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Data from experiments

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Data from experiments

  1. 1. Data from Experiments Tomohiro Nagashima, CC BY-NC-SA Interactive Data Science; HCII; Fall 2018 05-839: Interactive Data Science
  2. 2. Study design activity https://tinyurl.com/yaz5ghl4 - Find the submission by the person next to you - Give comments on their study design with each other - ~10 min https://tinyurl.com/ybpp8p3q - Submit the revised version of your study idea - I want to see how it got improved! - ~15 min - https://tinyurl.com/y7hahbys (Tue slides available) 4/4/2019 2
  3. 3. Learning objectives 4/4/2019 3 • Differentiate causation from correlation • Describe what a lurking variable is and how it works
  4. 4. Correlation vs. Causation
  5. 5. Example: correlation A Pennsylvania research firm conducted a study in which 30 drivers (of ages 18 to 82 years old) were sampled, and for each one, the maximum distance (in feet) at which he/she could read a newly designed sign was determined. The goal of this study was to explore the relationship between a driver's age and the maximum distance at which signs were legible, and then use the study's findings to improve safety for older drivers. Open Learning Initiative at Stanford: oli.stanford.edu, CC-BY-NC-SA
  6. 6. Data Open Learning Initiative at Stanford: oli.stanford.edu, CC-BY-NC-SA
  7. 7. Data Open Learning Initiative at Stanford: oli.stanford.edu, CC-BY-NC-SA
  8. 8. Scatterplot Open Learning Initiative at Stanford: oli.stanford.edu, CC-BY-NC-SA
  9. 9. Scatterplot Open Learning Initiative at Stanford: oli.stanford.edu, CC-BY-NC-SA
  10. 10. Scatterplot Exercise 1 & 2: https://pollev.com/tnagashima649 Open Learning Initiative at Stanford: oli.stanford.edu, CC-BY-NC-SA
  11. 11. 4/4/2019 11
  12. 12. 4/4/2019 12
  13. 13. Correlation does not imply causation Number of firefighters sent Level of fire damage Andrew Magill. “Firefighters”, CC-BY “Former Joss Cardwall Center”, CC-BY https://www.flickr.com/photos/amagill/3225245640 https://www.geograph.ie/photo/5386305
  14. 14. Fire damage example Open Learning Initiative at Stanford: oli.stanford.edu, CC-BY-NC-SA
  15. 15. Lurking variable Open Learning Initiative at Stanford: oli.stanford.edu, CC-BY-NC-SA
  16. 16. Exercise 3 https://pollev.com/tnagashima649 Research has suggested that there is a correlation between Internet usage and obesity. Using this information, a fictional study found a strong positive relationship between the number of hours of daily Internet usage and Body Mass Index, a measure of body weight. Open Learning Initiative at Stanford: oli.stanford.edu, CC-BY-NC-SA
  17. 17. 4/4/2019 17
  18. 18. Exercise 4 https://pollev.com/tnagashima649 The tourism industry hires a marketing company to promote overseas vacations. The marketing company's research shows a strong positive correlation between the number of overseas vacations booked and amount of free time, in days, people have each year. Therefore, the marketing company decides to develop an advertising campaign aimed specifically at people who have lots of free time. Open Learning Initiative at Stanford: oli.stanford.edu, CC-BY-NC-SA
  19. 19. 4/4/2019 19
  20. 20. Correlation and Causation https://tinyurl.com/ycmtmsbv “Internet use in class leads to lower test scores” http://www.digitaljournal.com/internet/internet-use-in-class-leads-to-lower-test-scores/article/482661
  21. 21. 4/4/2019 21
  22. 22. Correlation and Causation https://tinyurl.com/ycmtmsbv “Internet use in class leads to lower test scores” https://tinyurl.com/y92gkbv2 Ravizza, S. M., Uitvlugt, M. G., & Fenn, K. M. (2017). Logged in and zoned out: How laptop internet use relates to classroom learning. Psychological science, 28(2), 171-180. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0956797616677314
  23. 23. Internet use and test scores https://pollev.com/tnagashima649 • Pre-experimental • No randomization, no control group • Experimental • Random assignment of participants, treatment and control groups • Quasi-experimental • Alternative to experiments • Ex-post facto • After the treatment has already been “administered”
  24. 24. 4/4/2019 24
  25. 25. Internet use and test scores • Independent variable • Internet use • Average duration online • Average number of requests • Self-reported internet use • Dependent variable • Academic performance • Final-exam score
  26. 26. Internet use and test scores Ravizza, S. M., Uitvlugt, M. G., & Fenn, K. M. (2017). Logged in and zoned out: How laptop internet use relates to classroom learning. Psychological science, 28(2), 171-180. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0956797616677314
  27. 27. Internet use and test scores Ravizza, S. M., Uitvlugt, M. G., & Fenn, K. M. (2017). Logged in and zoned out: How laptop internet use relates to classroom learning. Psychological science, 28(2), 171-180. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0956797616677314
  28. 28. Internet use and test scores https://pollev.com/tnagashima649 What is a possible lurking variable here?
  29. 29. 4/4/2019 29
  30. 30. Thank you! https://tinyurl.com/yca5rxzj

Editor's Notes

  • 1. A study examined how the percentage of participants who completed a survey is related to the monetary incentive that researchers promised to participants. The relationship is displayed in the scatterplot on the screen. What is the direction of this relationship?
    https://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/AZGmOZOHTQh2rNe
  • 2. In the context of this example, when researchers promised higher payments, what happened to the percentage of participants who completed the survey?
    https://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/ho3wqYR87NMJDJe
  • XX move this url / viz to the next deck… also need a better intro…
  • XX move this url / viz to the next deck… also need a better intro…
  • XX move this url / viz to the next deck… also need a better intro…
  • 3. Research has suggested that there is a correlation between Internet usage and obesity. Using this information, a fictional study found a strong positive relationship between the number of hours of daily Internet usage and Body Mass Index, a measure of body weight. Which of the following is true?
    https://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/3nI4jWchw5NBqXG
  • 4. The tourism industry hires a marketing company to promote overseas vacations. The marketing company's research shows a strong positive correlation between the number of overseas vacations booked and amount of free time, in days, people have each year. Therefore, the marketing company decides to develop an advertising campaign aimed specifically at people who have lots of free time. Which of the following is true about this decision?
    https://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/iENQaZf8kg08gCy
  • XX move this url / viz to the next deck… also need a better intro…
  • Is there a causal relationship between the internet use in class and academic performance?
    https://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/jyMId2swdkVMdg7
  • XX move this url / viz to the next deck… also need a better intro…
  • Ex-post facto
  • Go to the "Method" section of the article and read the information provided there. Given the information, which study design type do you think would this study be categorized into?
    https://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/A5z4FlK8M7ba6RI
  • Whether they are focused on the lecture / how much they’re focused on the internet or lecture / what’s on the final exam, and if it was taken from the lecture (how much content on the exam was taken from the lecture content) /
  • What is a possible lurking variable in this study?
    https://www.polleverywhere.com/free_text_polls/J4W9U2BA7cu0u09
  • Whether they are focused on the lecture / how much they’re focused on the internet or lecture / what’s on the final exam, and if it was taken from the lecture (how much content on the exam was taken from the lecture content) /

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