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Chapter 3 Databases and Data Warehouses


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Chapter 3 Databases and Data Warehouses

  1. 1. <ul><li>Chapter 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Databases and </li></ul><ul><li>Data Warehouses </li></ul><ul><li>Building Business Intelligence </li></ul>
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Business Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>The Relational Database Model </li></ul><ul><li>Database Management System Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Data Warehouses and Data Mining </li></ul><ul><li>Managing The Information Resource In An Organization </li></ul>
  3. 3. Opening Case Study High Tech Battles High School Truancy <ul><li>Organizations need databases (and data warehouses) for organizing and managing information. </li></ul><ul><li>Why are the implementation of security and privacy measures difficult? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Databases and data warehouses are methods for organizing and managing information and business intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>Database management systems and data mining tools are IT tools you use to work with information and business intelligence. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Business intelligence - is knowledge about your: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal operations </li></ul></ul>Business Intelligence
  6. 6. Business Intelligence
  7. 7. Business Intelligence <ul><li>Two types of information processing include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online transaction processing ( OLTP ) - the gathering of input information, processing that information, and updating existing information to reflect the gathered and processed information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operational databases - databases that support OLTP. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online analytical processing ( OLAP ) - the manipulation of information to support decision making. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Business Intelligence <ul><li>A data warehouse is a special form of a database that contains information gathered from many operational databases for the purpose of supporting decision-making tasks. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Relational Database Model <ul><li>Database - a collection of information that you organize and access according to the logical structure of that information. </li></ul><ul><li>Relational database model - uses a series of logically related two-dimensional tables or files to store information in the form of a database. </li></ul><ul><li>Relation - describes each two-dimensional table or file in the relational model. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Relational Database Model <ul><li>Relational databases are composed of two parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information – stored in a series of two-dimensional tables, files, or relations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical structure of the information. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Relational Database Model Collections of Information
  12. 12. The Relational Database Model Created with Logical Structures <ul><li>When you create a database, you first create the data dictionary. </li></ul><ul><li>Data dictionary - contains the logical structure for the information. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Relational Database Model Created with Logical Structures Part Number is the primary key because of the key icon beside it. For Percentage Markup , we defined its Format as “Percent” and its number of decimal places as 2.
  14. 14. The Relational Database Model With Logical Ties Among the Information <ul><li>Primary key - a field (or group of fields in some cases) that uniquely describes each record. </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign key - a primary key of one file that appears in another file. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Relational Database Model With Logical Ties Among the Information
  16. 16. The Relational Database Model With Built-In Integrity Constraints <ul><li>Integrity constraints – rules that help ensure the quality of the information. </li></ul>Team Work Primary Keys, Foreign Keys, and Integrity Constraints (p. 133)
  17. 17. Database Management System Tools <ul><li>Database management system ( DBMS ) – helps you specify the logical organization for a database and access and use the information within a database. </li></ul><ul><li>A DBMS contains the following five important software components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data definition subsystem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data manipulation subsystem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application generation subsystem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data administration subsystem </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Database Management System Tools
  19. 19. <ul><li>DBMS engine - accepts logical requests from the various other DBMS subsystems, converts them into their physical equivalent, and actually accesses the database and data dictionary as they exist on a storage device. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical view - deals with how information is physically arranged, stored, and accessed on some type of storage device such as a hard disk. </li></ul><ul><li>Logical view - focuses on how you arrange and access information to meet your particular business needs. </li></ul>Database Management System Tools
  20. 20. DBMS Tools Data Definition Subsystem <ul><li>Data definition subsystem - helps you create and maintain the data dictionary and define the structure of the files in a database. </li></ul><ul><li>(For a great overview on the logical properties of information review the table on page 136) </li></ul>
  21. 21. DBMS Tools Data Manipulation Subsystem <ul><li>Data manipulation subsystem - helps you add, change, and delete information in a database and mine it for valuable information. Tools here include views, report generators, QBE, and SQL. </li></ul><ul><li>View - allows you to see the contents of a database file, make whatever changes you want, perform simple sorting, and query to find the location of specific information. </li></ul>
  22. 22. DBMS Tools Data Manipulation Subsystem Click here to enter a new record. Find information using the binoculars.
  23. 23. DBMS Tools Data Manipulation Subsystem <ul><li>Report generator - helps you quickly define formats of reports and what information you want to see in a report. </li></ul>
  24. 24. DBMS Tools Data Manipulation Subsystem <ul><li>By following a series of simple screens, you can easily create the report below. </li></ul>
  25. 25. DBMS Tools Data Manipulation Subsystem <ul><li>Query-by-example ( QBE ) tools - help you graphically design the answer to a question. </li></ul>
  26. 26. DBMS Tools Data Manipulation Subsystem The QBE grid Our selection criteria
  27. 27. DBMS Tools Data Manipulation Subsystem <ul><li>Structured query language ( SQL ) - a standardized fourth-generation query language found in most DBMSs. </li></ul><ul><li>The SQL below creates the same report in Figure 3.7 on page 139. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SELECT Part.[Part Number], Part.Cost, Employee.[Employee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Name], Employee.[Employee Number] </li></ul><ul><li>FROM Part, Employee </li></ul><ul><li>WHERE (((Part.Cost)>10)); </li></ul>
  28. 28. DBMS Tools Application Generation Subsystem <ul><li>Application generation subsystem - contains facilities to help you develop transaction-intensive applications. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data entry screens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS-specific programming languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly used programming languages </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. DBMS Tools Data Administration Subsystem <ul><li>Data administration subsystem - a DBMS helps you manage the overall database environment by providing facilities for backup and recovery, security management, query optimization, concurrency control, and change management. </li></ul>On Your Own DBMS Support OLTP, OLAP, and Information Management (p. 142)
  30. 30. DBMS Tools Data Administration Subsystem <ul><li>Backup and recovery facilities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodically back up information contained in a database. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restart or recover a database and its information in case of a failure. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security management facilities - control who has access to what information and what type of access those people have. </li></ul>
  31. 31. DBMS Tools Data Administration Subsystem <ul><li>Query optimization facilities - take queries from users and restructure them to minimize response times. </li></ul><ul><li>Reorganization facilities - continually maintain statistics concerning how the DBMS engine physically accesses information. </li></ul><ul><li>Concurrency control facilities - ensure the validity of database updates when multiple users attempt to access and change the same information. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Data Warehouses and Data Mining What Is a Data Warehouse? <ul><li>Data warehouse - a logical collection of information – gathered from many different operational databases – used to create business intelligence that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Data Warehouses and Data Mining What Is a Data Warehouse?
  34. 34. Data Warehouses and Data Mining What Is a Data Warehouse? <ul><li>Data warehouses are not transaction-oriented. </li></ul><ul><li>Data warehouses support online analytical processing (OLAP). </li></ul>
  35. 35. Data Warehouses and Data Mining What Are Data Mining Tools? <ul><li>Data mining tools - software tools you use to query information in a data warehouse. These tools include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Query-and-reporting tools - similar to QBE tools, SQL, and report generators in the typical database environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent agents – use various artificial intelligence tools to form the basis of information discovery and building business intelligence in OLAP. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Data Warehouses and Data Mining What Are Data Mining Tools? <ul><li>Data mining tools continued </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multidimensional analysis ( MDA ) tools - slice-and-dice techniques that allow you to view multidimensional information from different perspectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistical tools – help you apply various mathematical models to the information stored in a data warehouse to discover new information. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Data Warehouses and Data Mining What Are Data Mining Tools?
  38. 38. Data Warehouses and Data Mining Data Marts – Smaller Data Warehouses <ul><li>Data mart - a subset of a data warehouse in which only a focused portion of the data warehouse information is kept. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Data Warehouses and Data Mining Important Considerations <ul><li>Do you need a data warehouse? </li></ul><ul><li>Do all your employees need an entire data warehouse? </li></ul><ul><li>How up-to-date must the information be? </li></ul><ul><li>What data mining tools do you need? </li></ul>Team Work How Up-to-Date Should Data Warehouse Information Be? (p. 149)
  40. 40. MANAGING THE INFORMATION RESOURCE Who Should Oversee the Organization’s Information? <ul><li>Chief information officer ( CIO ) - responsible for overseeing an organization’s information resource. </li></ul><ul><li>Data administration - plans for, oversees the development of, and monitors the information resource. </li></ul><ul><li>Database administration - responsible for the more technical and operational aspects of managing the information contained in organizational databases. </li></ul>
  41. 41. MANAGING THE INFORMATION RESOURCE How Will Changes in Technology Affect Organizing and Managing Information? <ul><li>As new technologies become available, you should ask yourself whether those technologies will help you organize and manage your information better. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the greatest technological changes that will occur over the coming years is a convergence of different tools that will help you better organize and manage information. </li></ul>
  42. 42. MANAGING THE INFORMATION RESOURCE Is Information Ownership a Consideration? <ul><li>Information ownership is a key consideration in today’s information-based business environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership refers to who is responsible for information quality. </li></ul>On Your Own CRUD – Defining Information Ownership (p. 151)
  43. 43. MANAGING THE INFORMATION RESOURCE What Are the Ethics Involved in Managing and Organizing Information? <ul><li>Databases, data warehouses, DBMSs, and data mining tools make it possible for people to easily access all kinds of organizational information. </li></ul><ul><li>How does an organization safeguard against the unethical use of information within the organization? </li></ul>
  44. 44. Closing Case Study One We’ve Got OLTP Covered; Let’s Go on to OLAP <ul><li>What is the single most important factor that hinders all organizations in general from providing good online analytical processing (OLAP) support? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it so much easier for organizations to provide good online transaction processing (OLTP) support? </li></ul>
  45. 45. Closing Case Study Two Mining Dining Data <ul><li>Consider the issue of timely information with respect to the businesses discussed in the case. </li></ul><ul><li>Which of the businesses must have the most up-to-date information in its data warehouse? </li></ul>