2015 International Reflective-Reflexive Practice Education
“The Fantastic Five“
Akida St. Cyr
Tomasha Connor (Group Leader)
This assignment is geared towards developing a learning community who embodies
effective and healthy group dynamics during the reflective-reflexive process.
‘Reflective – Reflexive Practice’ has been supported by a number of theories, and today
we the members of The Fantastic Five Team will be presenting on Mr. William Glasser’s
The Choice Theory was once called the Reality Theory, then was changed to the
Control theory, then lastly named The Choice Theory
Please enjoy our presentation as we seek to point out these topics, in relation to the
The agenda for this presentation is as follows:
1.Description and Overview of Presentation – Tomasha Connor (Group Leader)
2.Description and Overview of the theory - (Resha Shallow)
3.Implications for learners of reflective practice - (Amisha Young)
4.A critique of the effectiveness and relevance of the theory in education – (Akida St. Cyr)
5.Justification of aspects chosen (Tomasha Connor)
6.Summary (Ruiz Thomas)
7. References ( All members of the team)
The choice theory was developed by Dr. William Glasser in the year 1980
The Glasser’s Choice theory is a theory of motivation founded on the idea that the behaviours of human beings are as a result of
conscious choices that individuals make. It posits the idea that the strongest drive for individual behavior is internally controlled as
opposed to the popular belief that external variables greatly result or drive behaviors.
His theory is an explanation of human behaviour or simply the “How” and “Why” we behave (Hoglund, 2007).
Basic human need constantly fuel these behaviors and can subsequently lead to the development of habits good or bad which ultimately
affects the level of satisfaction or contentment one enjoys in their interpersonal relationships.
These basic human needs are:
1. The need to survive: Food, Shelter, Clothing & Safety
2. The need to belong: Feeling accepted , Social Connection and loved by others
3. The need to gain power: to achieve, to be competent, skilled and successful
4. The need to be free: independence, choices, free to choose what we want to do with our lives
5. The need to have fun: pleasure, play and laugh
6. Choice Theory states that, with these ever present needs, students and teachers go about the work of living
In Glasser’s Choice Theory, he highlights Seven Deadly and Seven Connecting Habits.
The Ten Axioms of Choice Theory
1.The only person whose behavior we can control is our own.
2.All we can give another person is information.
3.All long-lasting psychological problems are relationship problems.
4.The problem relationship is always part of our present life.
5.What happened in the past has everything to do with what we are today, but we can only satisfy our basic
needs right now and plan to continue satisfying them in the future.
6.We can only satisfy our needs by satisfying the pictures in our Quality World.
7.All we do is behave.
8.All behavior is Total Behavior and is made up of four components: acting, thinking, feeling and physiology.
9.All Total Behavior is chosen, but we only have direct control over the acting and thinking components. We can
only control our feeling and physiology indirectly through how we choose to act and think.
10.All Total Behavior is designated by verbs and named by the part that is the most recognizable.
Avoid the seven deadly habits in teaching
* Rewarding students to control them
Replace them with the seven connecting habits:
What is reflective practice?
• Reflective practice is understood as the process of learning through and from experience
towards gaining new insights of self and/or practice (Boud et al 1985; Boyd and Fales, 1983;
Mezirow, 1981, Jarvis, 1992)” Linda Finlay. Phd, BA(Hons,DipCOT.(January 2008). Reflecting
on 'Reflective Practice'.(pg 1).
What does it mean to be a
learner of reflective practice?
What is required when engaging in
Photo courtesy - http://www.open.ac.uk/opencetl/files/opencetl/file/ecms/web-content/Finlay-
What choice theory teaches that individual?
• Choice theory teaches the individual how to be disciplined, control themselves and
how to handle themselves in situations that have no control over.
What can we do to satisfy our basic needs?
photo courtesy -
1. When a reflective-reflexive practitioner apply those principles to their learning they:
2. They become independent learners.
3. Not easily controlled by anyone or any situation.
4. Realize that cultural practices does not have to affect their behavior.
5. They are able to manage their time wisely.
6. Reflect on their behavior and make adjustments accordingly.
7. Works well with others, considering everyone as their own individual and cannot be
8. Build and maintain relationships with others.
9. Make intelligent decisions about their learning
10. Able to improve their Quality World picture ( how we want our lives to be)
11. Have the ability to do what is necessary to satisfy their basic needs.
12. Are able to change the doing component of their behavior.
13. Have direct control over thoughts.
photo courtesy -
Glasser’s Choice theory postulates that people can control only their own behavior, and that all people
need a sense of belonging, freedom, power, survival and fun. In terms of education, the theory’s
effectiveness is supposed to be seen mainly within the classrooms themselves. For example, when
students enter a classroom, teacher is expected to create a positive environment which is conducive
In reference to the theory, students should feel that sense of belonging and freedom while still
maintaining an extent of power. The teacher is expected to manage the classroom effectively in order
to successfully teach the students. Students are motivated to learn what the teacher wants to teach.
However, isn’t this contradictory since one’s behavior is supposedly based on choice and not external
motivation? This can be proved by a student misbehaving although they are in such an environment.
It’s relevance in today’s educational institutions is more predominant within schools known as Sudbury
schools where the Choice theory is truly established. In such schools students of all ages determine
what they will do, as well as when, how, and where they will do it. It is truly a matter of their
choices/decisions. Sudbury schools are based on the principle that students are personally
responsible for their acts, in opposition to virtually all schools today that deny it. Three (3)
characteristics demonstrated by schools which apply the Choice theory are that focus is placed on
quality, coercion is minimized and self-evaluation is encouraged. In analyzing common schools and
their management/administration and applying these key principles, one can infer that the Choice
theory is extraneous.
Helps students see a wide range of possible
consequences for their behaviour
It is difficult for teachers to help students satisfy
their need for control without feeling threatened
Allow students to determine solutions to their
own discipline problems.
It is difficult to react properly when
communicating with students about their
Help students understand their needs and
legitimate wats of satisfying these needs.
It is difficult to avoid giving responses that
encourage students to make excuses for their
Encourage students to take control of their own
Students may not have the necessary skills to
make plans that will help improve their behaviour
Description and Overview of the theory
oThis was done to provide the audience with an introduction and general
understanding of the theory.
oSullo, B. (2013) Choice Theory teaches that we are always motivated by
what we want at that moment. It emphasizes the importance of building
and maintaining positive relationships with others to create a shared vision.
Implications for learners of reflective practice
oOur reasoning for choosing to approach the task by first defining the theory
and then showing the implications for reflective learning is to give our
audience a clear picture of how mutually dependent and supportive each
theory is of the other.
A critique of the effectiveness and relevance of the theory in education
oThe critique is to show the benefits of Glasser’s Choice Theory learning
approach compared to traditional learning methods and why a reflective
learner would benefit more from the Choice Theory learning experience.
William Glasser’s Choice Theory provides an explanation of motivation which is markedly
different from what many of us have been taught. The following is taken from The School for
Quality Learning: Managing the School and Classroom the Deming Way by Donna
K.Crawford,Richard Bodine,& Robert Hoglund, pp. 45 - 50:
William Glasser’s Choice Theory is based on the assumption that all behaviour represents
the individual's constant attempt to satisfy one or more of five basic inborn needs. In other
words, no behaviour is caused by any situation or person outside of the individual.
Glasser (1984) holds that we are essentially biological beings, and the fact that we follow
some of our genetic instructions psychologically rather than physically makes neither the
instructions less urgent nor the source less biological.
A central aspect of Choice Theory is the belief that we are internally, not externally motivated.
While other theories suggest that outside events "cause" us to behave in certain predictable
ways, Choice Theory teaches that outside events never "make" us to do anything.
Another major concept in Choice Theory is the notion that we always have some choice
about how to behave. This does not mean that we have unlimited choice or that outside
information is irrelevant as we choose how to behave. It means that we have more control
than some people might believe and that we are responsible for the choices we make.
In closing when people learn to apply the principles of William Glasser’s Choice Theory, they
are taught how to consciously self-evaluate so that the behaviours they choose have the best
chance of helping them achieve what they want in ways that are responsible.
Fidaaryana (2012) Choice Theory Basic Needs. Retrieved on November 9, 2015 from
Glasser, W. (1998). Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom. Retrieved on November
9, 2015 from http://www.choicetheory.com/ct.htm
Finlay, L. Phd, BA (Hons, DipCOT.(2008). Reflecting on 'Reflective Practice Retrieved on November 12,
2015 from Website
Nguyen, O.(2004, February, 6). Glasser choice theory. Retrieved on November 12, 2015 from Website
8Models (2010) Choice. Reality Theraphy & Choice Theory - Glasser . Retrieved on November 13, 2015
from website http://8models.wikispaces.com/Reality+Therapy+%26+Choice+Theory+-+Glasser
Sullo, B. (2013). The inspiring teacher. New Jersey: Funderstanding LLC.
The William Glasser Institute. (2010).The Glasser Approach. http://www.wglasser.com/the-glasser-