Module 2 Safety


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RX100 Module 2 - Safety

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Module 2 Safety

  1. 1. L. C. P. B. - Module 2 Safety
  2. 2. Factors that Compromise Safety Fatigue Smoke Urgency Rough, Steep Terrain Night Fire Fighting <ul><li>Inattention </li></ul><ul><li>Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon monoxide </li></ul><ul><li>Impairs muscle function </li></ul><ul><li>PANIC! </li></ul><ul><li>Shortcuts </li></ul><ul><li>Falling </li></ul><ul><li>Twisting </li></ul><ul><li>Very limited in Ontario </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Boss approval required </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced fire crews used </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized equipment used </li></ul>1 of 19 Low Complexity Prescribed Burn Worker
  3. 3. Enhance Personal Safety 1. Be Prepared <ul><li>Right tool for the job </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure equipment in good working order </li></ul><ul><li>Trust your training & follow it </li></ul><ul><li>Point out unsafe working practices </li></ul><ul><li>8 hours of uninterrupted sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced, nutritious meals </li></ul><ul><li>Drink plenty of water </li></ul>2. Training 3. Be Alert 4. Positive Thinking <ul><li>Keep asking yourself ‘What If’ questions </li></ul>5. Working Alone <ul><li>Schedule contact with co-worker </li></ul><ul><li>Not for extended periods of time </li></ul>
  4. 4. 6. Know Safety Zones (Escape Routes & Fire Safe Areas) Enhance Personal Safety (cont’d) Poplar Rock Outcrop Note: Be aware that fire travels faster uphill than downhill 3 of 19 Low Complexity Prescribed Burn Worker
  5. 5. Enhance Personal Safety (cont’d) 7. Watch for Increases in Wind Speed and/or Direction <ul><li>Advise supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss with co-workers </li></ul><ul><li>Look for spot (jump) fires </li></ul>8. Know Safe Procedures in a Thunderstorm <ul><li>Shelter in vehicles/valleys </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid large bodies of water, wire fences, </li></ul><ul><li>hydro poles, hilltops </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain safe distance from tallest trees </li></ul><ul><li>2 & 1/2 times the height) </li></ul>4 of 19 Low Complexity Prescribed Burn Worker
  6. 6. Heat Exhaustion Heat Disorders Treatment Symptoms Cause <ul><li>Imbalance in </li></ul><ul><li>circulating body </li></ul><ul><li>fluids </li></ul><ul><li>not drinking </li></ul><ul><li>enough water </li></ul><ul><li>lack of nutritional </li></ul><ul><li>foods </li></ul><ul><li>cool, sweaty, pale </li></ul><ul><li>skin </li></ul><ul><li>pulse weak & fast </li></ul><ul><li>muscle cramps, </li></ul><ul><li>nausea, vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Rest in a cool place </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Salty food </li></ul><ul><li>Note: </li></ul><ul><li>You can lose 1.5 to 2 litres of </li></ul><ul><li>water per hour fighting fires </li></ul><ul><li>You may require up to 8 litres </li></ul><ul><li>per day </li></ul>5 of 19 Low Complexity Prescribed Burn Worker
  7. 7. Reporting Situations That warrant immediate action, or are potentially dangerous situations or conditions Deep Burning Area <ul><li>deep duff or mossy areas </li></ul><ul><li>support subsurface fires </li></ul><ul><li>potential to cross fireline </li></ul><ul><li>standing white birch </li></ul><ul><li>loose-barked chicots </li></ul><ul><li>unburned green patches </li></ul><ul><li>torching conifers </li></ul><ul><li>high potential fuel types that can cause firebrands </li></ul><ul><li>fuels easily ignited by firebrands </li></ul>Areas of Spot Fire Potential
  8. 8. Reporting Situations (cont’d) Areas with Potential for Flare-Up <ul><li>changes in fuel </li></ul><ul><li>concentrations of fine fuels, windfalls, slash areas, blow-downs </li></ul><ul><li>unburned conifer patches near control line </li></ul><ul><li>concentrations of fine fuels, windfalls, slash areas, blow-down </li></ul><ul><li>heavy spotting </li></ul><ul><li>change in topography </li></ul><ul><li>ladder fuel arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>change in weather (wind shifts, change in wind speed, rapid temp increases & RH decrease </li></ul>Hazardous Situations
  9. 9. Reporting Situations (cont’d) Personal Hazards <ul><li>increases in wind can cause shallow rooted trees to blow down </li></ul><ul><li>avoid eye damage (limbs at eye level) </li></ul><ul><li>fire pits </li></ul><ul><li>bees’, wasps’, hornets’ nests </li></ul>
  10. 10. Fire Entrapment If you are trapped, natural instinct is to try to out run the fire <ul><li>overcome by exhaustion & radiated heat </li></ul><ul><li>fire overruns firefighter </li></ul><ul><li>death results from thermal overload </li></ul>DO NOT PANIC and assess options such as ……. Go back through the fire Use a motor vehicle for safety (if available) Use heavy equipment (if available) WRONG!!
  11. 11. Fire Entrapment (cont’d) Going Back Through the Fire: <ul><li>Advise supervisor ASAP </li></ul><ul><li>Look for light forest fuels & short flame length and shallow flame depth </li></ul><ul><li>Protect yourself from flame & radiant heat (collar up, shirt sleeves rolled down and buttoned, boots done up and pant legs tucked in) </li></ul><ul><li>Protect face from radiant heat (shovel blade, jacket hard hat) </li></ul><ul><li>If a charged hose line available, wet down entry point through fire, wet down clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid breathing hot gases (protect airway, stay low) </li></ul><ul><li>Once in a safe area, check clothing (not burning) and contact co-workers </li></ul>
  12. 12. Fire Entrapment (cont’d) Vehicle for Safety: Vehicles offer fair protection – fast moving fires Park on the widest section of a road and choose an area adjacent to light fuels Park on the side away from approaching flames Remove flammable items from truck box Turn on headlights and 4-way flashers Keep windows up, close air vents, place clothing over windows Lay on floor and cover yourself with whatever is available (blanket, jacket) and protect airway Have vehicle fire extinguisher ready (if available) Note: Gas tanks will not explode until tires have been fully burning for several minutes
  13. 13. Fire Entrapment (cont’d) You are here Use of Heavy Equipment Such As: <ul><li>bulldozer </li></ul><ul><li>skidder </li></ul><ul><li>loader </li></ul><ul><li>May be directed to burn-out to remove fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Remove combustible materials from equipment </li></ul><ul><li>May be directed to put mineral soil on fuel tank </li></ul><ul><li>areas of combustible fuels and fuel leaks </li></ul>12 of 19 Low Complexity Prescribed Burn Worker
  14. 14. Key Points to Remember In a Dangerous Situation: 1. DO NOT PANIC 2. Avoid shelter in caves, wells, mines 3. Avoid escaping a fire by advancing uphill 4. “ WATCHOUT ” W eather dominates fire behaviour, keep informed A ctions based on current or expected fire behaviour T ry Out at least 2 escape routes C ommunications must be maintained with crew, supervisor, adjoining workers H azards watch for flash fuels, steep terrain O bserve changes in wind direction, speed humidity, cloud cover U nderstand your instructions; make sure yours are understood T hink clearly, be alert; act decisively before situation is critical
  15. 15. L.A.C.E.S. L ookout Are you watching the fire? Are you watching the weather? Do you know what your crew is doing? A nchor points Is your line tied in to a secure location? Can the fire flank your position? C ommunication Are you in contact with your crew? Do you have contact with others who can provide you with intelligence?
  16. 16. L.A.C.E.S. (cont’d) E scape Routes Have escape routes been identified and scouted? Are they walkable? S afety Zones Are they close enough and large enough? Are they safe? Are they away from the head of the fire?
  17. 17. Factors for Personal Safety Other Situations to Consider: Proper Lifting Do not twist back when lifting Bend your knees, not your back Give or get assistance where possible Beaver Fever (Giardiasis) Feces in water systems Transferred hand to mouth, flies, contaminated vegetables, lack of personal hygiene Explosive, watery, foul diarrhea, gas, cramps, vomiting, fatigue, distention Use bottled water for drinking, washing and brushing teeth Don’t swim in beaver ponds Lyme Disease (transferred through tick bites) Red rash at bite area, flu-like symptoms, joint aches and pains Wear hat, long-sleeve shirts, tuck in shirts &pants Examine body if working in tick habitat Remove ticks slowly & GENTLY with tweezers
  18. 18. Factors for Personal Safety (cont’d) Poison Ivy Plant’s oils transferred from boots/clothing Vapourized oil in smoke of burning plants Severe itching, inflammation, blistering Decontaminate clothing by laundering with soap and water Insect Bites & Stings Let your crew know if you have any allergies or carry any medication (e.g., Epi-Pen) Bring sufficient medication to last 19 days Ultraviolet Radiation Wear hat, sun screen (15 or higher) Sunglasses that filter UV rays
  19. 19. Factors for Personal Safety (cont’d) Rattlesnakes Identification and habitat Do not handle (even if killed – reflex action will still allow them to bite Leather boots & heavy socks Check personal equipment if left outside (sleeping bags, packs, boots) First aid procedures Avoid killing (endangered species) Blood Born Viruses To reduce risk of transmitting or coming into contact: Cover your cuts and wounds (hands/arms) Wear gloves or plastic wrap/bags Wash hands after providing 1st aid Ask patients to cleanse or apply pressure to own bleeding areas If available use a 1 way valve mask for artificial respiration If 1st aid equipment needs to be re-used, wash with bleach solution (1 part bleach to 9 parts water)
  20. 20. Factors for Personal Safety (cont’d) Cuts & Scrapes Treat early so they don’t become more serious Wash with soap & water Keep clean & dry (change band aids when wet/soiled) Watch for signs of infection (e.g., redness, swelling) and report to crew leader, 1st aider or nurse) Minor Burns Cool burn immediately Loosen or remove anything on burn area After pain subsides, loosely cover with a clean, lint-free dressing DO NOT use lotions or ointments DO NOT break blisters Report to crew leader, 1st aider or nurse
  21. 21. Factors for Personal Safety (cont’d) Smoke Remove yourself from smoke for rest breaks Flush eyes with clean water or tear solution If you experience: – swelling or constriction in the throat, neck or chest – increased coughing, wheezing, headaches, nausea, vomiting – report to crew leader and seek First Aid Environmental Use as little soap as possible to wash dishes Use environmentally friendly products Scatter waste water over a large area Don’t put waste water in latrines (disrupts natural biological breakdown) Remove all garbage from the campsite Return unused fuel