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Language Policy In Papua And Zambia

Academic presentation on the language policies of Papua and Zambia

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Language Policy In Papua And Zambia

  1. 1.  L1 = first language or mother tongue or vernacular L2 = additional language or second language MoI = Medium of instruction Lingua Franca: between people not sharing a mother tongue(bridge or working language) Pidgin: a simplified language that develops as a means ofcommunication between two or more groups that do not havea language in common Creole: a stable language that has originated froma pidgin language that has become L1 for some speakers
  2. 2.  “Culturally invalidating” Under performance High levels of grade repetition High drop out rate Limited employment opportunities Negative attitudes to formal education“Central to … student’s acquisition of language are all of the surroundingsocial and cultural processes occurring through everyday life within thestudent’s past, present, and future, in all contexts--home, school, community,and the broader society.” Thomas and Collier 1997:42
  3. 3.  Increased Access Economic Girls Cost effective Conflict
  4. 4.  Pedagogy: chalk and talk Negative attitudes towards L1 Publishing and materials productionClass Issue: the language of business, themedia, tertiary instruction, secondary exams andgovernment communication is the colonial language
  5. 5. Expected average achievement scores for the second language (as a subject) in well-resourced schools70%60%50%40%30%20%10% 0% 1a 1b 2a 2b 2c 3a 3b 4a 4b
  6. 6.  Diversity: 820 Indigenous languages + English and 2lingua fancas: Tok Pisin (creole) and Hiri Motu Colonial influence: Matane Report Education system elitist: 2% completing secondary Inequality: widening rural and urban + gender disparities Illiteracy: 57.3% of the population of Papua New Guineaover 15 years of age are literate
  7. 7.  Grassroots 1990’s: Viles Tok Ples Skul (VTPS): 2 yrs ofL1 education before grade 1 NGO: Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL)Self reliance: Community elects yr 10 educatedperson to teach, and community bears all the costs. 1994: 2,300 schools and 80,000 students in over 200languages
  8. 8. School Grade levels Language of Description of teachers and teaching instructionElementary Preparatory Grade Vernacular Located in small communities. Teachers 1 (E1) Grade 2 selected by the communities. MustTPPS schools (E2) be Grade 10 graduates, have knowledge of local language and community culture.Primary Grade 3 Vernacular and Grade 3 teachers known asschools Grade 4 English ‘bridging’ teachers who must use bothLower languages in their classrooms Grade 5primaryPrimary Grades 6 English While use of vernacular is stillschools Grade 7 encouraged, the emphasis is on EnglishUpper as the language of instruction Grade 8Primary
  9. 9. Teacher training: cluster groups & modular self-paced course. Expansion: whole system of secondary to yr 11 & 12Communities and experts: 135 alphabets forunscripted languages Increased access and retention Cost effective
  10. 10.  Learner-centered pedagogy: childrens ownlanguage productions as a bridge from oral to writtenlanguage Literacy: delinked literacy from language learning Balanced: Phonics, Look-and-Say and WholeLanguage = skill-based and whole language basedConstructivist: groupwork in learning corners / bigbooks
  11. 11.  The Molteno Project: Breakthrough to Literacy Primary reading Program: Rainbow readers, ladderprogression. 7 Local languages: materials / stories adapted System wide training: zone / cluster groupsSupply side and demand side: sensitisation,materials and training.
  12. 12. Evaluation in 2002 compared with the baseline tests in1999 in grades 1 and 2: 780% increase in Zambian languages 575% increase in EnglishIn grade 3-5 and increase in reading levels of between165% and 484%. (Sampa, 2005)
  13. 13.  Importance of mother tongue instruction for girls? Real problems for teachers in Zambia with this? For success, what could be the most importantfactor? Reactions to the change in policy by parents andpeople? Personal experience as a parent?