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GEOGRAPHY AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT 657

Spring 2006

CHAPTER 8

8.1 Introduction

      Inference
             Plays a rol...
Does a set of areal data exhibit spatial correlation?
                              Effect of spatial aggregation, see Fig...
Optimization
                                    Number of groups specified
                                    Optimal wi...
An example using SPSS
                     core.ecu.edu/psyc/wuenschk/SPSS/ClusterAnalysis-SPSS.doc

                     ...
Simulation in the Social Sciences
http://www.spatial-modelling.info/

Simulating Urban sprawl
http://www.sprawlsim.org/

S...
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GEOGRAPHY AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT 657 Spring 2006 CHAPTER 8 ...

  1. 1. GEOGRAPHY AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT 657 Spring 2006 CHAPTER 8 8.1 Introduction Inference Plays a role in any quantitative study Data are collected to infer something about an underlying process Even exploratory studies require some inference Attitudes to inference are changing in the world of statistics Purpose of chapter Introduce quantitative geographer to issues pertaining to statistical inference Provide a background and introduction to debates taking place Categorization of approaches to statistical inference Formal vs informal Informal EDA = Exploratory Data analysis Visualization Data Mining Formal Bayesian Classical (theoretical and experimental) 8.1 Informal Inference EDA Scatterplots Histograms Five-number summary Questions to ask Are a set of geographical points clustered? Are a set of points dispersed? (Repulsion?)
  2. 2. Does a set of areal data exhibit spatial correlation? Effect of spatial aggregation, see Figure 8.1 Are there any spatial outliers? In terms of location? In terms of data values Are there any spatial trends? Possible use of trend surfaces? Visualization See earlier chapters Data Mining Tools for data mining http://www.geog.leeds.ac.uk/presentations/97-3/tsld001.htm http://www.geovista.psu.edu/sites/geocomp99/Gc99/051/gc_051.htm http://gislounge.com/features/aa021403a.shtml Examples of student research http://www.geography.wisc.edu/research/student_research.htm SPSS and data mining http://www.spss.com/pdfs/spss_magicquadrant.pdf Spatial-temporal data mining http://www.business.otago.ac.nz/SIRC05/conferences/2005/27_laube.pdf Microsoft SQL server data mining http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/dnsql90/html/sql2k5_DataMine.asp GIS based data mining http://epa.gov/emap/greatriver/rcw/AFLRGIS.pdf Multiple techniques Cluster analysis Hierarchical Successive grouping- single linkage Number of groups not specified
  3. 3. Optimization Number of groups specified Optimal with respect to some criterion E.g., within-group sum of squares Both techniques involve some arbitrariness Try both and different choices of parameters Detecting hotspots using Crimestat and GIS www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/maps/dallas2001/Grubesic.doc Intro to Point Pattern Analysis using Crimestat www.sal.uiuc.edu/stuff/stuff-sum/pdf/points.pdf EPI analyst for ARCVIEW GIS http://www.phrl.org/REGS/Info%20EpiAnalyst.htm Violence in the District of Colombia http://www.urban.org/publications/410008.html A lab assignment using the mva and cluster packages in R http://statwww.epfl.ch/davison/teaching/Microarrays/lab/clustering.html Useful links http://astro.u-strasbg.fr/~fmurtagh/mda-sw/ Graphics and cluster analysis http://addictedtor.free.fr/graphiques/RGraphGallery.php?graph=68 Using R for cluster analysis http://people.depauw.edu/harvey/Chem%20351/PDF%20Files/Handouts/RDocs/Using%20R%20 for%20Cluster%20Analysis.pdf An example using R http://casoilresource.lawr.ucdavis.edu/drupal/node/202 The cluster package in R http://cran.r-project.org/doc/packages/cluster.pdf The mva package in R http://www.stat.ucl.ac.be/ISdidactique/Rhelp/library/mva/html/00Index.html
  4. 4. An example using SPSS core.ecu.edu/psyc/wuenschk/SPSS/ClusterAnalysis-SPSS.doc Cluster analysis and SPSS http://www2.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/PA765/cluster.htm Neural Networks Tutorial http://uhavax.hartford.edu/compsci/neural-networks-tutorial.html notes on The Machine That Changed the World http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/NEURLNET.HTML Some links for software (including SPSS) http://www.kdnuggets.com/software/classification-neural.html More on software http://www.dbmsmag.com/9807m062.html Data Mining in Institutional Research http://www.spss.com/events/e_id_1451/Data%20Mining%20in%20Institutional%20Research.pdf How Neural Networks are used in Data Mining http://members.cox.net/john.stanton/Neural_Networks.html Statistics learning and Data Mining http://ace.acadiau.ca/math/chipmanh/talks/dm-luncheon.pdf Geovisualization of opportunity www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/maps/savannah2005/papers/Moffatt.ppt Spatial Simulation http://www.geosimulation.org/geosim/ An Integrated Urban Development and Ecological Simulation Model http://www.urbansim.org/papers/uecfin.pdf Integration of an Urban Simulation Model and An Urban Ecosystem Model http://www.urbansim.org/papers/urbanecology.pdf
  5. 5. Simulation in the Social Sciences http://www.spatial-modelling.info/ Simulating Urban sprawl http://www.sprawlsim.org/ Spatial differences in multi-resolution urban modeling http://www.ucgis.org/summer03/studentpapers/charlesdietzel.pdf Urban Growth Simulation From "First Principles" http://www.ees.lanl.gov/staff/steen/papers/prepaper08061.pdf http://www.geosimulation.org/geosim/spatial_complexity.htm

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