Cambridge IGCSE Geography - Case Studies


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Cambridge IGCSE Geography - Case Studies

  1. 1. NIGER – RAPID POPULATION GROWTHLEDC – One of the poorest countries in the worldPopulation Growth Rate of 2.9% (very high)Almost half of the population is under 15 years oldFertility Rate of 7.1 children per motherPopulation Growth is due to falling death rates-Reliable, clean water supply-Babies are inoculated against disease-Better diets are eaten-More clinics + hospitals-Better health education-Women are becoming more educated
  2. 2. RUSSIA – FALLING BIRTH RATES + HIVPopulation decline from 143m (2007) to a predicted 111m (2050)Due to:-High death rate (Low life expectancy – Male = 59y/o)-High level of alcohol related deaths-More than 1,000,000 Russians with AIDS-Low birth rate (1.1 children per woman)-Russian women are well educated and so do not want to havelarge numbers of children-Low level of immigration-High level of emigration to other European countries, in search ofa better lifestyle
  3. 3. CHINA – BIRTH CONTROL POLICIESL A T E R , L O N G E R ,F E W E R ( 1 9 7 0 - 7 9 )China realised that therewould not be enough food,jobs etc. and so introducedthis policyEncouraged:- delay before 1st child- longer interval betweenchildren- fewer children overallO N E C H I L D P O L I C Y( 1 9 7 8 - P R E S E N T D A Y )The rapid population growthseemed to be stalling China’sdevelopment and so theyintroduced this policyOne child per familyPopulation growth has sloweddown – China has avoidedhaving an extra 300,000,000birthsHowever:- there are many femaleorphans- much pressure is place onthe child to succeed- too many boys/not enoughgirls
  4. 4. SINGAPORE – PRENATAL POLICIESIn the 1980s, the Singaporean government decided that itneeded a young, vibrant work force to develop its economy- encouraged rapid population growth through naturalgrowth and immigration- even though Singapore already has a highpopulation density- encouraged more educated women to have more childrenIntroduced ‘Stop at Two’ in 1970 to slow down birth rates(successful)- gave grants of US$7000 to less well educated women whoagreed to be sterilized after 2 childrenIntroduced ‘Have Three or More, if you can afford it’ in the mid1980s to raise the birth rate- tax rebates for the 3rd child- subsidies for day-care- priority in enrolling in the best schools
  5. 5. EU - MIGRATIONAlmost 500m people are able to travel freely between the EU countries- no need for a visa or even show a passportLots of movement between the EU countriesAdvantages- mixing of culture- job vacancies are filled quickly- EU funds can improve infrastructureDisadvantages- loss of distinctive culture- racism- conflict- over migration in some placesPolish Workers in the UK-Perform many unskilled jobs-Boomerang Migrants- work hard in UK- then return to Poland to set up a business
  6. 6. READING – CBD AND INNER CITY PLANNINGConstruction of The Oracle Shopping Centre (late 1999) revitalisedReading’s shopping facilities, providing more and larger modern shops,attracting more shoppers (wide sphere of influence), to supportReading’s economyEncouraged by the local authority by making the planning easy for thedevelopersPedestrianised Broad St., the road just outside the Oracle to make it moreattractive to shoppers and to raise the footfall in these areas, benefittinglocal shops-Added street furniture (benches and public art) to make the areamore aesthetically pleasing to the shoppers-Because of these developments it turns into a secondary highorder shopping area, but still manages to keep a traditionalhigh street, which compliments the Oracle
  7. 7. ATLANTA – URBAN SPRAWLFastest growing metropolitan city in USAPopulation increase from 1.4m to over 5m in 36 years – results in urban sprawl (expandinginto rural areas – RURAL-URBAN FRINGEProblems Created- air + noise pollution is the 4th worst in the US – 90% of residents drive to work –respiratory illnesses are common (bronchitis, asthma etc.)- suburbs along Chattahoochee river increase run-off and contaminate drinking water –septic tanks are necessary- farmland has been bought up and replaced with shopping malls etc. – farmers’livelihoods taken- 125 hectares of trees are lost per day by deforestation in the city- concrete and asphalt mean that surface water cannot drain away – FLASH FLOODS +CONTAMINATION- Hotlanta: concrete and removal of trees leads to a heating effect – 10ºC higher than inthe countryside
  8. 8. CAIRO – POLLUTION, SHANTY TOWNS + CONGESTIONP R O B L E M S- lack of housing- 80% of Cairo covered byillegally built brick houses onfarmlands by the Nile- 2-3m people set up homesamongst the tombs of Old Cairo- congestion- in the last 30 years, no. of carsrose from 100,000 to >1m- slow journeys to work- pollution- burning of fuel leading toheavily polluted air- leaking sewers- illegally dumped wastecontaminating ground waterS O L U T I O N S- satellite + dormitory townsbuilt around the city- ring road built around the city- people with donkey cartslicensed to collect + recyclerubbish- the Greater Cairo WasteWater Project extended andrepaired the sewage system- modern metro system wasbuilt- homes + public services wereupgraded in the most rundown parts of the city1950-2000: Population rose from 2m to 18m - Infrastructure not able to cope
  9. 9. CHAITEN, CHILE - VOLCANO2 May 2008 Chaiten Volcano erupted – previously thought to be dormantCaldera volcanoFormed at a convergent boundary- sits on edge of South American and Nazca plates (beneath because sea plate)- subducting plate melts and pressure builds up due to friction between plates- magma tricked through plate boundary and built up huge chamber under crater4000 people fled homes- evacuation was difficult because of terrain- evacuated by Naval shipAsh went 20km up and settled over Chile and ArgentinaTown coated in ash 15cm thickForests set on fireSchools used as shelters
  10. 10. HAITI - EARTHQUAKEHaiti lies on the Enriquillo-Plaintain Garden Fault which is a product of the transformplate boundary between the North American plate and the Caribbean plate.- these plates, after much friction, moved violently apart, creating the earthquakeDeath toll was so high due as the earthquake took place during the evening rush hour- lots of children coming back from school (unsupervised)- workers coming home from work- crossing unstable bridges and going past unstable buildings- unstable because there was not enough money in the country to buildstable buildings as the country is nearly always in major debt due to the commonnature of hazards in the countryEpicentre right underneath the capital city, Port-au-Prince – most densely populatedpart of Haiti – many tall buildings affected by the earthquake7 on the Richter ScaleIt was not the major earthquake that caused the damage, but the smaller scaleaftershocks which collapsed all of the ready weakened buildings
  11. 11. MADAGASCAR - RAINFORESTS9th poorest country in the world78% of workers work in the primary sectorDeforestation people have used land for agriculture- lots of species under threat because of deforestation (eg. flying fox) – LOSS OFBIODIVERSITYPeople are cutting down rainforests because countries exports rely on agriculture (70%) soneed to grow fast crops like rice in more areasWoods such as ebony and rosewood can be sold worldwide at a high priceTrees are burned to create farm land- ash supplies nutrients for a while- crops grow well for number of years- heavy rainfall washes away nutrients – SOIL EROSION- crops no longer grow because all nutrients used up- FARMERS MOVE ON – SHIFTING CULTIVATIONAnimals lose food and habitat
  12. 12. SAHARA AND THE SAHEL - DESERTSThe Sahel: the transitional zone between the true desert to the north andthe savanna grasslands to the south – currently moving further south- average rainfall of 300-600mm per yearDesertification: the process by which fertile land becomes desert, typicallyas a result of drought, or inappropriate agriculture- overcultivation- overgrazing- deforestation- overpopulation- climate changeTopsoil erosion by wind due to lack of rain + lack of vegetation protecting it
  13. 13. MALI - DESERTIFICATIONLargest country in West Africa but one of the poorest in the world80% of Mali’s population work in agriculture65% of Mali’s land is desert or semi-desert- large amount of drought and food shortages in these areasOvercultivation in the areas south of the SAHEL (due to a populationgrowth rate of 3%) leads to LAND DEGRADATION- results in topsoil erosion by wind due to a lack of vegetation +moisture to protect it- extends the SAHEL south
  14. 14. 3rd May 2008 – Cyclone Nargis hitMyanmarWind Speeds between 200-300km/hFlooding & mudslides due to heavyrainfall.3.6 meter storm surge floodedIrrawaddy Delta2.4 million people affected140,000 people killed or missingInfrastructure damageAgricultural damageLONG TERM DAMAGE- homelessness- lack of food and clean watersupply- rise in food pricesTROPICAL STORM – HOW IS ITFORMEDWarm air from North meets warm airfrom South in tropicsSea temp. 27ºC and sea 60m deep,winds begin to circleanticlockwise due to the Earth’srotationIntense low pressure creates the eyeof the storm as the spiralling airrises to create low pressurealong the equator. Tropicalstorms develop as depressionsand wind speeds increase.Easterly winds at high levels movethem east to west at first, as theymove further from the equator itloses power as the seatemperature decreases.Die out over land as there is less heatand no water to keep them going.MYANMAR – CYCLONE NARGIS
  15. 15. AUSTRALIA - DROUGHTThe Murray-Darling rivers provide over 70% of irrigation to the farming areaswhich produce 40% of Australia’s food (New South Wales and Victoria)Since 2002, rainfall has been well below average and rivers + reservoirs are toolow to provide enough water for crops and livestock to survive- Average rainfall in outback can be 336 mm per year - very lowIn Goulburn, farmers cannot keep livestock in the hills as the Pejar reservoir hasrun dry- abattoirs and wool plants cut consumption by 30%- tap water is unfit for human consumption, so bottled water must be boughtIn Melbourne, residents are fined or imprisoned if they wash their cars, fillswimming pools or sprinkle gardensIn Sydney, after 4 years of drought, the main reservoir is at 40% capacity + bushfires regularly occur due to the dry weather
  16. 16. MOZAMBIQUE - FLOODSFebruary 2000: Zambezi, Limpopo and Save rivers floodMany of the country’s 19m people live on the floodplains of these rivers- most of the population are farmers, and these are the most fertile soilsThe banks of the Limpopo river burst, causing severe flood damageAbout 2 weeks later, Cyclone Eline hit the Mozambique coast near Beira,north of the areas previously affected by floodingFlash floods inundated low farmlands around Chokwe + Xai-Xai- more than 180,000 people affectedDirt roads easily turned to mud + so it took 2 days for a food lorry to travel200 miles from the port at Beira to Caia, the town used as a fooddistribution centre
  17. 17. INDIA – SUBSISTENCE RICE FARMINGRice is the staple of the diet in SE AsiaGrown to feed themselves and their families- labour intensive and requires the whole familyThe farmer would also grow a secondary crop on the same land – beans,lentils or peas. They may also keep chickens for eggs or meatGrows best in the heavy monsoon seasons or where irrigation water can beprovidedThe floodwaters are usually useful from the Ganges however- floods can be catastrophic + destroy the rice crop- some years rainfall is lower than expected + the crop is ruinedRice gives a high yield per hectareHeavy alluvial soils provide an impervious muddy layer
  18. 18. NEW ZEALAND – COMMERCIAL AGRICULTUREWarm, wet climate ideal for growing grass – great for pastoral farmingHARWOOD’S FARM, NORTH CANTERBURY- over 1500 hectares in size – mostly hill country or rolling downs- special grasses planted on this land, providing high quality feedfor large herds of sheep + cattle during the winter- fed on hay + silage when it snows in winter- Corriedale sheep: provide good quantity of meat + wool- Hereford cattle: sold for meat in October to save the cost of feedingthem over the winter- Rabbits are regularly culled to stop them from eating large quantitiesof grass
  19. 19. BANGALORE – HI TECH INDUSTRYOne of India’s largest industrial cities. In 1991 a Software Technology Plantwas created and since then multinational IT companies have set uptheir offices in BangaloreDue to:- pleasant climate conditions: 900km above sea level making it coolerthan most of India- dust-free environment- the state government having a long history of support of science andtechnologyCompanies OUTSOURCE to India because:- labour costs are considerably lower- many high skilled workers available- India has a large English speaking population (about 50m)925 software companies80,000 ICT workers21 engineering colleges – workers taken straight from thesecolleges>100 electrics companies in The Electronic City
  20. 20. PAKISTAN – STEEL INDUSTRYFirst steel factories were built in Pakistan in 1973 in order to develop theindustrial sector of their economyBuilt on cheap flat land at Pipri near Gharo Creek in Karachi, out of the wayso no residents of the city could see itAlso build downwind from Karachi so noise and air pollution would notblow into residential areasIn the past few years, Pakistan steel have reforested the area around thefactories and set new targets for waste and pollution reductionWater has been treated in freshwater supplies that feed lakes andreservoirsAlso created a cricket ground, lakes, bird sanctuaries and a running trackfor employeesCreates more jobs – benefits the city of Karachi
  21. 21. SEYCHELLES - TOURISMMade up of 115 islands in Indian Ocean, 1500km east of AfricaTourism industry provides the islands with 70% of total incomeMoney raised is invested back into the countryTourism employs about 30% of the labour force – many jobs createdOver-tourism results in drought + this can affect sanitationThe drought is made worse by 75% of the water being lost through old andleaking pipesDue to the drought, the government are forced to take out a $25m loan topay for a desalination plant which is not only expensive, but takes awayfrom the natural beauty of the islandManagement: The minister of tourism for theSeychelles wants to limit the no. of tourists to 200,000per year to ensure stability and sustainability in theindustry
  22. 22. DUBAI - TOURISM1 of the 7 Emirates that make up the UAESubtropical climate – Arid – Infrequent rainfall (5 days of rain per year) –Mean daily temperature of 30ºC in January, rising to >40ºC in JulyTourism makes up 30% of Dubai’s GDPHotels and Apartments recorded 6.5m guests in 2006 with a revenue of>US$3 billionTourism has transformed an area of desert into one of the world’s toptourist destinations of the 21st CenturyHowever tourism stretches water supply and the rapid growth could lead tothe place losing some of its attractive aspect that first brought touriststhereBut tourism provides a medium to long term addition to Dubai’s oil and gasexports
  23. 23. D.R. CONGO - FUELWOOD40% of the world’s population rely on fuelwood to cook and heat theirhomesDEFORESTATIONMost of these countries burn fuelwood because they have no alternative70% of the population rely on subsistence farming and on collectingfuelwood to survivePuts D.R. Congo’s rare species at riskVillagers have to walk 7km for 3kg of firewood70% is transported by cart and 30% on people’s headsWhat is left over is sold to Kinshasa, the capital, where it’s used forbakeries and food processingAlternative is dung, but it deprives the fields of fertiliser, reducing cropyields
  24. 24. ITAIPU DAM – HYDRO ELECTRIC POWERLocated along River Paraná- second longest river in S. America- large reliable flow of waterJoint venture between Brazil and ParaguayHard impermeable rock was ideal for constructing both the dam andreservoirHowever 40,000 people had to be relocated because of constructionBefore construction there was already a reasonable amount ofinfrastructure in place thanks to the nearby towns of Foz de Iguaçu andPuerto StrossnerThe depth of the valley and the relief of the wider area flooded for thereservoir means that Itaipu has the lowest flooded area per unit ofpower production of all major HEP schemes in Brazil
  25. 25. DAYA BAY, CHINA – NUCLEAR POWER4 of China’s 11 nuclear reactors are located at Daya Bay in Guangdong,south-east ChinaCoastal location permits seawater to be used in the cooling processHard rock in the area provides solid foundation for these large and heavyinstallationsNo major threat from earthquakes or faulting in the areaMajor cities not too far away (Hong Kong 50km, Shenzhen 40km) so littleenergy is lost in transmission, but are a reasonable distance away incase of a nuclear accidentNearby supply of labourGeneral infrastructure is very good
  26. 26. KINGSNORTH, UK– THERMAL POWERMajor 2000MW thermal power station in south-east EnglandLocated on the Hoo Peninsula on the banks of the Medway estuary- lots of water for coolingHas a port facility to allow the importation of coal and oilThe station is adjacent to farmland and there are no significant residentialareas nearby – lots of spaceNot too far away from the houses that it provides for – not much energy islost in transmission
  27. 27. LESOTHO – WATER RESOURCESThe Lesotho Highlands Water Project is the largest civil engineering projectin AfricaWhen completed it will divert about 40% of the Senqu/Orange river waterthrough 5 large-scale damns (estimate 2027)After taking the water for its own use, much will be sold to South Africawhere the demand is greater than the supplyThe income can be used to develop its infrastructure and economyLots of highlands in Lesotho which receive high rainfall, so the valleys areideal for building dams and reservoirsAble to generate HEP from the damLakes will attract tourism, creating jobs and benefitting the economyHowever Lesotho will become solely dependent on South Africa for futureincome
  28. 28. OPPORTUNITIES AND HAZARDS INRAINFORESTSAbout 200m people live in areas that are/were covered by tropical rainforestsFertile soils for farming- for palm oilPotential for Hydro Electric Power Stations- high rainfallTourismFishing and Food SupplyForestry- expensive hardwoods such as mahoganyBut the removal of vegetation can lead to the disruption to the circulation andstorage of nutrients, surface erosion and compaction of soils, sandification,increased flood levels and sediment content of rivers, climate change and aloss of biodiversity
  29. 29. OPPORTUNITIES AND HAZARDS IN DESERTSLand use in deserts is limitedFarming is possible, with irrigation from rivers (e.g.. Nile) and deep aquifers(e.g.. Below Libya and south-west USA), and is profitableIn semi arid areas, cattle/sheep ranching is economically viable withoutirrigationTourism has great potential in countries such as DubaiHowever:- weathering has the ability to weaken engineering structures veryrapidly- stream flow can be erratic causing flooding- there is increased soil erosion with high rates of overland runoff
  30. 30. ALBANIA - POLLUTIONTirana, the capital city, is one of the most polluted cities in the worldDeaths due to illness caused by pollution have increased by 20% in thepast 2 yearsThis is due to 90% of vehicles being too old- 70% use diesel- 30% petrol- mostly petrol with lead and a huge quantity of sulphurHeavy industry, especially in Elbasan, produces pollution 15x aboveacceptable levelsBabies are being born with deformities as well as deformed animals (4legged roosters, 2 headed calves)Soil is so contaminated that some places have banned planting crops
  31. 31. THE MALDIVES – EFFECTS OF GLOBALWARMINGMade up of 1200 tiny islands but highest point is only 2.4m above sea level80% of the islands are no more than 1m above sea levelRising sea levels put these islands at threat – DUE TO GLOBAL WARMINGIn Male, a 3m high wall, which took 14 years to build and cost US$63m, hasbeen constructed in an attempt to protect the capitalThe government has identified 5 ‘safe’ islands, designed to resist the risingseaGovernment has proposed to artificially raise the height of some of theislandsNear Male, a land reclamation project is taking place to create a new islandwhich could potentially house 50,000 people, most of the nationspopulation
  32. 32. NEPAL – SOIL EROSIONDeforestation occurring for the growing need for fuelwood18% of Nepal is forested but 25% of the forest was removed between 1990and 2005Removing trees on steep slopes leads to soil erosionMonsoon rains between May and September increase erosionVillagers in Tadiya have easy access to the forest to collect fuel and fodder- however they are having to travel further and furtherWomen spend 1/3 of their day collecting firewood for fuelTourism is important – 70,000 per year – creates many jobs- using fuelwood for tourists has increased deforestation and soilerosion by 10%