used as a basis forassessing and evaluating student progress, both formatively (i.e.,throughout an instructional time period) and summatively (i.e., as part ofa culminating project, activity, or related assessment to determine the
4extent to which identified curricular expectancies, indicators, andstandards have been achieved).Students and teacher can work together to identify especially significantor important artifacts and processes to be captured in the portfolio.Additionally, they can work collaboratively to determine grades or scoresto be assigned. Rubrics, rules, and scoring keys can be designed for avariety of portfolio components. In addition, letter grades might also beassigned, where appropriate. Finally, some form of oral discussion orinvestigation should be included as part of the summative evaluationprocess. This component should involve the student, teacher, and ifpossible, a panel of reviewers in a thoughtful exploration of the portfoliocomponents, students decision-making and evaluation processes relatedto artifact selection, and other relevant issues.Why use Portfolio Assessment?Portfolios are a form of alternative/authentic assessment in whicha students progress is measured over a period of time in variouslanguage learning contexts. Portfolios can include evidence ofspecific skills and other items at one particular time and languageperformance and progress over time, under different conditions, inall four modalities (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) or allthree communication modes (interpersonal, interpretive, andpresentational). Using a combination of testing instruments lendsvalidity and reliability to the portfolio.Portfolio assessment is closely linked to instruction, which has twoeducational benefits. First, linking assessment to instructionmeans that you are sure that you are measuring what you havetaught. Second, portfolios reveal any weaknesses in instructionalpractices. For example, if the purpose of the portfolio is linked tomaking progress toward all areas of the National Standards, and,at the end of the marking period, there are no works related to oralcommunication in the portfolio, the teacher may decide toincorporate more oral communications work into the curriculum.This is a way of providing for systemic validity.Portfolio assessment is by nature incorporated fully intoinstruction: there is no time lost on assessment. Assessment is atrue learning experience, and not external to the learning process.Student assessment portfolios promote positive studentinvolvement. As students create their portfolios, they are activelyinvolved in and reflecting on their own learning. Increasedmetacognition has a positive impact on a students self-confidence,facilitates student use of learning strategies, and increases thestudents ability to assess and revise work. Student motivation tocontinue studying and succeeding in language learning tends togrow in such an environment.
5Portfolios offer the teacher and student an in-depth knowledge ofthe student as a learner. This means that the teacher canindividualize instruction for the student. Weak areas can bestrengthened and areas of mastery built upon. Learners areinvolved in this process of tracking their learning and can takecontrol of their learning.Using portfolios introduces students to an evaluation format withwhich they may need to become familiar as more schools anddistricts adopt portfolio assessment.Using assessment portfolios gives the teacher opportunities toinvolve parents in their childrens language learning. Parentalinvolvement is an important factor in educational success.Portfolio AssessmentPortfolio Assessment is a term used to describe a collection (orportfolio) of a students work collected over time, so that teachers, schooladministrators, and parents can view a students progression in a givencontent area (such as math or reading). Students usually have somehand in choosing the work that goes into their portfolio, often choosingwork that is most representative of their abilities.SignificancePortfolio Assessment grew out of the desire to find another way tomeasure academic success other than standardized, norm-referenced,multiple-choice style tests. While a standardized test can measure what agiven student knows "at the moment", portfolio assessment can measurea students cognitive process. Advocates of portfolio assessment oftenpoint to the disconcerting trend that, given the high stakes ofstandardized, and more recently, state testing, curriculum is often moregeared to the test rather than providing opportunities for broadeducational experiences. These advocates believe that portfolioassessment provides a more comprehensive adjunct to traditional formsof testing.PurposePortfolio Assessment allows teachers to witness students achievementsin ways that standardized or state testing often cannot, such as thedevelopment of skills and strategies, and the cognitive process. Studentsare encouraged to journal about their work in their portfolios, to choosework that shows evidence of their progress, and to have periodicconferences with the teacher to discuss the contents of their portfolios.Therefore, portfolios also encourage students to become partners in theiracademic success.
6TypesSome teachers have their students maintain a variety of portfolios. Someof these might include:Progress portfolios A progress portfolio contains examples of a variety ofa students work and, as the name implies, is used to assess progressover time. A progress portfolio provides visual evidence of studentscognitive growth in a given content area.Showcase portfolios A showcase portfolio contains examples of what thestudent considers his or her best work, often including rough drafts andfinal products to show the students process. The material included in ashowcase portfolio is usually completed work taken from a progressportfolio.AssessmentUnlike other measures of a students abilities, a portfolio focuses moreon performance than an overall isolated result. For example, a teachercan view a math worksheet where a student answered six out 10questions correctly. With this very basic information, the teacher canglean only a limited amount of information. With portfolio assessment,however, a teacher can see how the student has progressed andmastered essential concepts, especially since much of the work includedin a students portfolio requires that a student show his or her work.Using the above example, a teacher may learn that those six incorrectanswers were the result of a small error in calculation, rather than anoverall weakness in the specific concept. The teacher is then able to givemore effective, targeted instruction to the student.StudentsPortfolio Assessment is a way for students and teachers to work togethertoward specific outcomes. Much of the work in a portfolio isnt gradedusing a traditional grading system of A-F, but rather a rubric or scoringguide that assigns a given value to a particular characteristic of thework. For writing, the categories might include legibility, spelling,grammar, and sentence structure. For math, the categories mightinclude demonstrating an understanding of the concept, neatness ofwork, the inclusion of all calculations in an organized, step-by-stepmanner, and an explanation of the problem-solving process. Studentsare aware of these rubrics and the standards against which their workwill be judged. Educators believe that if students understand what isexpected of them, they will be able to perform at a higher level.
7What is performance-based assessment?Performance-based assessment is an approach to the monitoring ofstudents progress in relationship to identified learner outcomes. Thismethod of assessment requires the student to create answers orproducts which demonstrate his/her knowledge or skills. This differsfrom traditional testing methods which require a student to select asingle correct answer or to fill in the blank.What are the characteristicsof an effective performance assessment task?The Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Congress definesperformance assessment as “any form of testing that requires a studentto create an answer or a product that demonstrates his or her knowledgeor skills.” According to Stephen K. Hess, Director or Criterion ReferencedEvaluation and Testing for Frederick County Public Schools, the goal ofeffective performance assessment is “to develop important tasks that areworthwhile and engaging for student, requiring the application of skillsand knowledge learned prior to the assessment.”Experts in the field emphasize that any effective performance assessmenttask should have the following design features:Students should be active participants, not passive “selectors ofthe single right answer."Intended outcomes should be clearly identified and should guidethe design of a performance task.Students should be expected to demonstrate mastery of thoseintended outcomes when responding to all facets of the task.Students must demonstrate their ability to apply their knowledgeand skills to reality-based situations and scenarios.A clear, logical set of performance-based activities that studentsare expected to follow should be evident.A clearly presented set of criteria should be available to help judgethe degree of proficiency in a student response.What is a rubric?A rubric is an authentic assessment tool used to measurestudents work. It is a scoring guide that seeks to evaluate a studentsperformance based on the sum of a full range of criteria rather than asingle numerical score. A rubric is a working guide for students andteachers, usually handed out before the assignment begins in order toget students to think about the criteria on which their work will bejudged. Rubrics can be analytic or holistic, and they can be created for
8any content area including math, science, history, writing, foreignlanguages, drama, art, music, etc...The rubric is one authentic assessment tool which is designed tosimulate real life activity where students are engaged in solving real-lifeproblems. It is a formative type of assessment because it becomes anongoing part of the whole teaching and learning process. Studentsthemselves are involved in the assessment process through both peerand self-assessment. As students become familiar with rubrics, they canassist in the rubric design process. This involvement empowers thestudents and as a result, their learning becomes more focused and self-directed. Authentic assessment, therefore, blurs the lines betweenteaching, learning, and assessment (Pickette and Dodge).Assessment Rubrics Three (3) Common FeaturesRubrics can be created in a variety of forms and levels of complexity,however, they all contain three common features which:focus on measuring a stated objective (performance, behavior, orquality).use a range to rate performance.contain specific performance characteristics arranged in levelsindicating the degree to which a standard has been met (Pickettand Dodge).Advantages of RubricsMany experts believe that rubrics improve students end products andtherefore increase learning. When teachers evaluate papers or projects,they know implicitly what makes a good final product and why. Whenstudents receive rubrics beforehand, they understand how they will beevaluated and can prepare accordingly. Developing a grid and making itavailable as a tool for students use will provide the scaffolding necessaryto improve the quality of their work and increase their knowledge.Rubrics offer several advantages.Rubrics improve student performance by clearly showing thestudent how their work will be evaluated and what is expected.Rubrics help students become better judges of the quality of theirown work.Rubrics allow assessment to be more objective and consistent.Rubrics force the teacher to clarify his/her criteria in specificterms.
9Rubrics reduce the amount of time teachers spend evaluatingstudent work.Rubrics promote student awareness about the criteria to use inassessing peer performance.Rubrics provide useful feedback to the teacher regarding theeffectiveness of the instruction.Rubrics provide students with more informative feedback abouttheir strengths and areas in need of improvement.Rubrics accommodate heterogeneous classes by offering a range ofquality levels.Rubrics are easy to use and easy to explain.Why Include Levels of Performance?Clearer expectationsAs mentioned in Step 3, it is very useful for the students and the teacherif the criteria are identified and communicated prior to completion of thetask. Students know what is expected of them and teachers know whatto look for in student performance. Similarly, students better understandwhat good (or bad) performance on a task looks like if levels ofperformance are identified, particularly if descriptors for each level areincluded.More consistent and objective assessmentIn addition to better communicating teacher expectations, levels ofperformance permit the teacher to more consistently and objectivelydistinguish between good and bad performance, or between superior,mediocre and poor performance, when evaluating student work.Better feedbackFurthermore, identifying specific levels of student performance allows theteacher to provide more detailed feedback to students. The teacher andthe students can more clearly recognize areas that need improvement.Analytic Versus Holistic RubricsFor a particular task you assign students, do you want to be ableto assess how well the students perform on each criterion, or do youwant to get a more global picture of the students performance on theentire task? The answer to that question is likely to determine the type ofrubric you choose to create or use: Analytic or holistic.
10Analytic rubricMost rubrics, like the Research rubric above, are analytic rubrics.An analytic rubric articulates levels of performance for each criterion sothe teacher can assess student performance on each criterion. Using theResearch rubric, a teacher could assess whether a student has done apoor, good or excellent job of "organization" and distinguish that fromhow well the student did on "historical accuracy."Below is a sample of an Analytic rubric:Criteria 1 2 3Number ofSourcesx1 1-4 5-9 10-12HistoricalAccuracyx3Lots ofhistoricalinaccuraciesFewinaccuraciesNo apparentinaccuraciesOrganization x1Can not tellfrom whichsourceinformationcameCan tell withdifficultywhereinformationcame fromCan easily tellwhich sourcesinfo wasdrawn fromBibliography x1Bibiliographycontains verylittleinformationBibliographycontains mostrelevantinformationAll relevantinformation isincludedDescriptorsThe rubric on the previous page includes another common, but not anecessary, component of rubrics -- descriptors. Descriptors spell outwhat is expected of students at each level of performance for eachcriterion. In the above example, "lots of historical inaccuracies," "can tellwith difficulty where information came from" and "all relevantinformation is included" are descriptors. A descriptor tells students moreprecisely what performance looks like at each level and how their workmay be distinguished from the work of others for each criterion.Similarly, the descriptors help the teacher more precisely andconsistently distinguish between student work.Holistic rubricIn contrast, a holistic rubric does not list separate levels of performancefor each criterion. Instead, a holistic rubric assigns a level of performanceby assessing performance across multiple criteria as a whole. For
11example, the analytic research rubric above can be turned into a holisticrubric:In the analytic version of this rubric, 1, 2 or 3 points is awarded for thenumber of sources the student included. In contrast, number of sourcesis considered along with historical accuracy and the other criteria in theuse of a holistic rubric to arrive at a more global (or holistic) impressionof the student work. Another example of a holistic rubric is the "HolisticCritical Thinking Scoring Rubric" (in PDF) developed by Facione &Facione.Below is a sample of a Holistic Rubric:3 - Excellent Researcherincluded 10-12 sourcesno apparent historical inaccuraciescan easily tell which sources information was drawnfromall relevant information is included2 - Good Researcherincluded 5-9 sourcesfew historical inaccuraciescan tell with difficulty where information came frombibliography contains most relevant information1 - Poor Researcherincluded 1-4 sourceslots of historical inaccuraciescannot tell from which source information camebibliography contains very little informationWhen to choose an analytic rubric?Analytic rubrics are more common because teachers typically want toassess each criterion separately, particularly for assignments that involvea larger number of criteria. It becomes more and more difficult to assigna level of performance in a holistic rubric as the number of criteriaincreases. For example, what level would you assign a student on the
12holistic research rubric above if the student included 12 sources, hadlots of inaccuracies, did not make it clear from which source informationcame, and whose bibliography contained most relevant information? Asstudent performance increasingly varies across criteria it becomes moredifficult to assign an appropriate holistic category to the performance.Additionally, an analytic rubric better handles weighting of criteria.How would you treat "historical accuracy" as more important a criterionin the holistic rubric? It is not easy. But the analytic rubric handles itwell by using a simple multiplier for each criterion.When to choose a holistic rubric?So, when might you use a holistic rubric? Holistic rubrics tend tobe used when a quick or gross judgment needs to be made. If theassessment is a minor one, such as a brief homework assignment, it maybe sufficient to apply a holistic judgment (e.g., check, check-plus, or no-check) to quickly review student work. But holistic rubrics can also beemployed for more substantial assignments. On some tasks it is not easyto evaluate performance on one criterion independently of performanceon a different criterion. For example, many writing rubrics (see example)are holistic because it is not always easy to disentangle clarity fromorganization or content from presentation. So, some educators believe aholistic or global assessment of student performance better capturesstudent ability on certain tasks. (Alternatively, if two criteria are nearlyinseparable, the combination of the two can be treated as a singlecriterion in an analytic rubric.)How Many Levels of Performance Should I Include in my Rubric?There is no specific number of levels a rubric should or should notpossess. It will vary depending on the task and your needs. A rubric canhave as few as two levels of performance (e.g., a checklist) or as many as... well, as many as you decide is appropriate. (Some do not consider achecklist a rubric because it only has two levels -- a criterion was met orit wasnt. But because a checklist does contain criteria and at least twolevels of performance, I include it under the category of rubrics.) Also, itis not true that there must be an even number or an odd number oflevels. Again, that will depend on the situation.To further consider how many levels of performance should beincluded in a rubric, I will separately address analytic and holisticrubrics.
13Analytic Rubrics Level of PerformanceGenerally, it is better to start with a smaller number of levels ofperformance for a criterion and then expand if necessary. Makingdistinctions in student performance across two or three broad categoriesis difficult enough. As the number of levels increases and thosejudgments become finer and finer, the likelihood of error increases.Thus, start small. For example, in an oral presentation rubric,amount of eye contact might be an important criterion. Performance onthat criterion could be judged along three levels of performance: never,sometimes, always.Although these three levels may not capture all the variation instudent performance on the criterion, it may be sufficient discriminationfor your purposes. Or, at the least, it is a place to start. Upon applyingthe three levels of performance, you might discover that you caneffectively group your students performance in these three categories.Furthermore, you might discover that the labels of never, sometimes andalways sufficiently communicates to your students the degree to whichthey can improve on making eye contact.On the other hand, after applying the rubric you might discoverthat you cannot effectively discriminate among student performance withjust three levels of performance. Perhaps, in your view, many studentsfall in between never and sometimes, or between sometimes and always,and neither label accurately captures their performance. So, at thispoint, you may decide to expand the number of levels of performance toinclude never, rarely, sometimes, usually and always.There is no "right" answer as to how many levels of performancethere should be for a criterion in an analytic rubric; that will depend onthe nature of the task assigned, the criteria being evaluated, the studentsinvolved and your purposes and preferences. For example, anotherteacher might decide to leave off the "always" level in the above rubricbecause "usually" is as much as normally can be expected or evenwanted in some instances. Thus, the "makes eye contact" portion of therubric for that teacher might be,makes eye contact never rarely sometimes usuallySo, I recommend that you begin with a small number of levels ofperformance for each criterion, apply the rubric one or more times, andthen re-examine the number of levels that best serve your needs. Ibelieve starting small and expanding if necessary is preferable to starting
14with a larger number of levels and shrinking the number because rubricswith fewer levels of performance are normallyeasier and quicker to administereasier to explain to students (and others)easier to expand than larger rubrics are to shrinkThe fact that rubrics can be modified and can reasonably vary fromteacher to teacher again illustrates that rubrics are flexible tools to beshaped to your purposes. To read more about the decisions involved indeveloping a rubric, see the chapter entitled, "Step 4: Create the Rubric."Holistic Rubrics Level of PerformanceMuch of the advice offered above for analytic rubrics applies toholistic rubrics as well. Start with a small number of categories,particularly since holistic rubrics often are used for quick judgments onsmaller tasks such as homework assignments. For example, you mightlimit your broad judgments tosatisfactoryunsatisfactorynot attemptedOf course, to aid students in understanding what you mean by"satisfactory" or "unsatisfactory" you would want to include descriptorsexplaining what satisfactory performance on the task looks like. Evenwith more elaborate holistic rubrics for more complex tasks I recommendthat you begin with a small number of levels of performance. Once youhave applied the rubric you can better judge if you need to expand thelevels to more effectively capture and communicate variation in studentperformance.
15Checklists for TeachersBy: Sandra F. Rief, M.A.E74(1997)Getting students attentionAsk an interesting, speculative question, show a picture, tell a littlestory, or read a related poem to generate discussion and interest inthe upcoming lesson.Try "playfulness," silliness, a bit of theatrics (props and storytelling)to get attention and peak interest.Use storytelling. Students of all ages love to hear stories, especiallypersonal stories. It is very effective in getting attention.Add a bit of mystery. Bring in an object relevant to the upcominglesson in a box, bag, or pillowcase. This is a wonderful way togenerate predictions and can lead to excellent discussions or writingactivities.Signal students auditorily: ring a bell, use a beeper or timer, play abar of music on the piano or guitar, etc.Vary your tone of voice: loud, soft, whispering. Try making a loudercommand "Listen! Freeze! Ready!" followed by a few seconds ofsilence before proceeding in a normal voice to give directions.Use visual signals: flash the lights or raise your hand which signalsthe students to raise their hands and close their mouths untileveryone is silent.Frame the visual material you want students to be focused on withyour hands or with a colored box around it.If using an overhead, place an object (e.g., little toy car or plasticfigure) to be projected on the screen to get attention.Clearly signal: "Everybody…Ready…"Color is very effective in getting attention. Make use of colored dry-erase pens on white boards, colored overhead pens fortransparencies and overhead projectors, and colored paper tohighlight key words, phrases, steps to computation problems,spelling patterns, etc.Model excitement and enthusiasm about the upcoming lesson.Use eye contact. Students should be facing you when you arespeaking, especially while instructions are being given. If studentsare seated in clusters, have those students not directly facing youturn their chairs and bodies around to face you when signaled to doso.
16FS5:Learning AssessmentStrategiesEpisode 1: My Assessment ListName of FS Students:Ma. Cristina D. PanganoranApril G. LuceroJaenard A. MirandaResource Teacher: Mrs. EdejerSignature: ____________School: Holy Cross CollegeClasses Observed: II-5, II-4 & II-3Mr. Esmeraldo PinedaInstructor
17Your TargetAt the end of the activity, you will be keen at identifying and namingdifferent assessment methods used in the classroom.Your MapTo be aware of the assessment tools that are used in the classrooms, youshould find interest in observing teacher’s assessment practices.Observe at least three classes and make a list of the assessmentmethods used by teachers.In your list, classify assessment methods as to conventional andauthentic/alternative.Describe how each assessment method was used, including yourpersonal observations.Confer with your FS teacher your assessment list.Reflect on your experience.-=-0-=-Class 1 Observation SheetCooperating School: Holy Cross College High School DepartmentSchool Address: Sta. Lucia, Sta. Ana, PampangaClass Observed: 2-5Date Observed: November 21, 2011Subject: ScienceAssessment Tools and DescriptionThe teacher has a well-established routine and right after the dailyroutine, she explained the test instructions. The test paper wascomposed of True or False Test, Matching Type, Identification,Enumeration and Drawing.The teacher used paper and pencil test. This is considered as oneof the most tried and tested conventional tools in assessment. Teacherobserved the behavior of students during the exam while checking thepermit of each student. The following page contains the sample of theexam that the students took that same day. It includes the instructionsas well. This was taken into the compilation of our portfolio withpermission from the resource teacher.
18(Insert copy of test paper from the teacher. Make sure it is signed by theresource teacher.)
21Class 2 Observation SheetCooperating School: Holy Cross College High School DepartmentSchool Address: Sta. Lucia, Sta. Ana, PampangaClass Observed: 2-4Date Observed: November 23, 2011Subject: ScienceAssessment Tools and DescriptionThe class started with the usual routine. The teacher asked thestudents to bring out their assignment. Their assignment was to drawthe endocrine system for male and female. After comparing thedifferences of each drawing, the teacher proceeded with the presentationof their new lesson.She used oral assessment which is also known as one of theconventional forms of assessment. The discussion started with questionthat will arouse the mind of the students. Apparently the question thattriggered the students to be hooked on the discussion was, “From themoment babies are born, can you determine if it is a boy or a girl bysimply looking at his/her face?” A lot of reaction was given and theball went rolling.Most of the students actively participated and were gradedaccordingly, considering they are in section four.Below were some of the questions asked during the discussion:What are the differences between male and female endocrinesystem?What is the importance of the endocrine system?What are the hormones responsible for gender development?Class 3 Observation SheetCooperating School: Holy Cross College High School DepartmentSchool Address: Sta. Lucia, Sta. Ana, PampangaClass Observed: 2-3Date Observed: November 25, 2011Subject: ScienceAssessment Tools and DescriptionThis time, the teacher used Quest Magazine, a science magazinemeant for high school students. The students were able to see coloreddrawings and illustrations of animal and plant tissues and the teacherused this as a means to review their previous lesson.After the review, they proceeded with the reporting about medicinalplants. The teacher mentions additional information after the report and
22grades the students with an acknowledgement of their effort and a fewfeedbacks on how to improve the next time around. Since it was a groupreport, we decided to classify this one as an authentic type ofassessment.During the report, the students were given a chance to askquestions regarding the topic. Afterwards the teacher assessed them in aform of an interview. The following were the questions and instructionsused by the teacher:Is it better to use medicinal herbs than modern medicine? Why?Give an example of a medicinal plant and give its healingproperties.How does modern medicine use the medicinal herbs in the field ofresearch?Assessment Tools Classification TableConventional Types Used Authentic Types UsedPaper and Pencil Test –The students answered their testpaper with a variety of test typessuch as identification andmatching type.Reporting –The students were engaged in agroup report regarding medicinalplants.Oral Recitation –This was done in form of discussionthe students answered during adiscussion with the teacher as theone to direct the students to thinkor recall information. The teachertakes note of the students whoparticipate.Interview –This was done in a form of a one-on-one Interview. The teacher callsthe students one by one tointerview them regarding the lessonby the use of drawing lots todetermine who will go first.Constructed-Response Tests –Aside from the 3 classes, theteacher in other classes used thistool that require short answer orfill-in-the-blank questions, andrequire a blend of factualknowledge and higher-orderreasoning. Students place theirown information in missing spacesrather than from among severalpre-prepared choices.Graphic organizers –Aside from the 3 classes, theteacher in other classes used thistool to let the students classifyplants according to healingproperties. This involved studentsin active thinking aboutrelationships and associations andhelp students make their thinkingvisible.
23Analysis:1. Was there a variety of assessment methods used by the teacher?How relevant was/were the assessment method/s used?Yes, a variety of methods were used. These were all effective andproduced acceptable and sometimes better than the expected standardresults. They were all relevant by measuring what it intends to measureand by allowing the students to appreciate the importance of what theyare learning.Though most of the time conventional types of assessment are theones used, they still produce good learning evidence at the end of thelesson. Authentic types of assessment tools give variety to theapproaches of the teacher and keep the students interested in the lesson.Whether conventional or authentic all them contributed to thewelfare of the students and gave better meaning to what a teacher’s roleis all about.2. Do you think the expected students’ learning behaviors indicatedin the objectives were properly and appropriately assessed troughthose assessment methods?Yes, they were properly assessed because the methods werecongruent to the objectives of the lesson. The teacher assessed studentneeds and wrote an instructional goal statement, then analyzed her goalto identify goal steps, sub-steps, subordinate skills, and entry behaviors.After that, she analyzed the learners and both the performance andlearning context.She gave feedback to the students’ performance and always makessure her objectives match the evaluation she uses. This is done becausethe main reason for assessment is to let the students achieve the mainobjectives for the lesson.Assessments should provide the instructors and the students withevidence of how well the students have learned and what are intended forthem to learn. What teachers want the students to learn and be able todo should guide the choice and design of the assessment. There are twomajor reasons for aligning assessments with learning objectives. First,alignment increases the probability that we will provide students with theopportunities to learn and practice the knowledge and skills that will berequired on the various assessments we design. Second, whenassessments and objectives are aligned, “good grades” are more likely totranslate into “good learning”. When objectives and assessments aremisaligned, many students will focus their efforts on activities that willlead to good grades on assessments, rather than focusing their efforts onlearning what we believe is important.
24Reflections:Write your personal reflection of thoughts and feelings about theimportance in the use of appropriate assessment methods in theclassroom, including what the teachers and students gain from it.We have learned on this episode that teachers should be well-equipped with the knowledge of all the different types of assessment toolsbecause it is the mechanism that let the learner see whether they are onthe right track. With the right choice of tools you can:measure meaningful learning outcomesgive grade in a fair, reliable, accurate wayeasily administer, score, and interpretinform people involved in student performancegive meaningful feedback to the learnerconsider it a learning experience as wellIt is one of the principles of assessment and evaluation to use avariety of assessment and evaluation techniques and tools. In using thevariety of tools, students are fully involved, given advice or feedback andthey become aware of how they learn or experience metacognition.In this episode we have also learned that administering tests helpimprove teaching quality because through this we obtain feedback onhow the students are doing. This therefore, ensures effective teaching aswell as effective learning.
25FS5:Learning AssessmentStrategiesEpisode 2: My ATM Card(Available Tests & Measures)Name of FS Students:Ma. Cristina D. PanganoranApril G. LuceroJaenard A. MirandaResource Teacher: Mrs. EdejerSignature: ____________School: Holy Cross CollegeYear and Section: II-3Mr. Esmeraldo PinedaInstructor
26Your ToolsAs you visit schools, study the teachers’ objectives, formulate test items,and interpret results, make a clear documentation of your tasks usingthe activity forms provided for you in this book. For your pen-and-papertest items, customize a table of specification, and prepare the test items,customize a table of specification, and prepare the test material based onthe prescriptions of the school where you do class observation.INITIAL NOTESName of the School Observed: Holy Cross College (High School Dept.)School Address: Sta Lucia, Sta. Ana, PampangaDate of Visits: December 2, 2011 – January 25, 2012Year Level: 2-3Subject Area: ScienceAdministering of test: February 13, 2011Teacher’s Learning Objectives:Be able to associate the organs to the hormones it secretesAnalyze the function of each system.Adapt to the changes in their own bodies during their age ofpubertyAppraise importance of each system.Desired conditions and criterion levels of the learning objectives:To be able to answer the questions correctlyTo identify the functions of each organTo be able to appraise importance of each system with reasoningBe able to understand the process in each systemTo be able to explain the process in each system.Other Notes: Out of 18 sessions before testing, we have observed10 meetings as follows:Dec. 2, 2011 Jan. 13, 2012Dec. 7, 2011 Jan. 16, 2012Dec. 9, 2011 Jan. 18, 2012Dec. 12, 2011 Jan. 20, 2012Jan. 11, 2012 Jan. 25, 2012
27DESIGNING PEN-AND-PAPER TESTTo help you prepare your pen-and-paper test which you will soonadminister in the class you have observed, please remember to:1. Make a two-way Table of Specification. Make sure that you focuson the current subject matter of the class you observed, and thatyou target the higher levels of learning behaviors. Please adopt theTOS format prescribed by the school where you do your classobservation. If the school has TOS templates ask permission to useit.2. Show your TOS to your FS teacher, then to the classroom teacher.Get their comments and suggestions to improve your TOS.3. With approved TOS, formulate your test items.4. Make an Item Bank. Show it to your FS teacher for checking, andfinally, to the classroom teacher.5. Prepare a test paper of the finalized items.6. Get the classroom teacher’s permission to administer the test.7. Administer the test to the class for which the test is designed. Thencheck the papers and record students’ scores.8. Do an item analysis and make inferences out of the result.9. Indicate the item analysis results of each item on the index cardwhere you wrote the item.Analysis:1. Do you think the teacher’s learning objective was appropriatelyassessed by your test items? Why? /Why not?Yes, because the questions we provided all covered the objectives,we formulated questions regarding the systems of the body, the functionsthey serve, the importance of each, their location, the purpose it servesfor each hormones secreted.For the first objectives, we formulated questions about thehormones that the organs secrete and about the functions they do. Thesecond objective was to analyze the function of each system. Thesequestions were in a form of true or false and multiple choice test.Regarding the changes in the body, we provided situational questions inthe multiple choice area. The importance of each system was found inthe short response test, multiple choice and true or false test.
282. Why did you have to study the teacher’s learning objectives prior todeveloping an assessment tool?As we have said before in the first episode, objectives must bealigned with the assessment or it must be congruent to each other foreffective teaching and learning process. Without proper assessment, theobjectives will not be achieved and what needs to be measured will not bemeasured if the test items do not correlate with the objectives.Reflections:Write your personal reflection of thoughts and feelings regarding thePeace Concept on Focus.Peace Concept on Focus:FairnessIn assessment, fairness is not only a matter of teachers’ attitude towardsstudents. It also involves the use of assessment tools that are appropriate,valid, and noble.With regards to the Peace Concept on Focus, ofcourse we havelearned to think about not just one type of students, but all types ofstudents. To keep the fairness and balance of the assessment, it mustcontain easy, average and difficult questions. We should formulate easyquestions for taking into account the slow learners, average for theaverage students and difficult questions to challenge the fast learners inthe class.As future teachers, addressing the assessment of learner aptitudeand preparation, motivation and learning styles, learning outcomes inachievement and satisfaction in different educational contexts must bewelcomed and embraced, as are studies addressing issues of measurablestandards for the greater good of the students and teacher relationshipwith each other for a smooth sailing class throughout the year.It is hard not to have a favorite among the students but never bebiased in ways that will affect the grades of the students. That is what webelieve to be fairness. Take in mind everyone not just one.
30Holy Cross CollegeHigh School DepartmentExamination in Science IIName: ________________________________________________Year & Section: __________ Date: _________Test I. Multiple Choice. Write the letter of the best answer on the space providedbefore the number._____ 1. This determines the contact, pressure, temperature and other sensations.a. sense of touch b. sense of smell c. sense of sight d. sense oftaste_____ 2. Which of the following determines the taste of a substance?a. skin b. nose c. eyes d. tongue_____ 3. What do you call the white part of the human eye?a. pupil b. iris c. sclera d. retina_____ 4. This is the dark circular region of the human eye.a. pupil b. iris c. sclera d. retina_____ 5. It is a shell-like structure that analyzes sound.a. cochlea b. vestibule c. stirrup d. eardrum_____ 6. What is the process of disposing waste materials in the human body?a. reabsorption b. extraction c. excretion d. filtration_____ 7. This is where sponges and coelenterates excrete ammonia.a. epidermis b. vacuoles c. nephridia d. tubules_____ 8. It is a paired pea-shaped organ which turns waste products into urine.a. kidney b. pancreas c. bladder d. liver_____ 9. This is another type of excretion through the skin.a. secretion b. perspiration c. reabsorption d. filtration_____ 10. It is composed of spherical clump of capillaries called glomerulus.a. ureter b. cortex c. nephrons d. medullaEquivalentScore:Raw Score:
31_____ 11. Which of the following talks about the ureter?a. a tube that cleans the bloodthat passes b. forms a dome over the glomerulusc. a tube where waste material passes d. excretes excess water, sugar oracids_____ 12. Joe went jogging for 30 minutes. He was covered with sweat afterwards. Whatkind of excretion happened?a. respiration b. perspiration c. filtration d. reabsorption_____ 13. Which of the choices talk about the process of sweating?a. Excretion of waste materials through the skinb. Filtration of waste materials through the kidneyc. Secretion of waste materials through the liverd. Absorption of waste materials through the bladder_____ 14. Which of the following is a function of the urinary bladder?a. urine storage b. blood storage c. water storage d. bladderstorage_____ 15. Which of the following statements is true?a. protozoans excrete ammonia by its epidermis b. marine fishes excretetriamenthylaminec. earthworks excrete through their vacuoles d. flatworms excrete flamecells via nephridia_____ 16. At the age of 25, Alex is still 4 feet tall. How could you explain thisphenomenon?a. lack of vitamins b. lack of growth hormones c. too much pituitrin d. toomuch prolactin_____ 17. Which of the following is an effect of an overactive pituitary gland?a. cretinism b. giantism c. astigmatism d. none of theabove_____ 18. How does serotonin affect the body?a. affects growth b. affects appetite c. affects behavior d. affects energy
32_____ 19. What does prolactin do to a woman’s body?a. helps breast milk production b. causes the hips to widenc. slows down metabolism d. delays breast growth_____ 20. What happens when there is insufficient supply of thyroxin in the blood?a. slowing down of respiration b. quick production of energyc. slowing down of digestion d. quick production of exocrine_____ 21. Which phenomenon applies when women have excessive thyroid secretion?a. increased prolactin b. increased energy c. increased appetite d.increased heat tolerance_____ 22. Which of the following demonstrates adrenaline rush?a. being able to store energy while sleeping b. being able to run faster during anemergency c. being able to grow taller after a meal d. being ableto stay up late during night time_____ 23. Which best describes the function of thymosin?a. immunity against diseases and infections b. stimulate varioushormones in the bodyc. controls maturation of white blood cells d. helps store and releasehormones faster_____ 24. If the human body excreted 4.5 liters of urine after 72 hours, how many litersof urine did the human body produce in one day?a. 1 liter b. 1.5 liters c. 2 liters d. 2.5 liters_____ 25. Which of the following is an example of excess growth hormone effect on thebody?a. a person who has a height of 7 feet b. a person with a weight of 200 lbsc. a person who runs abnormally fast c. a person lifting a weight of 200 lbs_____ 26. Choose the statement that illustrates the contraction of muscles.a. muscles are relaxed b. muscles get numb c. muscles get hard d. muscles get hurt_____ 27. The heart muscle is called an involuntary muscle because...a. the contractions occur consciously or unconsciously.b. contractions only occurs as a result of conscious effort.c. of their striped appearance under a microscope.
33d. the cardiac muscle is one of three major types of muscle._____ 28. Which of the following illustrates the condition called rigor mortis?a. a running man b. a dead man c. a sleepy man d. a sick man_____ 29. Among the following, which one has an exoskeleton?a. jellyfish b. penguin c. lobster d. snake_____ 30. The main function of the exoskeleton is to serve as a…a. protection b. camouflage c. decoration d. distracterTest II. Modified True or False. Analyze the statements carefully. If the statement isTRUE, write “T” and if the statement is FALSE, underline the error, then write thecorrection on the space provided._____ 31. Smooth muscles are striated and are found in the internal organs._____ 32. Exercise and proper care prevents the disintegration of ATP._____ 33. ATP means adenosine triphosphate, a high-energy compound whichbones draw energy from._____ 34. Blood cells are produced in the endoskeleton of humans and animals._____ 35. Without a skeleton, animals would be shapeless and lack support tomake any movements._____ 36. The femur is the longest and strongest bone is the human body._____ 37. The heavy use of drugs causes a person to get well or be hyper-active._____ 38. A gustatory receptor is a specialized structure that responds to chemicalstimuli._____ 39. Receptor-effectors are usually located in the body surface oforganisms._____ 40. Reflex acts are involuntary actions which result from applied stimulus.Test III. Short Response Test. At the back of your paper, answer the following:41-45 (5pts.) Explain the process of how the nervous system works.46-50 (5pts.) Rank the importance of the following according to function and thenprovide your reason.a. Medulla b. Cerebellum c. Cerebrum d. Diencephalon
34Answer keyTest I. Multiple Choice. Write the letter of the best answer on the space provided beforethe number.1. A2. D3. C4. B5. A6. C7. A8. A9. B10. C11. C12. B13. A14. A15. B16. B17. B18. C19. A20. A21. C22. B23. C24. B25. A26. C27. A28. B29. C30. ATest II. Modified True or False.unstriated 31. Smooth muscles are striated and are found in the internal organs.T 32. Exercise and proper care prevents the disintegration of ATP.muscles_ 33. ATP means adenosine triphosphate, a high-energy compound which bonesdraw energy from.T _ 34. Blood cells are produced in the endoskeleton of humans and animals.T _____ 35. Without a skeleton, animals would be shapeless and lack support to makeany movements.T _____ 36. The femur is the longest and strongest bone is the human body.Hallucinate 37. The heavy use of drugs causes a person to get well or be hyper-active.
35chemoreceptor 38. A gustatory receptor is a specialized structure that responds tochemical stimuli.Receptor cells 39. Receptor-effectors are usually located in the body surface oforganisms.T _____ 40. Reflex acts are involuntary actions which result from applied stimulus.Test III. Short Response Test. At the back of your paper, answer the following:41-45 (5pts.) Explain the process of how the nervous system works.The nervous system works through impulses which are produced and transmitted byneurons.46-50 (5pts.) Rank the importance of the following according to function and thenprovide your reason.2 a. Medulla – controls respiration or heartbeat4 b. Cerebellum – muscle functions balance posture and tone1 c. Cerebrum – memory and sensory signals interpreter3 d. Diencephalon – emotions body temp appetite sleepiness and other functions
36(Insert the test paper of the students on the blank pages depending on the number ofstudents.)
153Revised TestLegend: Blue = RevisedBlack = RetainedRed = Discarded_____1. This part of the body is responsible for contact, pressure, temperature and othersensations.a. sense of touch b. sense of sight c. sense of hearing d. sense of smell_____2. It is said to be the “window of the soul”.a. skin b. eye c. mouth d. heart_____3. What do you call the white part of the human eye?a. pupil b. iris c. sclera d. retina_____ 4. This is the dark part of the human eye.a. pupil b. iris c. sclera d. retina_____ 5. This is a part of the ear that looks like a shell, this analyzes sound.a. cochlea b. vestibule c. stirrup d. eardrum_____ 6. What is the process of disposing waste materials in the human body?a. reabsorption b. extraction c. excretion d. filtration_____ 7. Sponges and coelenterates use this part to excrete ammonia.a. epidermis b. vacuoles c. nephridia d. tubules_____ 8. This pair of organ turns waste products into urine.a. kidney b. pancreas c. lungs d. liver_____ 9. This is also known as sweating..a. secretion b. perspiration c. reabsorption d. filtration_____ 10. It is made up of round masses of capillaries called glomerulus.a. ureter b. cortex c. nephrons d. medulla_____ 11. Which of the following is the ureter’s function?a. a tube that cleans the blood b. a tube over the glomerulusc. a tube passage for waste materials d. excretes excess water or acids
154_____ 12. Joe went jogging for 30 minutes. He was covered with sweat afterwards. Whatkind of excretion happened?a. respiration b. perspiration c. filtration d. reabsorption_____ 13. This is another channel of liquid excretion.a. skin b. lungs c. nose d. anus_____ 14. Which of the following is a role of the urinary bladder?a. urine storage b. blood storage c. water storage d. air storage_____ 15. Which of the following statements is NOT true?a. protozoans excrete ammoniab. marine fishes excrete ammoniac. earthworms excrete ammoniad. flatworms excrete ammonia_____ 16. Alex is still 4 feet tall at the age of 25. How can you explain this fact?a. lack of vitamins b. lack of pituitrin c. too much food d. too much prolactin_____ 17. Which of the following is an effect of an overactive pituitary gland?a. cretinism b. giantism c. astigmatism d. none of the above_____ 18. How does serotonin affect the body?a. affects growth b. affects appetite c. affects behavior d. affects energy_____ 19. What is the difference between endocrine glands to other glands?a. they are ductless b. they are smaller c. they are bigger d. none of the above_____ 20. What happens when there is not enough supply of thyroxin in the blood?a. slowing down of breathing b. quick production of energyc. slowing down of absorption d. quick production of exocrine_____ 21. Without cortisone the body will…a. not have enough blood b. not have extra energyc. not produce new cells d. not be able to heal faster_____ 22. Which of the following show adrenaline rush?a. to run fast when scared b. to grow tall when sadc. to talk fast when excited d. to walk fast when sleepy
155_____ 23. Which best describes the function of thymosin?a. immunity against diseases and infections b. stimulate various hormones in the bodyc. controls maturation of white blood cells d. helps store and release hormones faster_____ 24. How many liters of urine does the human body produce in one day?a. 1 liter b. 1.5 liters c. 2 liters d. 2.5 liters_____ 25. What does the estrogen produce in the body?a. egg cell b. red blood c. sperms d.hormones_____ 26. What describes the contraction of muscles?a. muscles relax b. muscles freeze c. muscles harden d. muscles hurt_____ 27. The heart muscle is called an involuntary muscle because...a. the contractions occur without effort.b. the contractions occur when awake.c. the contractions happen every day.d. .the contractions happen when asleep._____ 28. Which of the following is an example of rigor mortis?a. a running man b. a dead man c. a sleepy man d. a sick man_____ 29. Which of the choices has a hard covering called exoskeleton?a. jellyfish b. penguin c. lobster d. snake_____ 30. The most important role of the exoskeleton is to serve as a…a. protection b. hiding c. beautification d. distracterTest II. Modified True or False. Analyze the statements carefully. If the statement isTRUE, write “T” and if the statement is FALSE, underline the error, then write thecorrection on the space provided._____ 31. Muscles are the framework of the body._____ 32. The tough elastic tissues make up the skeletal system._____ 33. There are two types of skeletons, exoskeleton and endoskeleton._____ 34. Endoskeleton of humans produces blood cells._____ 35. Animals would be shapeless and lack support without a skeleton._____ 36. The skull contains 5 bones.
156_____ 37. About 10 billion neurons make up the brain._____ 38. Cerebrum is the center for muscle functions._____ 39. Flatworms have true muscles that enable them to move._____ 40. Reflex acts are voluntary actions.Test III. Short Response Test. At the back of your paper, answer the following:41-45 (5pts.) Explain the process of how the nervous system works by putting the role ofeach item below.Neurons -Dendrites -Axons -Impulses -Synapse -46-50 (5pts.) Rank the following according to its importance in function.Ranking all four will get one point and one point for each reason.Name Rank Reasona. Medulla ___ __________________________________________b. Cerebellum ___ __________________________________________c. Cerebrum ___ __________________________________________d. Diencephalon ___ __________________________________________
157FS5:Learning AssessmentStrategiesEpisode 3: “Log Me”Name of FS Students:Ma. Cristina D. PanganoranJaenard A. MirandaApril G. LuceroResource Teacher: Mrs. EdejerSignature: ____________School: Holy Cross CollegeClasses Observed: II-3Mr. Esmeraldo PinedaInstructor
158MY REVIEW NOTESUse this sheet to outline the essential information about authenticassessment that you draw from the articles you read.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Classroom assessment techniquesTwo major purposesOngoing evaluation of the instructional programEvaluation of the student’s progressTrends in Classroom AssessmentAlternative assessment and standards-based reform are the twomajor influences in the changes of classroom assessment. New emphasison combining informal approaches to gain a greater understanding of thereasons for student’s behaviors.Alternative AssessmentDissatisfaction with the group-administered norm-referenced test. Lackof relevance to the instructional process for standardized achievementtest and their failure to assess higher order thinking skills and thefragmented nature of assessing school skills. Alternative assessmentmovement relates to the content that schools choose to measure todetermine student progress. Assessment should center on tasks notskills. Address tasks that are important and authentic. Studentperformance should be assessed directly.Advantages:Emphasis on thinking and problem solvingExplains, demonstrate, or document the thinking processRequire student participationDisadvantages:Time-consumingExpensiveQuestionable reliability and validityTend to be subjective rather than objectiveStudents with disabilities may be at a disadvantage in somealternative assessment taskStandards-based ReformFocus primarily on the content of assessment. Standards setexpectations for students. Major issue is how to best include studentswith disabilities.
159National education goalsGoal 1: ready to learnGoal 2: school completionGoal 3: student achievement and citizenshipGoal 4: teacher education and professional developmentGoal 5: mathematics and scienceGoal 6: adult literacy and lifelong learningGoal 7: safe and disciplined, alcohol and drug free schoolsGoal 8: parental participationREFLECTIVE JOURNALWhat were your personal strategies in choosing relevant articles to read?1. We chose to read the recent trends on assessment techniquesand how it affects the classroom.2. We chose the most relevant parts to the portfolio we are doingright now for validity and correlation.3. We also took the opportunity to include the 8 nationaleducation goals which are pretty much the reason why we have to doassessment.What are your insights and feelings about the new trends in classroomassessment?Even though there are disadvantages, we should focus on theadvantages of the new trends in classroom assessment. It is morestudent-centered while the teacher-dominant classes are graduallydecreasing when it comes to practice.We all have to grow at pace with the changing world and societywe live in. Every generation is becoming more and more different as theyears go by. Since the students are changing, then our methods andapproaches should also change to better suit their needs.We do not teach the subject, we teach the children. We helpchildren learn the subject.What is your most meaningful learning from this activity?We’ve learned that it’s not easy to adapt to change and being ateacher can be stressful but if we apply the right time management, thenanything is possible.We learned that adult literacy and lifelong learning is the maingoal. It is important that future teachers should know the responsibilitygiven to us when it comes to molding the mind and heart of the students.It is a must that we produce lifelong learners and productive citizens ofour country.
160MY INTERVIEW NOTESWhat is Authentic Assessment?I asked my resource teacher about it and she said that authenticassessment refers to assessment tasks that resemble reading and writing in thereal world and in school. Another teacher said that authentic from the worditself means true or real would imply that authentic assessment should begenuine learning.Its aim is to assess different kinds of literacy abilities in contexts thatclosely resemble actual situations in which those abilities are used. Real-lifesituation or situational problems and how one would solve them wouldintegrated with Mathematics, English or ScienceWorking on authentic tasks is a useful, engaging activity in itself. Fromthe teachers perspective, teaching to such tasks guarantees that we areconcentrating on worthwhile skills and strategies. Students are learning andpracticing how to apply important knowledge and skills for authentic purposes.They should not simply recall information or circle isolated vowel sounds inwords; they should apply what they know to new tasks.For example, consider the difference between asking students to identifyall the metaphors in a story and asking them to discuss why the author usedparticular metaphors and what effect they had on the story. In the latter case,students must put their knowledge and skills to work just as they might donaturally in or out of school.What is Performance Assessment?Performance assessment is a term that is commonly used in place of, orwith, authentic assessment. Performance assessment requires students todemonstrate their knowledge, skills, and strategies by creating a response or aproduct. Examples would be, performing a play, conducting an experiment ordrawing about a story.For example, after completing a first-grade theme on families in whichstudents learned about being part of a family and about the structure andsequence of stories, students might illustrate and write their own flap storieswith several parts, telling a story about how a family member or friend helpedthem when they were feeling sad.The formats for performance assessments range from relatively shortanswers to long-term projects that require students to present or demonstratetheir work. These performances often require students to engage in higher-order thinking skills. Consequently, some performance assessments are longerand more complex than more traditional assessments.
161REFLECTIVE JOURNALHow did you feel about the teacher’s experience in the use of authenticassessment?The teacher considers experience with authentic assessment wasat first at an adjustment period but as she used it more often she startedto believe that it is very effective at times when there is a need forstudents to reveal their talents and critical thinking skills.She believes that specific tasks for each skill are very effective indeveloping the children. The variety keeps the students interested andthe use of reality helps them understand not just the concepts but alsothe importance of their lesson and why they need to learn how to dothese tasks.What do you think have been the gains enjoyed by the teacher andhis/her students from using authentic assessment?With the authentic assessment, there is less teacher talking timeand more on student discovery and exploration. It is student-centered.Teachers assume a larger role in the assessment process thanthrough traditional testing programs. This involvement is morelikely to assure the evaluation process reflects course goals andobjectives.Authentic assessment provides valuable information to the teacheron student progress as well as the success of instruction.Parents will more readily understand authentic assessments thanthe abstract percentiles, grade equivalents, and other measures ofstandardized tests.Which part of the teacher’s use of authentic assessment do you feel likeimproving or revising?Since we are still wet behind the ears, we feel that we do not yethave enough experience to make any revision or improvement to theteacher’s use of the authentic assessment. Since her teaching hasshowed evidence of learning, then it is good enough.Our only suggestion is to keep up with the latest trend to keep thestudents interested to participate and cooperate.
162FS5:Learning AssessmentStrategiesEpisode 4: “Work Me On”Name of FS Students:Ma. Cristina D. PanganoranJaenard A. MirandaApril G. LuceroResource Teacher: Mrs. DizonSignature: ____________School: Holy Cross College Date ofClasses Observed: III-3Mr. Esmeraldo PinedaInstructor
163OBSERVATION NOTESName of the School Observed: Holy Cross CollegeSchool Address: Sta. Lucia, Sta. Ana, PampangaDate of Visit: February 8, 2012Year Level: 3-3Subject Area: EnglishSubject Matter: Writing a Personal JournalDescribe the performance-based activity you observed.Journal writing is a learning tool based on the ideas that students writeto learn. Students use the journals to write about topics of personalinterest, to note their observations, to imagine, to wonder and to connectnew information with things they already know. Using journals fosterslearning in many ways. Every journal entry is individualized.Journals can be used throughout the day, at different times of the dayand for different purposes.1. The teacher decided the type of journal she want to use in herclassroom. She explained the purpose of the journal and how will itbe used.2. Prepare materials. The students journals were loose leaf notebooksor folders. Individual pages were contained in some way so thatthey are not lost over time.3. Model initial entries. Using a classroom chart, they workedtogether to write a sample response. Students were allowed to copythe class response in their own journal or write one of their own.4. Teacher schedules time for regular journal use. Students are allengaged in the act of writing and this enables individuals togenerate ideas, observations and emotions.Only finished pieces were used for grading – teacher then offersfeedback or constructive comments. Sometimes students will respond tothe teachers comments. One of the biggest problems with writingjournals is that some students use them simply as a way to record thedays events. They slip into the routine of writing diary entries withoutreflection or real purpose.You can reduce this by encouraging your students to write abouta variety of topics and take what they feel are the better entries anddevelop them into finished pieces. Journals offer students theopportunity to reflect on their world and expand their awareness of whatis happening in their lives.
164Performance Assessment PlanSample checklist used on checking each journal entryComplete (2pts) Incomplete (1pt)OrganizationVocabularySentencestructureVoiceMechanicCommentsConsistencyIdeasCreativitySpellingLearning Objectives:Students will:write personal journal entries to explore their thoughts, feelings,and experiences.edit a personal journal entry to sharpen their grammar andspelling skills.share their entry with peer editors and edit the work of others tobuild collaboration skills.Learning episodesUsing a classroom chartLearning the reasons for writing a journalEngaging in writing an entryRubrics for Assessing learningOrganization 2ptsVocabulary 2ptsSentence structure 2ptsVoice 2ptsMechanic 2ptsComments 2ptsConsistency 2ptsIdeas 2ptsCreativity 2ptsSpelling 2pts
165NOTES ON MY PROCESS-ORIENTED ASSESSMENT PLANName of School: Holy Cross CollegeSchool Address: Sta. Lucia, Sta. ana. PampangaYear Level: 3-3Subject Area: EnglishSubject Matter: Writing a personal journalAnalysis:Do you think your originally designed process-oriented performanceassessment can appropriately assess the teacher’s learning objective?Why?/ Why not?Yes, because the design we formulated corresponds to eachobjective and can be checked during the making of the journals not justat the end since we included some criteria in the rubrics such ascomments, consistency and ideas.Some of the criteria can also be checked after the journals havebeen finished. The students can also his/her best work to be checkedamong all the entries in the journal.Why do teachers need to give attention to the students’ process-orientedtasks? Why do you need to assess them?The teachers are taking orders from the principal of their school,and the principal is following orders from the board of education. It isrules to ensure that students are getting the right kind of education andpassing as well as they should.This is to make sure the student understands how the resultsare derived from a process-oriented task - to make sure the studentknows how to apply the learned process to other situations.In what conditions can the process-oriented performance assessment beused more appropriately?Conditions such as, having enough resources in conducting thetasks needed. When we need students to apply the concepts that theyhave learned in other situations to better display what they haveunderstood during the discussion.Teachers also need to observe the behavior of the studentsduring the process to see if they internalized the lesson that was taught.
166Your ReflectionsWrite your personal reflections of thoughts and feelings about yourpersonal strategies for making your efforts successful in this part of yourFS.We know for sure that our strategies in constructing this process-oriented performance assessment plan may not be the most ideal but itwas made with the combined effort of everyone in the group. This will bethe mirror of our joint efforts during the past months.In the process of our field study and the construction of thisassessment plan, we have experienced a lot of things that made us feelpressure at times and the thought of juggling observation classes in afull load schedule was really stressful.We never expected that all of this help us in understanding whatthis course is all about. Likewise my experience in the field study gaveme a better insight on how the teacher should facilitate learning from adiverse range of students.Finally, I have learned that Process-oriented performance basedassessment provides insight into students thinking, reasoning andmotivation. It also helps support the development of mental habits thatlead to independent learning.
167FS5:Learning AssessmentStrategiesEpisode 5: “Build Me Up”Name of FS Students:Ma. Cristina D. PanganoranJaenard A. MirandaApril G. LuceroResource Teacher: Mrs. DizonSignature: ____________School: Holy Cross College Date ofClasses Observed: III-3Mr. Esmeraldo PinedaInstructor
168OBSERVATION NOTESName of the School Observed: Holy Cross CollegeSchool Address: Sta. Lucia, Sta. Ana, PampangaDate of Visit: February 29, 2012Year Level: 3-3Subject Area: EnglishSubject Matter: Writing a DiaryDescribe the product-oriented activity you completed.Everyone actively participated during the discussion. They were allinterested because I motivated them by talking about the status updateson their facebook which has a resemblance to a diary entry.I asked the students’ prior knowledge about what a diary is. Idistributed samples of diary entries made by other students from otherschools. I let someone from the class read it out loud to them. I askedthem to take note of the details and how they were described.I let them observe the proper format of the diary they read andasked them to enumerate and compare the difference between a personaljournal and a diary.I provided a few ideas for starters in their first diary entry. Thestudents also gave their own suggestions on what they will want to writeabout. Each of them worked quietly after they chose their memorableexperience. Some of them finished the activity earlier than expected andmost of them finished right on time.Task:Write a diary about a memorable experience.Task Design:First, I asked the class if they keep a diary. I let them share theirideas about what a diary is. I asked if they have facebook or twitter. I toldthem to compare the brief entries in twitter and facebook with an entryin a diary. I let them provide reasons to write diary. Then I added reasonsas well. Let the class read an entry from all three sample diaries thenhave them note the details and how the events were described. Let theclass compare the differences between a diary and a personal journal.Emphasize the correct format in writing a diary. Tell the students thatthey will be writing their own diary entry. Give ideas for their first journalentries and then have them give suggestions as well. Give the criteria onhow their diary entry will be scored/graded. Observe how the studentsshare their feelings, thoughts and experiences.
169Learning Objectives:1. Write a diary that that expresses feelings or thoughts.2. Write with detailed description.3. Use capitalization and punctuation correctly.4. Produce a neat diary entry.5. Use the proper format of a diary.Rubrics for assessing learning:Criteria 2 pts (Poor) 3 pts (Fair) 4 pts (Good)5 pts(Excellent)Content Descriptionwas notprovided forthe eventsand someparts aremissing.A fewdescriptionswereprovided forthe eventsand partsalmostcompletelywritten.Descriptionswereprovidedwithcompleteparts.Descriptionswereprovidedwith vividdetails andcompleteparts.Organization Did notfollow thecorrectformat andthesentencesare notproperlyorganizedA few errorsin formatandsentencesaresomewhatorganized.Correctformat andsentencesare a bitorganized.Correctformat withorganizedsentences.Presentation Untidy ormessy entryA bit messyentryNeat Entry Presentableand neatentryCapitalization andpunctuationIncorrectcapitalization andpunctuationMany errorsincapitalization andpunctuationA few errorsincapitalization andpunctuationNo errors incapitalization andpunctuation
170NOTES ON MY PRODUCT-ORIENTED ASSESSMENT PLANName of School: Holy Cross CollegeSchool Address: Sta. Lucia, Sta. Ana, PampangaYear Level & Section: 3-3Subject Area: EnglishSubject Matter: Writing a DiaryWhat are the best features of my product-oriented performanceassessment design?I think the best features would be the motivation part, the readingof other students’ entry from other schools, the students comparing adiary and journal, the students suggesting the prompt for entry and thecriteria I formulated for this product-oriented assessment.First of all, because the motivational part was a very intere4stingtopic for the students that made it easy for me to bring up the part abouta diary. Humans are naturally fond of stories about other people so Iknew that the students would be interested about entries from otherstudents their age. When students simply participate and share theirideas in the class is a very important thing. It shows their interest in thelesson and how deep their understanding is about the discussion.What specific conditions are necessary for a successful use of myproduct-oriented performance assessment design?Availability of resources is important and always be prepared toanswer questions. Master the lesson for the students to understand whatyou try to tell them. My design is very easy to use but it also requires abit of money. I spent 27 pesos to provide copies of the diary samples forall the students. It is much better if the students had access in theinternet all at the same time. We could not use the library’s computer forit will take a lot of time for everyone to take turns in the computer.Nevertheless, the lesson was a success. Everyone got a passing gradeand some even got perfect scores.What basic points should the user of this design consider?Basic points would be, choose the best motivational activity.Always keep them interested. Keep them busy to keep them from makingnoise. Explain the criteria descriptors carefully so the students knowwhat is expected of them. Allow students to do their own work withouttoo much spoon feeding. Let them generate their own ideas.
171Your AnalysisDo you think your originally designed product-orientedperformance assessment can appropriately assess the learning objective?Why?/ Why not?Yes, because the design was made with the objectives in mind. Andthe main task was to write a diary and the students were able to do whatwas expected of them to do. Some even got perfect score with regards tothe criteria. It only shows that they understood the instructions andlesson very well.Why do teachers need to give attention to the students’ product-oriented tasks? Why do you need to assess them?Simply because this is the evidence of the process of learning thathappen. The finish product will be able to help the teacher find out theextent of learning process that happened within the mind of the child.Behavior is measured through their cooperation and their grade will actas the reflection of their knowledge that was applied.In what conditions can the product-oriented performanceassessment be used more appropriately?It all depends on the objectives if the assessment will beappropriate or not. Putting the objectives first is the key to know whatkind of assessment should be used. If the skills can be displayed duringthe process then use the process-oriented, if the skills will be seen byseeing the finished product, then use the product-oriented assessment.The most important thing is congruency between your objectives,instructions and evaluation.
172Your ReflectionsOur experiences on this episode have brought out ourresourcefulness and teamwork. We were all in sync in accomplishing thetasks and we have improved our knowledge in creating rubrics,formulating task designs and setting objectives. We also learned a lotabout objectives and assessment being aligned or congruent for effectiveteaching and learning process.We have also learned to appreciate the product-orientedassessment just like the performance-oriented types as well because theproduct-oriented tasks represents the learners understanding of thedifferent concepts, theories and principles that teachers impart to them.Using this, the teacher can see the evidence of the knowledge andskills that are developed and acquired in the learning process. Whenteacher show the students their learning outcomes and the product oftheir activities then the students will be motivated to continue andmaintain their performance and even improve more if given the rightfeedback.One of the most important things I have learned is the importanceof equality in education. Everyone must have the right to equaleducation. Teachers must avoid being bias to prevent any conflict withinthe class to protect everyone’s individuality and uniqueness. Fairnessmust rule the class at all times.
173Compilation of Students’ WorkFollowed by theDocumentation of the Portfolioin the Making
174(insert the work of students on blank pages)
219Students listen regarding the reasons why we need to write adiary. Glad they are all listening.A student reading anexcerpt from her diary.
220Students participatingduring the discussionGiving out of samplediary entries
221Student Reading a diarysample out loudStudent participates indiscussion
222A student raises herhand to answer aquestion while anotheris late for class.A student pointing outthe parts of the diary
223SirJaenardreads andexplainsthecriteria forgrading.Students work quietlyduring the activity
224Diary Entry in themakingStudents work quietlyduring the activity
225All the students passtheir work on time andthey were veryorganized and quietafter the activity. Verywell-behaved students.FS Teacher checks ourgroup’s progress
226AcknowledgementAt first I was nervous to conduct this activity because the teacherconfidently left me in charge of her class. I wondered if I could do it or ifthe students would participate or be rude to me. Thank God I made itthrough. I’m really lucky that all the students cooperated and very well-behaved. I guess all my hard work has paid off. I have learned a lot ofthings and thought about how these experiences have made an impact tomy chosen career. I promise to see it through and hope for the best. Ourcombined efforts once again proved to be successful with very pleasingresults because the students performed the task well. I am proud ofthem and my group for coming this far. I thought I won’t be typing thisepisode but I guess we are still lucky to have been blessed withknowledge to finish everything just in time.~CristinaThis is my very first field study subject and I admit I was reallyculture shocked because it was very different from what I used to do inmy previous course. I learned a lot and I’m used to observing classesnow. Immersion is really important if we want to pursue a career inteaching. This helped me a lot to build my confidence and gatherknowledge and helped in visualizing my thoughts of the classroomsetting.~JaenardI learned a lot in the past months and I am glad that my group hashelped me a lot to improve my confidence in speaking in front of thestudents. I’m still a bit shy but I am working on it. I thank the peopleresponsible for seeing us through this semester.~April