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Cloud Computing’s
 Green Potential
                    Tom Raftery
  Digital Trends 2011 - Green ICT & Cloud Computing
                   December 2011




                         1
Tom Raftery
  • Lead analyst, energy and
       sustainability practice,
       RedMonk

  • CIX, Chip & Zenith
  • GreenMonk.net
  • twitter.com/tomraftery
  • tom@redmonk.com
  • +34 677 695 468
  • SlideShare.net/TomRaftery

                                                  2

CIX, Chip & Zenith - involvement with Cloud, going back to late 90’s
Who are you?




                                    Photo http://www.flickr.com/photos/warmestregards/2789694551


                                                                  3

Deployed cloud solutions? Or plan to...
How many think Cloud is Green?
Cloud Computing?




     Photo http://www.flickr.com/photos/saxoji/3157404267/

                              4
Browser delivered




                                                  5

First blush - it is simply browser delivered software - but much more now
Nothing New




                                                  6


Launched July 1996 - one of the 1st widely used SaaS applications
Goes back to mainframe computing in the 60’s
SaaS




                                     Photo http://www.flickr.com/photos/kiewic/4227455448/

                                                              7

Social Networks, Zoho, Google Apps, SlideShare, Dropbox, etc.
PaaS




                                       Photo http://www.flickr.com/photos/fhke/383366149/

                                                                8

PaaS is like abstracting SaaS back one level - deploying, as a service, the platform to dev/rollout SaaS
apps
Force.com, Google AppEngine, Microsoft Azure, Cloud Foundry, AppScale, etc
IaaS




                                     Photo http://www.flickr.com/photos/br1dotcom/4297727518/

                                                                9

IaaS abstracts back another level, making hardware (network, disk, cpu) available as a service
Amazon EC2, S3, OpenStack, VMWare, Rackspace CloudForms
Huh?




Image http://venturebeat.com/2011/11/14/cloud-iaas-paas-saas/

                            10
Types




Image http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cloud_computing_types.svg

                               11
Energy Efficient?



        12
Energy & Carbon?

Microsoft, Accenture and WSP Environment & Energy Study
Shows Significant Energy and Carbon Emissions Reduction
Potential From Cloud Computing
                                                                                                     November 2010




                Link http://www.microsoft.com/Presspass/press/2010/nov10/11-04CloudBenefitsPR.mspx

                                                       13
Energy & Carbon?

Microsoft, Accenture and WSP Environment & Energy Study
Shows Significant Energy and Carbon Emissions Reduction
Potential From Cloud Computing
                                                                                                     November 2010




                Link http://www.microsoft.com/Presspass/press/2010/nov10/11-04CloudBenefitsPR.mspx

                                                       14
Streamlining




                                     Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/pedrosimoes7/201099447/

                                                             15

Traditional servers:
RFP -> PO -> Order -> delivery -> Image -> Patch -> Apps ->Test -> deploy - (weeks -> months)

Cloud
PO often not necessary (not large capital expense) - Order & deploy (minutes->hours)
Streamlining - faster to purchase & deploy virtual servers than physical ones
Dynamic Provisioning




                       Image http://www.flickr.com/photos/traftery/3116297464/

                                                16

Dynamic Provisioning
Multi-tenancy




           Photo http://www.worldrecordsacademy.org/transport/most_people_crammed_in_%20a_BMW_Mini_Dance_company_sets_world_record_112074.html



                                                                                    17

Multi-tenancy
Server Utilisation




                                     Image http://www.flickr.com/photos/playerx/3127007481/
                                                             18

Traditional servers under-utilised
Cloud ones?
Chasing the moon




                   Photo http://www.flickr.com/photos/traftery/5546154606/
                                            19

Chasing the moon
Ubiquitous Information




                                    Photo http://www.flickr.com/photos/citrixonline/5447248934/
                                                               20

Ubiquitous access to information enables work from anywhere (with a connection!)
Tele-working




                                           Photo http://www.flickr.com/photos/citrixonline/5447248262/
                                                                       21

About 25% of IBM's 320,000 workers worldwide telecommute from home offices, saving $700 million in real estate costs.
Energy Efficient?

Less commuting &
Less building stock - yes

But less energy consumption or offsetting?




                      22
Energy Efficient?

“If you can’t measure it, you
can’t manage it”



              23
Energy Efficient?


                         Hands up exercise...



                                                               24
Hands up if you have you moved some of your applications to a Cloud provider

Keep your hands up if you know what the energy consumption of that application was before moving it to the cloud

Keep your hands up if you know the energy consumption of your application after it has moved to the Cloud
Energy Efficient?

                      Without data, no way to
                      know, but...



                                         25
Given lack of data - impossible to say
Energy Efficient ≠ Green



                                               26

Common mistake is to conflate energy efficiency with Green
Green?



   27
CDC Report
“A typical food & beverage firm transitioning its human resources
(HR) application from dedicated IT to a public cloud can reduce
CO2 emissions by 30,000 metric tons over five years”

         Cloud Computing – The IT Solution for the 21st Century
                                                CDC &Verdantix
                                                      July 2011




                     https://www.cdproject.net/en-US/WhatWeDo/Pages/Cloud-Computing.aspx

                                                     28
CDC Report
“allowing companies to maximize performance, drive down costs,
reduce inefficiency and minimize energy use – and therefore
carbon emissions”

               Cloud Computing – The IT Solution for the 21st Century
                                                      CDC &Verdantix
                                                            July 2011



                                 https://www.cdproject.net/en-US/WhatWeDo/Pages/Cloud-Computing.aspx

                                                                 29

Association of energy & carbon is a fundamental error - depends on the source of the energy
(renewable vs fossil fuel)

Reducing energy use doesn’t necessarily reduce CO2
Takedown




                         http://greenmonk.net/carbon-disclosure-projects-emissions-reduction-claims-for-cloud-computing-are-flawed/

                                                                            30

Based on assumptions and a PUE-based model - could just as easily increase emissions by 30,000
tons
PUE?

   Power usage effectiveness (PUE): ratio of total amount of
    power used by a data center, to the power delivered to
                   computing equipment.




                                    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_usage_effectiveness


                                                             31

Hands up who has heard of/knows what PUE is...
PUE?




                                      Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/aussiegall/286709039/

                                                                32

Traditionally, no standard for where it is metered (some at HV, some at MV, some at LV) - includes all
conversions (and losses) or not
PUE?
                      IT Equipment                      Total Power                                     PUE




                         1MW                                 2MW                                         2.0




                        0.75MW                            1.75MW                                        2.33




                             http://datacenterdesign.blogspot.com/2009/07/linkedin-discussion-on-power-usage.html

                                                                     33

No account taken of the efficiency of use of IT equipment
Turning off unused servers reduces your consumption but PUE goes up!
PUE?
              Data Centre                  Supply Carbon Intensity                    PUE   IT Carbon Intensity




                Typical                          0.5kg CO2/kWh                        1.5   0.75kg CO2/kWh




    Good PUE mostly coal-fired power              0.8kg CO2/kWh                        1.2   0.96kg CO2/kWh




     Poor PUE but mostly renewables              0.2kg CO2/kWh                        3.0   0.6kg CO2/kWh




                                      http://www.romonet.com/blog/coal-fired-clouds

                                                           34

In US - most Cloud Dc’s are coal powered as it is lowest cost elec
DC with good PUE run on coal-fired power emits 50% more CO2/kWh than DC with poor PUE run on
mostly renewables
Elec supply is more impt than PUE is assessing how Green a DC is
There is a CUE metric but is poorly adopted atm
Green?
“A typical food & beverage firm transitioning its human resources
(HR) application from dedicated IT to a public cloud can
increase CO2 emissions by 30,000 metric tons over five years”

                        Carbon Disclosure Project’s emissions reduction
                               claims for cloud computing are flawed
                                                           GreenMonk
                                                             July 2011



               http://greenmonk.net/carbon-disclosure-projects-emissions-reduction-claims-for-cloud-computing-are-flawed/

                                                                     35
Facebook




                                    Photo http://www.facebook.com/album.php?id=193287527693&aid=183026

                                                                   36

A practical example of this is...
Green?
“As of the end of Q3 2011, the Prineville data center
had a power usage effectiveness (PUE) of 1.08...
much lower than the industry standard of 1.5.

Facebook’s energy consumption per unit of computing
power has declined by 38%”




                    http://opencompute.org/about/energy-efficiency/

                                          37
PacificCorp




                                          http://www.pacificorp.com/es/mining.html

                                                           38

58% of its energy from coal and another 12% from gas so over 70% from fossil fuel directly.

22.5% is purchased from other suppliers so could also be fossil fuel.
Spain




                            https://demanda.ree.es/generacion_acumulada.html

                                                  39

Coal averaging around 20%
Gas around 14%
Wind around 25%
Spain




                  https://demanda.ree.es/generacion_acumulada.html

                                        40

Coal around 9%
Gas around 30%
Wind around 25%
Dublin




                       http://www.datacenterknowledge.com/archives/2011/08/07/lightning-in-dublin-knocks-amazon-microsoft-data-centers-offline/

                                                                                        41

Microsoft
Amazon
Google
IBM
SunGard
Digital Realty Trust

All have significant DC’s in Dublin
Green?


Ireland sources 84% of electricity from fossil fuels




             http://www.eirgrid.com/operations/systemperformancedata/electricitystatistics/

                                                     42
OTOH...



   43
iCloud




                          Photo http://www.engadget.com/2011/02/23/apple-tells-shareholders-north-carolina-data-center-is-for-itune/

                                                                             44

Apple’s iCloud 500,000 sq ft data center in North Carolina
Duke energy 78% coal & nuclear (nuclear has enormous water footprint)

Apple solar data center? 121-acre site cleared for solar http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2011/
nov/23/apple-green-solar-data-centre

Greenwash?
Google & PPA’s




                                 http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2010/07/reducing-our-carbon-footprint-with.html

                                                                      45

PPA’s mean security of energy pricing for 20 years
REC’s for excess
Google & PPA’s




                              http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2011/04/oklahoma-where-wind-comes-sweepin-down.html

                                                                     46

PPA’s mean security of energy pricing for 20 years
REC’s for excess
Other Google initiatives
   • Google invested in early-stage companies such as Makani Power and Potter Drilling
   • Invested $75 million to create a fund that will help up to 3,000 homeowners go solar
   • Invested $280 million in a SolarCity fund to help provide innovative financing for residential solar
   projects

   • Invested $178 million into utility-scale solar project called Ivanpah, in Mojave Desert
   • Invested a 37.5% equity stake in the critical early-stage development of the Atlantic Wind Connection
   • Invested a total of $157 million in two projects totaling 270 MW at the Alta Wind Energy Center
   • Invested $100 million into 845MW Shepherd’s Flat windfarm
   • $38.8 million in two wind farms in North Dakota
   • First international investment of €3.5 million in a solar facility in Brandenburg, Germany



                                       http://www.google.com/green/collaborations/investments.html

                                                                   47

9 bullet points on a single slide is a record for me
In fact, 9 bullet points in a single presentation is normally way above my average!
Having said that...



         48
Jevons Paradox




                                       http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jevons_paradox

                                                          49

Having said that...

UK Economist William Stanley Jevons (1835-1882)
As steam engines become more efficient, consumption of coal increases!
Parkinson’s Law

 Data expands to fill the
space available for storage




         http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parkinson's_law

                            50
Promotes Consumption


                      GMail 1GB mail limit - now 7.5GB




                                                  51

Cloud promotes consumption - not Green

Gmail - 1GB mail limit - when HotMail had 2mb & Yahoo! had 4mb

GMail has 25mb. Suddenly people could use the resource, so they did
Unlimited storage

If we had to live in a more constrained world, we could
Promotes Consumption

"EC2 means anyone with a $10 bill can rent a
10-machine cluster, with 1TB of distributed
storage, for 8 hours"
                                       Infochimps’ CTO Flip Kromer




                 http://mrflip.github.com/wukong/INSTALL.html

                                     52
Green?


Not very Green!




       53
Green?


Confused yet?




      54
Irony?

Cloud delivered
Green software...



        55
Irony?




 http://www.hara.com

        56
Irony?




 http://www.nootrol.com

          57
Irony?




http://www.sapcarbonimpact.com/

             58
Irony?




 http://www.eyeonearth.org/

            59
Boom!




Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/tzofia/270800047/

                         60
Conclusion

         Cloud Computing has many advantages

         Being Green is not one of them.




                                           61

Given it is delivered using fossil fuels
And it drives further consumption
One last thing...




     http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8AXk25TUSRQ


                        62
ευχαριστώ!
            Contact information:

                 Tom Raftery
Lead Analyst, Energy & Sustainability, RedMonk

            Tom@redmonk.com,
              GreenMonk.net,
           Twitter.com/tomraftery
              +34 677 695 468

                      63

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Cloud Computing's Green potential

  • 1. Cloud Computing’s Green Potential Tom Raftery Digital Trends 2011 - Green ICT & Cloud Computing December 2011 1
  • 2. Tom Raftery • Lead analyst, energy and sustainability practice, RedMonk • CIX, Chip & Zenith • GreenMonk.net • twitter.com/tomraftery • tom@redmonk.com • +34 677 695 468 • SlideShare.net/TomRaftery 2 CIX, Chip & Zenith - involvement with Cloud, going back to late 90’s
  • 3. Who are you? Photo http://www.flickr.com/photos/warmestregards/2789694551 3 Deployed cloud solutions? Or plan to... How many think Cloud is Green?
  • 4. Cloud Computing? Photo http://www.flickr.com/photos/saxoji/3157404267/ 4
  • 5. Browser delivered 5 First blush - it is simply browser delivered software - but much more now
  • 6. Nothing New 6 Launched July 1996 - one of the 1st widely used SaaS applications Goes back to mainframe computing in the 60’s
  • 7. SaaS Photo http://www.flickr.com/photos/kiewic/4227455448/ 7 Social Networks, Zoho, Google Apps, SlideShare, Dropbox, etc.
  • 8. PaaS Photo http://www.flickr.com/photos/fhke/383366149/ 8 PaaS is like abstracting SaaS back one level - deploying, as a service, the platform to dev/rollout SaaS apps Force.com, Google AppEngine, Microsoft Azure, Cloud Foundry, AppScale, etc
  • 9. IaaS Photo http://www.flickr.com/photos/br1dotcom/4297727518/ 9 IaaS abstracts back another level, making hardware (network, disk, cpu) available as a service Amazon EC2, S3, OpenStack, VMWare, Rackspace CloudForms
  • 13. Energy & Carbon? Microsoft, Accenture and WSP Environment & Energy Study Shows Significant Energy and Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential From Cloud Computing November 2010 Link http://www.microsoft.com/Presspass/press/2010/nov10/11-04CloudBenefitsPR.mspx 13
  • 14. Energy & Carbon? Microsoft, Accenture and WSP Environment & Energy Study Shows Significant Energy and Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential From Cloud Computing November 2010 Link http://www.microsoft.com/Presspass/press/2010/nov10/11-04CloudBenefitsPR.mspx 14
  • 15. Streamlining Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/pedrosimoes7/201099447/ 15 Traditional servers: RFP -> PO -> Order -> delivery -> Image -> Patch -> Apps ->Test -> deploy - (weeks -> months) Cloud PO often not necessary (not large capital expense) - Order & deploy (minutes->hours) Streamlining - faster to purchase & deploy virtual servers than physical ones
  • 16. Dynamic Provisioning Image http://www.flickr.com/photos/traftery/3116297464/ 16 Dynamic Provisioning
  • 17. Multi-tenancy Photo http://www.worldrecordsacademy.org/transport/most_people_crammed_in_%20a_BMW_Mini_Dance_company_sets_world_record_112074.html 17 Multi-tenancy
  • 18. Server Utilisation Image http://www.flickr.com/photos/playerx/3127007481/ 18 Traditional servers under-utilised Cloud ones?
  • 19. Chasing the moon Photo http://www.flickr.com/photos/traftery/5546154606/ 19 Chasing the moon
  • 20. Ubiquitous Information Photo http://www.flickr.com/photos/citrixonline/5447248934/ 20 Ubiquitous access to information enables work from anywhere (with a connection!)
  • 21. Tele-working Photo http://www.flickr.com/photos/citrixonline/5447248262/ 21 About 25% of IBM's 320,000 workers worldwide telecommute from home offices, saving $700 million in real estate costs.
  • 22. Energy Efficient? Less commuting & Less building stock - yes But less energy consumption or offsetting? 22
  • 23. Energy Efficient? “If you can’t measure it, you can’t manage it” 23
  • 24. Energy Efficient? Hands up exercise... 24 Hands up if you have you moved some of your applications to a Cloud provider Keep your hands up if you know what the energy consumption of that application was before moving it to the cloud Keep your hands up if you know the energy consumption of your application after it has moved to the Cloud
  • 25. Energy Efficient? Without data, no way to know, but... 25 Given lack of data - impossible to say
  • 26. Energy Efficient ≠ Green 26 Common mistake is to conflate energy efficiency with Green
  • 27. Green? 27
  • 28. CDC Report “A typical food & beverage firm transitioning its human resources (HR) application from dedicated IT to a public cloud can reduce CO2 emissions by 30,000 metric tons over five years” Cloud Computing – The IT Solution for the 21st Century CDC &Verdantix July 2011 https://www.cdproject.net/en-US/WhatWeDo/Pages/Cloud-Computing.aspx 28
  • 29. CDC Report “allowing companies to maximize performance, drive down costs, reduce inefficiency and minimize energy use – and therefore carbon emissions” Cloud Computing – The IT Solution for the 21st Century CDC &Verdantix July 2011 https://www.cdproject.net/en-US/WhatWeDo/Pages/Cloud-Computing.aspx 29 Association of energy & carbon is a fundamental error - depends on the source of the energy (renewable vs fossil fuel) Reducing energy use doesn’t necessarily reduce CO2
  • 30. Takedown http://greenmonk.net/carbon-disclosure-projects-emissions-reduction-claims-for-cloud-computing-are-flawed/ 30 Based on assumptions and a PUE-based model - could just as easily increase emissions by 30,000 tons
  • 31. PUE? Power usage effectiveness (PUE): ratio of total amount of power used by a data center, to the power delivered to computing equipment. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_usage_effectiveness 31 Hands up who has heard of/knows what PUE is...
  • 32. PUE? Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/aussiegall/286709039/ 32 Traditionally, no standard for where it is metered (some at HV, some at MV, some at LV) - includes all conversions (and losses) or not
  • 33. PUE? IT Equipment Total Power PUE 1MW 2MW 2.0 0.75MW 1.75MW 2.33 http://datacenterdesign.blogspot.com/2009/07/linkedin-discussion-on-power-usage.html 33 No account taken of the efficiency of use of IT equipment Turning off unused servers reduces your consumption but PUE goes up!
  • 34. PUE? Data Centre Supply Carbon Intensity PUE IT Carbon Intensity Typical 0.5kg CO2/kWh 1.5 0.75kg CO2/kWh Good PUE mostly coal-fired power 0.8kg CO2/kWh 1.2 0.96kg CO2/kWh Poor PUE but mostly renewables 0.2kg CO2/kWh 3.0 0.6kg CO2/kWh http://www.romonet.com/blog/coal-fired-clouds 34 In US - most Cloud Dc’s are coal powered as it is lowest cost elec DC with good PUE run on coal-fired power emits 50% more CO2/kWh than DC with poor PUE run on mostly renewables Elec supply is more impt than PUE is assessing how Green a DC is There is a CUE metric but is poorly adopted atm
  • 35. Green? “A typical food & beverage firm transitioning its human resources (HR) application from dedicated IT to a public cloud can increase CO2 emissions by 30,000 metric tons over five years” Carbon Disclosure Project’s emissions reduction claims for cloud computing are flawed GreenMonk July 2011 http://greenmonk.net/carbon-disclosure-projects-emissions-reduction-claims-for-cloud-computing-are-flawed/ 35
  • 36. Facebook Photo http://www.facebook.com/album.php?id=193287527693&aid=183026 36 A practical example of this is...
  • 37. Green? “As of the end of Q3 2011, the Prineville data center had a power usage effectiveness (PUE) of 1.08... much lower than the industry standard of 1.5. Facebook’s energy consumption per unit of computing power has declined by 38%” http://opencompute.org/about/energy-efficiency/ 37
  • 38. PacificCorp http://www.pacificorp.com/es/mining.html 38 58% of its energy from coal and another 12% from gas so over 70% from fossil fuel directly. 22.5% is purchased from other suppliers so could also be fossil fuel.
  • 39. Spain https://demanda.ree.es/generacion_acumulada.html 39 Coal averaging around 20% Gas around 14% Wind around 25%
  • 40. Spain https://demanda.ree.es/generacion_acumulada.html 40 Coal around 9% Gas around 30% Wind around 25%
  • 41. Dublin http://www.datacenterknowledge.com/archives/2011/08/07/lightning-in-dublin-knocks-amazon-microsoft-data-centers-offline/ 41 Microsoft Amazon Google IBM SunGard Digital Realty Trust All have significant DC’s in Dublin
  • 42. Green? Ireland sources 84% of electricity from fossil fuels http://www.eirgrid.com/operations/systemperformancedata/electricitystatistics/ 42
  • 43. OTOH... 43
  • 44. iCloud Photo http://www.engadget.com/2011/02/23/apple-tells-shareholders-north-carolina-data-center-is-for-itune/ 44 Apple’s iCloud 500,000 sq ft data center in North Carolina Duke energy 78% coal & nuclear (nuclear has enormous water footprint) Apple solar data center? 121-acre site cleared for solar http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2011/ nov/23/apple-green-solar-data-centre Greenwash?
  • 45. Google & PPA’s http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2010/07/reducing-our-carbon-footprint-with.html 45 PPA’s mean security of energy pricing for 20 years REC’s for excess
  • 46. Google & PPA’s http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2011/04/oklahoma-where-wind-comes-sweepin-down.html 46 PPA’s mean security of energy pricing for 20 years REC’s for excess
  • 47. Other Google initiatives • Google invested in early-stage companies such as Makani Power and Potter Drilling • Invested $75 million to create a fund that will help up to 3,000 homeowners go solar • Invested $280 million in a SolarCity fund to help provide innovative financing for residential solar projects • Invested $178 million into utility-scale solar project called Ivanpah, in Mojave Desert • Invested a 37.5% equity stake in the critical early-stage development of the Atlantic Wind Connection • Invested a total of $157 million in two projects totaling 270 MW at the Alta Wind Energy Center • Invested $100 million into 845MW Shepherd’s Flat windfarm • $38.8 million in two wind farms in North Dakota • First international investment of €3.5 million in a solar facility in Brandenburg, Germany http://www.google.com/green/collaborations/investments.html 47 9 bullet points on a single slide is a record for me In fact, 9 bullet points in a single presentation is normally way above my average!
  • 49. Jevons Paradox http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jevons_paradox 49 Having said that... UK Economist William Stanley Jevons (1835-1882) As steam engines become more efficient, consumption of coal increases!
  • 50. Parkinson’s Law Data expands to fill the space available for storage http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parkinson's_law 50
  • 51. Promotes Consumption GMail 1GB mail limit - now 7.5GB 51 Cloud promotes consumption - not Green Gmail - 1GB mail limit - when HotMail had 2mb & Yahoo! had 4mb GMail has 25mb. Suddenly people could use the resource, so they did Unlimited storage If we had to live in a more constrained world, we could
  • 52. Promotes Consumption "EC2 means anyone with a $10 bill can rent a 10-machine cluster, with 1TB of distributed storage, for 8 hours" Infochimps’ CTO Flip Kromer http://mrflip.github.com/wukong/INSTALL.html 52
  • 61. Conclusion Cloud Computing has many advantages Being Green is not one of them. 61 Given it is delivered using fossil fuels And it drives further consumption
  • 62. One last thing... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8AXk25TUSRQ 62
  • 63. ευχαριστώ! Contact information: Tom Raftery Lead Analyst, Energy & Sustainability, RedMonk Tom@redmonk.com, GreenMonk.net, Twitter.com/tomraftery +34 677 695 468 63