Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Critique of modernization
and human capital theory in
education.
Focus on Papua New Guinea
• Modernization
Social, economic, cultural changes which lead to a
more complex, differentiated and specialized
society.
•
In SOCIOLOGY
• “Psycho-cultural approaches”: the modern
man
- Capitalistic spirit (Weber)
- Values and need for achievemen...
PARSONS
 Imperatives:
• Adaptation
• Goal attainment
• Integration
• Latency
 Basic dichotomies of
social roles:
• Affec...
In ECONOMICS
• Rostow: the stages of economic growth
- Traditional stage
- Precondition for the take-off
- Take-off
- Matu...
In Politics: (STRUCTURAL
FUNCTIONALISM)
G. Almond (SSRC)
political communication
• Input
- Political socialisation
- Polit...
MODERNISATION and EDUCATION
Western schooling is western cultural reproduction =
cultural imperialism.
Behaviouralism - (S...
PAPUA and EDUCATION
Demerath‟s writing on Papua New Guinea and
colonisation of the mind (Fanon)
Traditional and modern ide...
PAPUA and EDUCATION
Australia sends most of its development money to
Papua.
Extractive industry – rich and poor divide
Civ...
HUMAN CAPITAL THEORY
Mincer and Gary Becker of the "Chicago School“
Psacharopoulos: rates of return
HUMAN CAPITAL THEORY
Africa:
Brain drain
Dore - Diploma Disease1960‟s
Narrow focus on economic growth but no jobs.
World B...
Gunder Frank Dependency Theory –
Critical historical approach
 Underdevelopment is a function of the
position a country o...
Dependency theory solutions
 Rupture with the capitalist world-economy
 Samir Amin, Delinking: Towards a polycentric
wor...
CRITIQUE OF MODERNISATION
DEVELOPMENT THEORY
• Ethnocentric and ahistorical
• Ignores the structural effect of capitalism ...
CRITIQUE OF MODERNISATION
DEVELOPMENT THEORY
Economic rationalism is distorted by non-
economic forces, racial, ethnic, ge...
CRITIQUE OF MODERNISATION
DEVELOPMENT THEORY
Deconstructs modernization using rational
„systemic thinking‟ to reveal the e...
Colonialism and discourse of blaming the victim in
modernisation: organised hypocrisy.
The model externalises harm with a ...
Dependency theory can pop that bubble – not just
about growth but how we grow.
It is not just about the individual but the...
Dependency as an ideology – Tony
Smith’s criticism
 Tyranny of the whole over the parts
 “The error of this approach is ...
Post modernism or new
modernization?
Beyond the Search for a Paradigm? Post-Development and
beyond – Escobar
Modernist Dis...
CONCLUSION
Development is an ethnocentric/western based
project.
The process of development is not linear and it
must be l...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Dependency theory and development

9,167 views

Published on

A presentation for the learning program at Sussex on education and development, looking at dependency theory and development

  • If we are speaking about saving time and money this site ⇒ www.HelpWriting.net ⇐ is going to be the best option!! I personally used lots of times and remain highly satisfied.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Check the source ⇒ www.WritePaper.info ⇐ This site is really helped me out gave me relief from headaches. Good luck!
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Earn Up To $316/day! Easy Writing Jobs from the comfort of home! ●●● http://t.cn/AieXS62G
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Dependency theory and development

  1. 1. Critique of modernization and human capital theory in education. Focus on Papua New Guinea
  2. 2. • Modernization Social, economic, cultural changes which lead to a more complex, differentiated and specialized society. •
  3. 3. In SOCIOLOGY • “Psycho-cultural approaches”: the modern man - Capitalistic spirit (Weber) - Values and need for achievement (McClelland) • “Structural approaches” • - Spencer, Durkheim, Smelzer, Parsons
  4. 4. PARSONS  Imperatives: • Adaptation • Goal attainment • Integration • Latency  Basic dichotomies of social roles: • Affective/affective neutral • Self orientated/collective behaviour • Universalism/particularism • Ascriptive/achievement • Functionally specific/ functionally diffuse
  5. 5. In ECONOMICS • Rostow: the stages of economic growth - Traditional stage - Precondition for the take-off - Take-off - Maturity - Age of mass consumption
  6. 6. In Politics: (STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM) G. Almond (SSRC) political communication • Input - Political socialisation - Political recruitment - Articulation of interests - Aggregation of interests • Output - Rule-making - Rule-implementation - Rule-adjudication
  7. 7. MODERNISATION and EDUCATION Western schooling is western cultural reproduction = cultural imperialism. Behaviouralism - (Skinner): Individual behaviour can be conditioned. Humanism - (Dewey): Democratic values. Colonial Education: Training of Elites. Hidden curriculum Carnoy – Cultural imperialism
  8. 8. PAPUA and EDUCATION Demerath‟s writing on Papua New Guinea and colonisation of the mind (Fanon) Traditional and modern identity are chosen, not simply granted or received Historical beliefs about the „efficacy of knowledge‟ Ambivalence towards Western education Allegiance with traditional identity Colonisation of the Mind – Fanon
  9. 9. PAPUA and EDUCATION Australia sends most of its development money to Papua. Extractive industry – rich and poor divide Civil unrest and domestic violence high Need more data…..
  10. 10. HUMAN CAPITAL THEORY Mincer and Gary Becker of the "Chicago School“ Psacharopoulos: rates of return
  11. 11. HUMAN CAPITAL THEORY Africa: Brain drain Dore - Diploma Disease1960‟s Narrow focus on economic growth but no jobs. World Bank and human capital investment. Education is seen as a vehicle for economic growth. Eg. basic needs education, functional literacy. Can have high GDP but no social cohesion, or creates educated pirates / criminals.
  12. 12. Gunder Frank Dependency Theory – Critical historical approach  Underdevelopment is a function of the position a country occupies in the international system  Structural approach at the global level  Centre-Periphery dialectic  Role of elites and Lumpenbourgoisie / compardor class  Critique of Ideal Type approach
  13. 13. Dependency theory solutions  Rupture with the capitalist world-economy  Samir Amin, Delinking: Towards a polycentric world (1985)  Self-reliance through socialism (Tanzania)  Import Substitution or Dependant Development - Cardoso  Socialist revolution – Gunder Frank
  14. 14. CRITIQUE OF MODERNISATION DEVELOPMENT THEORY • Ethnocentric and ahistorical • Ignores the structural effect of capitalism / colonialism with analysis on internal aspects • Dualism of modern and traditional is based on the modern western „logos‟. • Evolutionist & utilitarian • Cultural Imperialism (Michael Carnoy)
  15. 15. CRITIQUE OF MODERNISATION DEVELOPMENT THEORY Economic rationalism is distorted by non- economic forces, racial, ethnic, gender bias. Market liberalist economics ignores structural effect of the distribution of wealth. Poverty or underdevelopment is nothing to do with Western or Enlightenment values, but to do with colonialism and capitalism. Explains the dept crisis in Third World and civil unrest and dictatorships.
  16. 16. CRITIQUE OF MODERNISATION DEVELOPMENT THEORY Deconstructs modernization using rational „systemic thinking‟ to reveal the externalities in the macro picture. Example: Corruption a big problem in developing countries. Can be seen as a market distortion or connected to a system of domination. Give the structure to counter superstructure, reverses the ideal.
  17. 17. Colonialism and discourse of blaming the victim in modernisation: organised hypocrisy. The model externalises harm with a system, makes pre- modern society liable for its „faults‟, obscures colonial domination. - Looks backwards from a „modern‟ perspective - isolates harm in society with a focus on the individual or the institution, not a function of the system. Eg corrupt officials at fault = disfunctional officials - harm is norm referenced - maintained as deviation from an ideal type, not structural or created by domination - focus on function as sufficient, no political responsibility for the outcome, closed within societal function
  18. 18. Dependency theory can pop that bubble – not just about growth but how we grow. It is not just about the individual but the structure that everyone participates in and the background conditions. It is not what development can achieve but what it hides and has not done, or does not change that it important. It focuses on the pathway that actions take in the structure. Political responsability is now open, the burden is not just to follow the prescriptions of this model for economic growth but to try to bring about an independent outcome or change. - -
  19. 19. Dependency as an ideology – Tony Smith’s criticism  Tyranny of the whole over the parts  “The error of this approach is not that it draws attention to the interconnectedness of economic and political processes and events in global manner, but that it refuses to grant the part any autonomy, any specificity, and particularity independent of its whole.” The Underdevelopment of Development Literature: The Case of Dependency Theory (1979)
  20. 20. Post modernism or new modernization? Beyond the Search for a Paradigm? Post-Development and beyond – Escobar Modernist Discourse and the Crisis of Development Theory – Kate Manzo Universalism, Eurocentrism, and ideological bias in development studies: from modernisation to neoliberalism – Brohman Ingelhart - Modernization, Cultural Change, and the Persistence of Traditional Values Joel Samoff – Institutionalising International Influence
  21. 21. CONCLUSION Development is an ethnocentric/western based project. The process of development is not linear and it must be linked to the specific society involved.

×