L1 = first language or mother tongue or vernacular L2 = additional language or second language MoI = Medium of instruction Lingua Franca: between people not sharing a mother tongue(bridge or working language) Pidgin: a simplified language that develops as a means ofcommunication between two or more groups that do not havea language in common Creole: a stable language that has originated froma pidgin language that has become L1 for some speakers
“Culturally invalidating” Under performance High levels of grade repetition High drop out rate Limited employment opportunities Negative attitudes to formal education“Central to … student’s acquisition of language are all of the surroundingsocial and cultural processes occurring through everyday life within thestudent’s past, present, and future, in all contexts--home, school, community,and the broader society.” Thomas and Collier 1997:42
Pedagogy: chalk and talk Negative attitudes towards L1 Publishing and materials productionClass Issue: the language of business, themedia, tertiary instruction, secondary exams andgovernment communication is the colonial language
Expected average achievement scores for the second language (as a subject) in well-resourced schools70%60%50%40%30%20%10% 0% 1a 1b 2a 2b 2c 3a 3b 4a 4b
Diversity: 820 Indigenous languages + English and 2lingua fancas: Tok Pisin (creole) and Hiri Motu Colonial influence: Matane Report Education system elitist: 2% completing secondary Inequality: widening rural and urban + gender disparities Illiteracy: 57.3% of the population of Papua New Guineaover 15 years of age are literate
Grassroots 1990’s: Viles Tok Ples Skul (VTPS): 2 yrs ofL1 education before grade 1 NGO: Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL)Self reliance: Community elects yr 10 educatedperson to teach, and community bears all the costs. 1994: 2,300 schools and 80,000 students in over 200languages
School Grade levels Language of Description of teachers and teaching instructionElementary Preparatory Grade Vernacular Located in small communities. Teachers 1 (E1) Grade 2 selected by the communities. MustTPPS schools (E2) be Grade 10 graduates, have knowledge of local language and community culture.Primary Grade 3 Vernacular and Grade 3 teachers known asschools Grade 4 English ‘bridging’ teachers who must use bothLower languages in their classrooms Grade 5primaryPrimary Grades 6 English While use of vernacular is stillschools Grade 7 encouraged, the emphasis is on EnglishUpper as the language of instruction Grade 8Primary
Teacher training: cluster groups & modular self-paced course. Expansion: whole system of secondary to yr 11 & 12Communities and experts: 135 alphabets forunscripted languages Increased access and retention Cost effective
Learner-centered pedagogy: childrens ownlanguage productions as a bridge from oral to writtenlanguage Literacy: delinked literacy from language learning Balanced: Phonics, Look-and-Say and WholeLanguage = skill-based and whole language basedConstructivist: groupwork in learning corners / bigbooks
The Molteno Project: Breakthrough to Literacy Primary reading Program: Rainbow readers, ladderprogression. 7 Local languages: materials / stories adapted System wide training: zone / cluster groupsSupply side and demand side: sensitisation,materials and training.
Evaluation in 2002 compared with the baseline tests in1999 in grades 1 and 2: 780% increase in Zambian languages 575% increase in EnglishIn grade 3-5 and increase in reading levels of between165% and 484%. (Sampa, 2005)
Importance of mother tongue instruction for girls? Real problems for teachers in Zambia with this? For success, what could be the most importantfactor? Reactions to the change in policy by parents andpeople? Personal experience as a parent?